New York City – Wikipedia

Most populous city in the United States

City in the United States
New York, much called New York City ( NYC ), is the most populous city of both New York State and the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over 300.46 square miles ( 778.2 km2 ), New York City is besides the most densely populate major city in the United States. Located at the southerly tip of the submit of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the worldly concern by urban area. [ 9 ] With over 20.1 million people in its metropolitan statistical area and 23.5 million in its unite statistical area as of 2020, New York is one of the universe ‘s most populous megacities. New York City has been described as the cultural, fiscal, and media capital of the world, and is a significant influence on commerce, entertainment, research, engineering, education, politics, tourism, din, art, fashion, and sports. It is the most photograph city in the world. [ 10 ] Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for external diplomacy, [ 11 ] [ 12 ] an established dependable haven for ball-shaped investors, [ 13 ] and is sometimes described as the capital of the universe.

Situated on one of the global ‘s largest natural harbors, with water covering 36.4 % of its open area, New York City is composed of five boroughs, each of which is coextensive with a respective county of the country of New York. The five boroughs— Brooklyn ( Kings County ), Queens ( Queens County ), Manhattan ( New York County ), the Bronx ( Bronx County ), and Staten Island ( Richmond County ) —were created when local governments were consolidated into a single municipal entity in 1898. [ 14 ] The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. equally many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, [ 15 ] making it the most linguistically divers city in the world. New York is home to more than 3.2 million residents bear outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world as of 2016. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] As of 2018, the New York metropolitan area is estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product ( GMP ) of about $ 1.8 trillion, ranking it beginning in the United States. If the New York metropolitan area were a sovereign state, it would have the eighth-largest economy in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the earth. [ 18 ] New York City traces its origins to a trade post founded on the southern peak of Manhattan Island by Dutch colonists in approximately 1624. The village was named New Amsterdam ( Dutch : Nieuw Amsterdam ) in 1626 and was chartered as a city in 1653. The city came under English manipulate in 1664 and was renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his buddy, the Duke of York. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] The city was regained by the dutch in July 1673 and was renamed New Orange for one year and three months ; the city has been continuously named New York since November 1674. New York City was the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, [ 21 ] and has been the largest U.S. city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U.S. by embark in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries, and is a symbol of the U.S. and its ideals of familiarity and peace. [ 22 ] In the twenty-first hundred, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity, entrepreneurship, [ 23 ] and environmental sustainability, [ 24 ] [ 25 ] and as a symbol of exemption and cultural diverseness. [ 26 ] In 2019, New York was voted the greatest city in the world per a view of over 30,000 people from 48 cities global, citing its cultural diversity. [ 27 ] many districts and monuments in New York City are major landmarks, including three of the world ‘s ten-spot most visit tourist attractions in 2013. [ 28 ] A record 66.6 million tourists visited New York City in 2019. Times Square is the brilliantly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, [ 29 ] one of the world ‘s busiest pedestrian intersections, [ 28 ] [ 30 ] and a major center field of the world ‘s entertainment diligence. [ 31 ] Many of the city ‘s landmarks, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the worldly concern, as is the city ‘s fast pace, spawning the term New York minute. The Empire State Building has become the global standard of reference point to describe the height and duration of early structures. [ 32 ] Manhattan ‘s veridical estate market is among the most expensive in the universe. [ 33 ] [ 34 ] Providing continuous 24/7 service and contributing to the dub The City That Never Sleeps, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system cosmopolitan, with 472 rail stations. The city has over 120 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, and the City University of New York system, which is the largest urban public university arrangement in the United States. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the earth ‘s leadership fiscal center and the most financially potent city in the world, and is home to the populace ‘s two largest stock exchanges by full market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq. [ 35 ] [ 36 ]


In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York, who would become King James II of England. [ 37 ] James ‘s elder brother, King Charles II, appointed the Duke owner of the former district of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, when England seized it from Dutch operate. [ 38 ]


early history

In the precolonial era, the area of contemporary New York City was inhabited by algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape. Their fatherland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island, Manhattan, the Bronx, the westerly assign of Long Island ( including the areas that would late become the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens ), and the Lower Hudson Valley. [ 39 ] The first attested visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by italian Giovanni district attorney Verrazzano, an internet explorer from Florence in the service of the french crown. [ 40 ] He claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême ( New Angoulême ). [ 41 ] A spanish expedition, led by the Portuguese captain Estêvão Gomes sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio ( Saint Anthony ‘s River ). The Padrón Real of 1527, the foremost scientific map to show the East Coast of North America continuously, was informed by Gomes ‘ excursion and labeled the northeastern United States as Tierra de Esteban Gómez in his honor. [ 42 ] In 1609, the English internet explorer Henry Hudson rediscovered New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest passing to the Orient for the Dutch East India Company. [ 43 ] He proceeded to sail up what the dutch would name the North River ( now the Hudson River ), named beginning by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange. Hudson ‘s first match described the harbor as “ a very adept Harbour for all windes ” and the river as “ a sea mile broad ” and “ entire of fish ”. [ 44 ] Hudson sailed approximately 150 miles ( 240 kilometer ) union, [ 45 ] past the locate of the contemporary New York State capital city of Albany, in the impression that it might be an oceanic conducive before the river became besides shoal to continue. [ 44 ] He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for the Dutch East India Company. In 1614, the area between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay was claimed by the Netherlands and called Nieuw-Nederland ( New Netherland ). The foremost non–Native american inhabitant of what would finally become New York City was Juan Rodriguez ( transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues ), a merchant from Santo Domingo. Born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, he arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–14, trapping for pelts and trade with the local anesthetic population as a representative of the Dutch. Broadway, from 159th Street to 218th Street in Upper Manhattan, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his award. [ 46 ] [ 47 ]

dutch predominate

A permanent wave european presence near New York Harbor began in 1624—making New York the 12th oldest continuously engaged European-established settlement in the continental United States [ 48 ] —with the establish of a dutch fur trade settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on a bastion and Fort Amsterdam, late called Nieuw Amsterdam ( New Amsterdam ), on contemporary Manhattan Island. [ 49 ] [ 50 ] The colony of New Amsterdam was centered on what would ultimately be known as Lower Manhattan. It extended from the southern tip of Manhattan to modern day Wall Street, where a 12-foot wooden stockade was built in 1653 to protect against native american and british raids. [ 51 ] In 1626, the dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit, acting as charged by the dutch West India Company, purchased the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a little Lenape band, [ 52 ] for “ the value of 60 guilders “ [ 53 ] ( about $ 900 in 2018 ). [ 54 ] A disproved legend claims that Manhattan was purchased for $ 24 deserving of methamphetamine beads. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] Following the leverage, New Amsterdam grew lento. [ 20 ] To attract settlers, the Dutch instituted the patroon system in 1628, whereby affluent Dutchmen ( patroons, or patrons ) who brought 50 colonists to New Netherland would be awarded swaths of land, along with local political autonomy and rights to participate in the lucrative fur barter. This plan had short success. [ 57 ] Since 1621, the dutch West India Company had operated as a monopoly in New Netherland, on assurance granted by the Dutch States General. In 1639–1640, in an attempt to bolster economic growth, the dutch West India Company relinquished its monopoly over the fur trade, leading to growth in the production and trade of food, timber, tobacco, and slaves ( particularly with the dutch West Indies ). [ 20 ] [ 58 ] In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant began his tenure as the last Director-General of New Netherland. During his tenure, the population of New Netherland grew from 2,000 to 8,000. [ 59 ] [ 60 ] Stuyvesant has been credited with improving law and order in the colony ; however, he besides earned a reputation as a despotic leader. He instituted regulations on liquor sales, attempted to assert control over the Dutch Reformed Church, and blocked early religious groups ( including Quakers, Jews, and Lutherans ) from establishing houses of worship. [ 61 ] The dutch West India Company would finally attempt to ease tensions between Stuyvesant and residents of New Amsterdam. [ 62 ]

english rule

In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistor, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops, led by Colonel Richard Nicolls, without bloodshed. [ 61 ] [ 62 ] The terms of the surrender permitted dutch residents to remain in the colony and allowed for religious exemption. [ 63 ] In 1667, during negotiations leading to the Treaty of Breda after the second Anglo-Dutch War, the dutch decided to keep the nascent grove colony of what is now Suriname ( on the northern South America coast ) they had gained from the English ; and in recurrence, the English kept New Amsterdam. The fledgling liquidation was promptly renamed “ New York ” after the Duke of York ( the future King James II and VII ), who would finally be deposed in the glorious Revolution. [ 64 ] After the establish, the duke gave part of the colony to proprietors George Carteret and John Berkeley. Fort Orange, 150 miles ( 240 kilometer ) north on the Hudson River, was renamed Albany after James ‘s scots deed. [ 65 ] The transfer was confirmed in 1667 by the Treaty of Breda, which concluded the irregular Anglo-Dutch War. [ 66 ] On August 24, 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, Dutch captain Anthony Colve seized the colony of New York from the English at the behest of Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and rechristened it “ New Orange ” after William III, the Prince of Orange. [ 67 ] The Dutch would soon return the island to England under the Treaty of Westminster of November 1674. [ 68 ] [ 69 ] respective intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused goodly population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670. [ 70 ] By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200. [ 71 ] New York experienced respective yellow fever epidemics in the eighteenth hundred, losing ten-spot percentage of its population to the disease in 1702 alone. [ 72 ] [ 73 ]

Province of New York

New York grew in importance as a trade port while as a part of the colony of New York in the early 1700s. It besides became a center of slavery, with 42 % of households holding slaves by 1730, the highest percentage outside Charleston, South Carolina. [ 75 ] Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor. Slavery became integrally tied to New York ‘s economy through the parturiency of slaves throughout the port, and the bank and transport industries trading with the American South. Discovery of the african Burying Ground in the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial period. [ 76 ] The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger, who had been accused of incendiary libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby, helped to establish the freedom of the crusade in North America. [ 77 ] In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by King George II as King ‘s College in Lower Manhattan. [ 78 ]

american english Revolution

The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty, organized in the city, skirmished over the adjacent ten years with british troops stationed there. [ 79 ] The Battle of Long Island, the largest conflict of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 within the contemporary borough of Brooklyn. [ 80 ] After the conflict, in which the Americans were defeated, the british made the city their military and political floor of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and get off slaves who joined the british lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. adenine many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the british occupation. When the british forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. [ 81 ] They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean .
The lone attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took put at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. shortly after the british occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a bombastic conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church. [ 82 ] In 1785, the forum of the Congress of the Confederation made New York City the national capital concisely after the war. New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States. New York City as the U.S. capital hosted respective events of national scope in 1789—the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated ; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first meter ; and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street. [ 83 ] By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia to become the largest city in the United States, but by the end of that year, pursuant to the Residence Act, the national capital was moved to Philadelphia. [ 84 ] [ 85 ]

nineteenth hundred

Over the course of the nineteenth hundred, New York City ‘s population grew from 60,000 to 3.43 million. [ 87 ] Under New York State ‘s abolition act of 1799, children of slave mothers were to be finally liberated but to be held in indenture servitude until their mid-to-late twenties. [ 88 ] [ 89 ] together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, a significant free-Black population gradually developed in Manhattan. Under such influential United States founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the New York Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate Black children. [ 90 ] It was not until 1827 that slavery was wholly abolished in the state, and rid Blacks struggled subsequently with discrimination. New York interracial abolitionist activism continued ; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. New York city ‘s population jumped from 123,706 in 1820 to 312,710 by 1840, 16,000 of whom were Black. [ 91 ] [ 92 ] In the nineteenth hundred, the city was transformed by both commercial and residential development relating to its status as a home and international trade center, angstrom well as by european immigration, respectively. [ 93 ] The city adopted the Commissioners ‘ plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass about all of Manhattan. The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agrarian markets and commodities of the north american inside via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes. [ 94 ] local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and german immigrants. [ 95 ]
The current 5 boroughs of Greater New York as they appeared in 1814. Bronx was in Westchester County, Queens County included advanced Nassau County, Kings County had 6 towns, one of which was Brooklyn, New York City is shown by hatching in southern New York County on the island of Manhattan, and Richmond County on Staten Island. respective big american english literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the coetaneous business elect lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the beginning landscaped park in an american city. The Great Irish Famine brought a large inflow of irish immigrants ; more than 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, upwards of a quarter of the city ‘s population. [ 96 ] There was besides extensive immigration from the german provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25 % of New York ‘s population by 1860. [ 97 ] democratic Party candidates were systematically elected to local function, increasing the city ‘s ties to the South and its dominant allele party. In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood called upon the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on. [ 90 ] Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War ( 1861–1865 ), which spared wealthier men who could afford to pay a $ 300 ( equivalent to $ 6,602 in 2021 ) commutation fee to hire a substitute, [ 98 ] led to the Draft Riots of 1863, whose most visible participants were ethnic irish working class. [ 90 ] The draft orgy deteriorated into attacks on New York ‘s elect, followed by attacks on Black New Yorkers and their property after cutthroat rival for a ten between irish immigrants and Black people for cultivate. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the grind, with more than 200 children escaping injury ascribable to efforts of the New York Police Department, which was chiefly made up of irish immigrants. [ 97 ] At least 120 people were killed. [ 99 ] Eleven Black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of Blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and New Jersey. The Black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. The White working classify had established dominance. [ 97 ] [ 99 ] ferocity by longshoremen against Black men was specially boisterous in the docks area. [ 97 ] It was one of the worst incidents of civil agitation in american english history. [ 100 ]

modern history

In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn ( until then a separate city ), the County of New York ( which then included parts of the Bronx ), the County of Richmond, and the western fortune of the County of Queens. [ 101 ] The open of the underpass in 1904, first base built as divide private systems, helped bind the new city together. [ 102 ] Throughout the beginning half of the twentieth hundred, the city became a worldly concern center for diligence, commerce, and communication. [ 103 ] In 1904, the steamer General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. [ 104 ] In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city ‘s worst industrial catastrophe, took the lives of 146 dress workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies ‘ Garment Workers ‘ Union and major improvements in factory safety standards. [ 105 ] New York ‘s colored population was 36,620 in 1890. [ 106 ] New York City was a prime address in the early twentieth century for african Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York City had become home to the largest urban african diaspora in North America. [ 107 ] The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition. [ 108 ] The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline .
New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early 1920s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million set in the early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history. [ 109 ] The unmanageable years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political authority. [ 110 ] Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large caparison tracts in eastern Queens and Nassau County american samoa well as like suburban areas in New Jersey. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America ‘s plaza as the universe ‘s dominant economic power. The United Nations Headquarters was completed in 1952, solidifying New York ‘s global geopolitical influence, and the originate of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York ‘s shift of Paris as the concentrate of the art world. [ 111 ]
The Stonewall riots were a series of ad-lib, violent demonstrations by members of the brave community against a police foray that took set in the early dawn hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village vicinity of Lower Manhattan. [ 115 ] They are widely considered to constitute the unmarried most authoritative event leading to the gay liberation bowel movement [ 112 ] [ 116 ] [ 117 ] [ 118 ] and the modern competitiveness for LGBT rights. [ 119 ] [ 120 ] Wayne R. Dynes, generator of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, wrote that drag queens were the only “ transgender folks around ” during the June 1969 Stonewall riots. The transgender residential district in New York City played a meaning character in fighting for LGBT equality during the period of the Stonewall riots and thereafter. [ 121 ] In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructure caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. [ 122 ] While a revival in the fiscal industry greatly improved the city ‘s economic health in the 1980s, New York ‘s crime pace continued to increase through that decade and into the begin of the 1990s. [ 123 ] By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically ascribable to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both american english transplants and newfangled immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important modern sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city ‘s economy. [ 124 ] New York ‘s population reached all-time highs in the 2000 census and then again in the 2010 census .
New York City suffered the bulge of the economic damage and largest passing of homo life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, attacks. [ 125 ] Two of the four airliners hijacked that day were flown into the counterpart towers of the World Trade Center, destroying the towers and killing 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers. The North Tower became the tallest build ever to be destroyed anywhere then or subsequently. [ 126 ] The area was rebuilt with a new One World Trade Center, a 9/11 memorial and museum, and other new buildings and infrastructure. [ 127 ] The World Trade Center PATH station, which had opened on July 19, 1909, as the Hudson Terminal, was besides destroyed in the attacks. A irregular station was built and opened on November 23, 2003. An 800,000-square-foot ( 74,000 m2 ) permanent fulminate post designed by Santiago Calatrava, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, the city ‘s third-largest hub, was completed in 2016. [ 128 ] The new One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere [ 129 ] and the sixth-tallest construction in the worldly concern by pinnacle acme, with its steeple reaching a symbolic 1,776 feet ( 541.3 molarity ) in reference book to the year of U.S. independence. [ 130 ] [ 131 ] [ 132 ] [ 133 ] The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality global. [ 134 ] In March 2020, the first case of COVID-19 in the city was confirmed in Manhattan. [ 135 ] The city quickly replaced Wuhan, China to become the ball-shaped epicenter of the pandemic during the early phase, before the infection became widespread across the global and the rest of the nation. As of March 2021, New York City had recorded over 30,000 deaths from COVID-19-related complications .


During the Wisconsin glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City sphere was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 2,000 feet ( 610 thousand ) in depth. [ 136 ] The erosive forward motion of the ice ( and its subsequent retreat ) contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action besides left fundamentals at a relatively shallow depth, providing a solid foundation garment for most of Manhattan ‘s skyscrapers. [ 137 ] New York City is situated in the northeastern United States, in southeast New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston. The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in meaning as a trade port. Most of New York City is built on the three islands of Long Island, Manhattan, and Staten Island. The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary. [ 138 ] The Hudson River separates the city from the U.S. department of state of New Jersey. The East River —a tidal strait —flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the lone wholly freshwater river in the city. [ 139 ] The city ‘s land has been altered substantially by human interposition, with considerable domain reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times ; reclamation is most outstanding in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s. [ 140 ] Some of the natural easing in topography has been evened out, particularly in Manhattan. [ 141 ] The city ‘s total area is 468.484 squarely miles ( 1,213.37 km2 ) ; 302.643 sq nautical mile ( 783.84 km2 ) of the city is land and 165.841 sq myocardial infarction ( 429.53 km2 ) of this is water. [ 142 ] [ 143 ] The highest sharpen in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet ( 124.9 thousand ) above sea level, is the highest orient on the eastern seaside south of Maine. [ 144 ] The summit of the ridge is by and large covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt. [ 145 ]


A map showing five boroughs in different colors.


1. Manhattan


2. Brooklyn


3. Queens


4. The Bronx


5. Staten Island
New York City is sometimes referred to jointly as the Five Boroughs. [ 150 ] Each borough is coextensive with a respective county of New York State, making New York City one of the U.S. municipalities in multiple counties. There are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the boroughs, many with a definable history and character. If the boroughs were each freelancer cities, four of the boroughs ( Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx ) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States ( Staten Island would be ranked thirty-seventh as of 2020 ) ; these same boroughs are coextensive with the four most dumbly populated counties in the United States : New York ( Manhattan ), Kings ( Brooklyn ), Bronx, and Queens .


Lower and Midtown Manhattan, as seen by a SkySat satellite in 2017 Manhattan ( New York County ) is the geographically smallest and most dumbly populate borough. It is home to Central Park and most of the city ‘s skyscrapers, and is sometimes locally known as The City. [ 151 ] Manhattan ‘s population density of 72,033 people per square nautical mile ( 27,812/km2 ) in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the concentration of any individual american city. [ 152 ] Manhattan is the cultural, administrative, and fiscal center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations Headquarters, Wall Street, and a total of important universities. The borough of Manhattan is frequently described as the fiscal and cultural plaza of the worldly concern. [ 153 ] [ 154 ] Most of the borough is situated on Manhattan Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River. several small islands besides compose part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall ‘s Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. Manhattan Island is loosely divided into the Lower, Midtown, and Uptown regions. uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, and above the park is Harlem, bordering the Bronx ( Bronx County ). Harlem was predominantly occupied by jewish and italian Americans in the nineteenth century until the Great Migration. It was the center of the Harlem Renaissance. The borough of Manhattan besides includes a small vicinity on the mainland, called Marble Hill, which is adjacent with the Bronx. New York City ‘s remaining four boroughs are jointly referred to as the Outer Boroughs .


Brooklyn ( Kings County ), on the western tip off of Long Island, is the city ‘s most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and cultural diverseness, an independent art fit, distinct neighborhoods, and a classifiable architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central effect region in the Outer Boroughs. The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the U.S. [ 155 ] Marine Park and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. [ 156 ] Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a booming hub of entrepreneurship and high technology inauguration firms, [ 157 ] [ 158 ] and of postmodernist art and design. [ 158 ] [ 159 ]

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Queens ( Queens County ), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the largest borough, the most ethnically divers county in the United States, [ 160 ] and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. [ 161 ] [ 162 ] Historically a collection of little towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence. Downtown Flushing has become one of the busiest cardinal core neighborhoods in the outer borough. Queens is the locate of Citi Field, the baseball stadium of the New York Mets, and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. additionally, two of the three busiest airports serving the New York metropolitan area, John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, are located in Queens. The third base is Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey .

The Bronx

The Bronx ( Bronx County ) is both New York City ‘s northernmost borough, and the only one that is by and large on the mainland. It is the location of Yankee Stadium, the baseball park of the New York Yankees, and home to the largest cooperatively-owned house building complex in the United States, Co-op City. [ 163 ] It is besides home plate to the Bronx Zoo, the universe ‘s largest metropolitan menagerie, [ 164 ] which spans 265 acres ( 1.07 km2 ) and houses more than 6,000 animals. [ 165 ] The Bronx is besides the birthplace of hip hop music and polish. [ 166 ] Pelham Bay Park is the largest park in New York City, at 2,772 acres ( 1,122 hour angle ). [ 167 ]

Staten Island

Staten Island ( Richmond County ) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry, a casual commuter ferry which provides unobstructed views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. In cardinal Staten Island, the Staten Island Greenbelt spans approximately 2,500 acres ( 10 km2 ), including 28 miles ( 45 kilometer ) of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city. [ 168 ] Designated in 1984 to protect the island ‘s natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks .


New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct clock periods, from the Dutch Colonial Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the advanced One World Trade Center, the skyscraper at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and the most expensive office column in the global by structure cost. [ 170 ] Manhattan ‘s horizon, with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to respective of the tallest buildings in the earth. As of 2019, New York City had 6,455 high-rise buildings, the third most in the populace after Hong Kong and Seoul. [ 171 ] Of these, as of 2011, 550 completed structures were at least 330 feet ( 100 thousand ) high, with more than fifty completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet ( 200 megabyte ). These include the Woolworth Building, an early model of Gothic Revival architecture in skyscraper design, built with massively scaled Gothic detailing ; completed in 1913, for 17 years it was the universe ‘s tallest build. [ 172 ] The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setbacks in modern buildings and restricted towers to a percentage of the bunch size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. [ 173 ] The Art Deco vogue of the Chrysler Building ( 1930 ) and Empire State Building ( 1931 ), with their tapered tops and sword spires, reflected the partition requirements. The buildings have distinctive decoration, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style. [ 174 ] A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building ( 1957 ), classifiable for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the construction ‘s structure. The Condé Nast Building ( 2000 ) is a big example of green design in american skyscrapers [ 175 ] and has received an award from the American Institute of Architects and AIA New York State for its design. The character of New York ‘s big residential districts is much defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and townhouses and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. [ 176 ] In line, New York City besides has neighborhoods that are less densely populate and feature free-standing dwellings. In neighborhoods such as Riverdale ( in the Bronx ), Ditmas Park ( in Brooklyn ), and Douglaston ( in Queens ), large single-family homes are common in versatile architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian. [ 177 ] [ 178 ] [ 179 ] stone and brick became the city ‘s build materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. [ 180 ] A distinctive have of many of the city ‘s buildings is the roof-mounted wooden water column. In the 1800s, the city required their facility on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the necessitate for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. [ 181 ] Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights. [ 182 ] According to the United States Geological Survey, an update analysis of seismic venture in July 2014 revealed a “ slightly lower hazard for tall buildings ” in New York City than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened hazard based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of decelerate shake near the city, which would be more likely to cause price to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city. [ 183 ]


New York City
Climate chart (explanation)
joule farad megabyte A thousand joule joule A sulfur o nitrogen d





































Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C ( 32 °F ) isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate ( Cfa ), and is frankincense the northernmost major city on the north american continent with this classification. The suburb to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates ( Dfa ). [ 184 ] [ 185 ] By the Trewartha classification, the city is defined as having an oceanic climate ( Do ). [ 186 ] [ 187 ] Annually, the city averages 234 days with at least some fair weather. [ 188 ] The city lies in the USDA 7b plant boldness zone. [ 189 ]
Central Park in Winter by Raymond Speers, in Munsey’s Magazine, February 1900 by Raymond Speers, in, February 1900 Winters are chilly and damp, and prevailing wind instrument patterns that blow ocean breezes offshore temper the chasten effects of the Atlantic Ocean ; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from cold air by the appalachian Mountains keep the city quick in the winter than inland north american cities at alike or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The day by day mean temperature in January, the area ‘s coldest calendar month, is 33.7 °F ( 0.9 °C ). [ 190 ] Temperatures normally drop to 10 °F ( −12 °C ) several times per winter, [ 191 ] yet can besides reach 60 °F ( 16 °C ) for several days even in the coldest winter calendar month. jump and fall are unpredictable and can range from cool to warm, although they are normally meek with moo humidity. Summers are typically hot and humid, with a daily hateful temperature of 77.5 °F ( 25.3 °C ) in July. [ 190 ] night temperatures are often enhanced due to the urban heat island impression. Daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F ( 32 °C ) on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed 100 °F ( 38 °C ), although this is a rare accomplishment, last happen on July 18, 2012. [ 192 ] Similarly, readings of 0 °F ( −18 °C ) are besides extremely rare, stopping point occurring on February 14, 2016. [ 193 ] Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F ( −26 °C ), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F ( 41 °C ) on July 9, 1936 ; [ 190 ] the cold recorded wind chill was −37 °F ( −38 °C ) on the same day as the all-time record low. [ 194 ] The record cold daily utmost was 2 °F ( −17 °C ) on December 30, 1917, while, conversely, the commemorate affectionate daily minimum was 87 °F ( 31 °C ), on July 2, 1903. [ 192 ] The average water temperature of the nearby Atlantic Ocean ranges from 39.7 °F ( 4.3 °C ) in February to 74.1 °F ( 23.4 °C ) in August. [ 195 ] The city receives 49.5 inches ( 1,260 millimeter ) of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly go around throughout the class. average winter snow between 1991 and 2020 has been 29.8 inches ( 76 centimeter ) ; this varies well between years. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York sphere. [ 196 ] Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the flush of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and underpass lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburb. [ 197 ] The storm and its heavy impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the city and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future. [ 198 ] [ 199 ] The coldest calendar month on record is January 1857, with a beggarly temperature of 19.6 °F ( −6.9 °C ) whereas the warmest months on record are July 1825 and July 1999, both with a base temperature of 81.4 °F ( 27.4 °C ). [ 200 ] The warmest years on criminal record are 2012 and 2020, both with mean temperatures of 57.1 °F ( 13.9 °C ). The coldest class is 1836, with a mean temperature of 47.3 °F ( 8.5 °C ). [ 200 ] [ 201 ] The driest calendar month on record is June 1949, with 0.02 inches ( 0.51 millimeter ) of rain. The wettest calendar month was August 2011, with 18.95 inches ( 481 millimeter ) of rain. The driest year on record is 1965, with 26.09 inches ( 663 millimeter ) of rain. The wettest class was 1983, with 80.56 inches ( 2,046 millimeter ) of rain. [ 202 ] The snowiest calendar month on read is February 2010, with 36.9 inches ( 94 curium ) of snow. The snowiest season (Jul–Jun) on record is 1995–1996, with 75.6 inches ( 192 curium ) of snow. The least white season was 1972–1973, with 2.3 inches ( 5.8 curium ) of snow. [ 203 ] The earliest seasonal worker trace of snow occurred on October 10, in both 1979 and 1925. The latest seasonal worker decipher of snow occurred on May 9, in both 2020 and 1977. [ 204 ]

Sea temperature data for New York
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °F (°C) 41.7
Source: Weather Atlas[208]

See or edit raw graph data .


The city of New York has a building complex park organization, with assorted lands operated by the National Park Service, the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, and the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. In its 2018 ParkScore rank, The Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in New York City was the ninth-best park system among the fifty most populous U.S. cities. [ 209 ] ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a rule that analyzes median parking lot size, ballpark acres as percentage of city area, the percentage of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per house physician, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents .

National parks

Gateway National Recreation Area contains over 26,000 acres ( 110 km2 ) in sum, most of it surrounded by New York City, [ 210 ] including the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. In Brooklyn and Queens, the parking lot contains over 9,000 acres ( 36 km2 ) of salt marsh, wetlands, islands, and water, including most of Jamaica Bay. besides in Queens, the park includes a significant fortune of the western Rockaway Peninsula, most notably Jacob Riis Park and Fort Tilden. In Staten Island, Gateway National Recreation Area includes Fort Wadsworth, with historic pre-Civil War era Battery Weed and Fort Tompkins, and Great Kills Park, with beaches, trails, and a marina. The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum are managed by the National Park Service and are in both the states of New York and New Jersey. They are joined in the harbor by Governors Island National Monument, in New York. Historic sites under federal management on Manhattan Island include Castle Clinton National Monument ; Federal Hall National Memorial ; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site ; General Grant National Memorial ( “ Grant ‘s Tomb ” ) ; african Burial Ground National Monument ; and Hamilton Grange National Memorial. Hundreds of secret properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places or as a National Historic Landmark such as, for case, the Stonewall Inn, partially of the Stonewall National Monument in Greenwich Village, as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement. [ 116 ] [ 117 ] [ 118 ] [ 119 ] [ 120 ]

state parks

There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City. Some of them include :

City parks

New York City has over 28,000 acres ( 110 km2 ) of municipal park and 14 miles ( 23 kilometer ) of public beaches. [ 213 ] The largest municipal park in the city is Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx, with 2,772 acres ( 1,122 hour angle ). [ 167 ] [ 214 ]

military installations

Brooklyn is home to Fort Hamilton, the U.S. military ‘s only active duty installation within New York City, [ 225 ] aside from Coast Guard operations. The adeptness was established in 1825 on the web site of a small battery use during the american Revolution, and it is one of America ‘s longest serving military forts. [ 226 ] Today, Fort Hamilton serves as the headquarter of the North Atlantic Division of the United States Army Corps of Engineers and for the New York City Recruiting Battalion. It besides houses the 1179th Transportation Brigade, the 722nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a military entrance processing place. other once active military reservations placid utilized for National Guard and military train or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens .


Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1698 4,937 —    
1712 5,840 +18.3%
1723 7,248 +24.1%
1737 10,664 +47.1%
1746 11,717 +9.9%
1756 13,046 +11.3%
1771 21,863 +67.6%
1790 49,401 +126.0%
1800 79,216 +60.4%
1810 119,734 +51.1%
1820 152,056 +27.0%
1830 242,278 +59.3%
1840 391,114 +61.4%
1850 696,115 +78.0%
1860 1,174,779 +68.8%
1870 1,478,103 +25.8%
1880 1,911,698 +29.3%
1890 2,507,414 +31.2%
1900 3,437,202 +37.1%
1910 4,766,883 +38.7%
1920 5,620,048 +17.9%
1930 6,930,446 +23.3%
1940 7,454,995 +7.6%
1950 7,891,957 +5.9%
1960 7,781,984 −1.4%
1970 7,894,862 +1.5%
1980 7,071,639 −10.4%
1990 7,322,564 +3.5%
2000 8,008,278 +9.4%
2010 8,175,133 +2.1%
2020 8,804,190 +7.7%
note : census figures ( 1790–2010 ) cover the present area of all five boroughs, before and after the 1898 consolidation. For New York City itself before annexing part of the Bronx in 1874, see Manhattan#Demographics.[230]
Source: U.S. Decennial Census;[231]
1698–1771[232] 1790–1890[230][233]
1900–1990[234] 2000–2010[235][236][237]

New York City is the most populous city in the United States, [ 238 ] with 8,804,190 residents [ 4 ] incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the 2010 United States census. [ 239 ] [ 240 ] More than doubly as many people live in New York City as compared to Los Angeles, the second-most populous U.S. city, [ 238 ] and within a smaller area. New York City gained more residents between 2010 and 2020 ( 629,000 ) than any other U.S. city, and a greater come than the total union of the gains over the lapp decade of the adjacent four largest U.S. cities, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, and Phoenix, Arizona combined. [ 241 ] [ 242 ] New York City ‘s population is about 44 % of New York State ‘s population, [ 243 ] and about 39 % of the population of the New York metropolitan area. [ 244 ] The majority of New York City residents in 2020 ( 5,141,538, or 58.4 % ) were living on Long Island, in Brooklyn, or in Queens. [ 245 ]

population concentration

In 2017, the city had an estimated population concentration of 28,491 inhabitants per square mile ( 11,000/km2 ), rendering it the state ‘s most densely populated of all municipalities ( of more than 100,000 ), with respective small cities ( of fewer than 100,000 ) in adjacent Hudson County, New Jersey having greater concentration, as per the 2010 census. [ 246 ] geographically co-extensive with New York County, the borough of Manhattan ‘s 2017 population density of 72,918 inhabitants per feather mile ( 28,154/km2 ) makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the concentration of any individual american city. [ 247 ] [ 248 ] [ 249 ] [ 250 ] The next three densest counties in the United States, placing second through fourthly, are besides New York borough : Brooklyn, the Bronx, and Queens respectively. [ 251 ]

slipstream and ethnicity





other A map of racial distribution in New York, 2010 U.S. census. Each dot is 25 people : The city ‘s population in 2020 was 30.9 % White ( non-Hispanic ), 28.7 % Hispanic or Latino, 20.2 % Black or african american ( non-Hispanic ), 15.6 % asian, and 0.2 % native American ( non-Hispanic ). [ 252 ] A entire of 3.4 % of the non-Hispanic population identified with more than one race. Throughout its history, New York has been a major port of introduction for immigrants into the United States. More than 12 million european immigrants were received at Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924. [ 253 ] The term “ melt pot “ was first coined to describe dumbly populate immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side. By 1900, Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish, Jews, and Italians. [ 254 ] In 1940, Whites represented 92 % of the city ‘s population. [ 229 ] approximately 37 % of the city ‘s population is alien born, and more than one-half of all children are born to mothers who are immigrants as of 2013. [ 255 ] [ 256 ] In New York, no single area or region of origin dominates. [ 255 ] The ten-spot largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the city as of 2011 were the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, Guyana, Jamaica, Ecuador, Haiti, India, Russia, and Trinidad and Tobago, [ 257 ] while the Bangladeshi-born immigrant population has become one of the fastest growing in the city, counting over 74,000 by 2011. [ 16 ] [ 258 ]
asian Americans in New York City, according to the 2010 census, numeral more than one million, greater than the aggregate totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles. [ 259 ] New York contains the highest total asian population of any U.S. city proper. [ 260 ] The New York City borough of Queens is home to the state of matter ‘s largest asian american english population and the largest Andean ( colombian, ecuadorian, peruvian, and Bolivian ) populations in the United States, and is besides the most ethnically divers urban area in the universe. [ 161 ] [ 162 ] The chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State ; multiple satellites of the master Manhattan Chinatown, in Brooklyn, and around Flushing, Queens, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves—while besides expanding quickly eastward into suburban Nassau County [ 261 ] on Long Island, [ 262 ] as the New York metropolitan region and New York State have become the top destinations for newly taiwanese immigrants, respectively, and large-scale chinese immigration continues into New York City and surrounding areas, [ 263 ] [ 264 ] [ 265 ] [ 266 ] [ 267 ] [ 268 ] with the largest metropolitan chinese diaspora outside Asia, [ 16 ] [ 269 ] including an estimate 812,410 individuals in 2015. [ 270 ] In 2012, 6.3 % of New York City was of chinese ethnicity, with about three-fourths exist in either Queens or Brooklyn, geographically on Long Island. [ 271 ] A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese ( Chaoxianzu or Joseonjok ) is centered in Flushing, Queens, while New York City is besides base to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal, besides centered in Queens. [ 272 ] Koreans made up 1.2 % of the city ‘s population, and japanese 0.3 %. Filipinos were the largest southeast asian cultural group at 0.8 %, followed by vietnamese, who made up 0.2 % of New York City ‘s population in 2010. Indians are the largest south asian group, comprising 2.4 % of the city ‘s population, with Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 0.7 % and 0.5 %, respectively. [ 273 ] Queens is the preferable borough of settlement for asian Indians, Koreans, Filipinos and Malaysians, [ 274 ] [ 263 ] and other Southeast Asians ; [ 275 ] while Brooklyn is receiving large numbers of both West Indian and Asian Indian immigrants. New York City has the largest european and non-Hispanic White population of any american city. At 2.7 million in 2012, New York ‘s non-Hispanic White population is larger than the non-Hispanic White populations of Los Angeles ( 1.1 million ), Chicago ( 865,000 ), and Houston ( 550,000 ) combined. [ 276 ] The non-Hispanic White population was 6.6 million in 1940. [ 277 ] The non-Hispanic White population has begun to increase since 2010. [ 278 ] The European diaspora residing in the city is very divers. According to 2012 census estimates, there were roughly 560,000 italian Americans, 385,000 irish Americans, 253,000 german Americans, 223,000 russian Americans, 201,000 polish Americans, and 137,000 english Americans. additionally, Greek and french Americans numbered 65,000 each, with those of hungarian descent estimated at 60,000 people. ukrainian and scots Americans numbered 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30,838 sum in 2010. [ 279 ] People of norwegian and swedish descent both stood at about 20,000 each, while people of Czech, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh origin all numbered between 12,000 and 14,000. [ 280 ] Arab Americans number over 160,000 in New York City, [ 281 ] with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. Central Asians, chiefly Uzbek Americans, are a quickly growing segment of the city ‘s non-Hispanic White population, enumerating over 30,000, and including more than half of all Central asian immigrants to the United States, [ 282 ] most decide in Queens or Brooklyn. albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx. [ 283 ] The wider New York City metropolitan statistical area, with more than twenty million people, about fifty percentage more than second-place Los Angeles, [ 284 ] is besides ethnically diverse, [ 285 ] with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the universe. The New York area continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, well exceeding the blend totals of Los Angeles and Miami. [ 263 ] It is home to the largest jewish and israeli communities outside Israel, with the jewish population in the area total over 1.5 million in 2012 and including many divers jewish sects, predominantly from around the Middle East and Eastern Europe, and including a quickly growing Orthodox jewish population, the largest outside Israel. [ 272 ] The metropolitan area is besides home to 20 % of the state ‘s amerind Americans and at least 20 short India enclaves, and 15 % of all korean Americans and four Koreatowns ; [ 286 ] the largest asian indian population in the Western Hemisphere ; the largest russian american, [ 264 ] italian American, and african american english populations ; the largest dominican American, Puerto Rican American, and South American [ 264 ] and second-largest overall spanish american population in the United States, numbering 4.8 million ; [ 279 ] and includes multiple established Chinatowns within New York City alone. [ 287 ] Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Brazil were the top reservoir countries from South America for legal immigrants to the New York City region in 2013 ; the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean ; Egypt, Ghana, and Nigeria from Africa ; and El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala in Central America. [ 288 ] Amidst a revival of Puerto Rican migration to New York City, this population had increased to approximately 1.3 million in the metropolitan area as of 2013. Since 2010, Little Australia has emerged and is growing quickly, representing the australasian presence in Nolita, Manhattan. [ 289 ] [ 290 ] [ 291 ] [ 292 ] In 2011, there were an estimated 20,000 australian residents of New York City, closely quadruple the 5,537 in 2005. [ 293 ] [ 294 ] Qantas Airways of Australia and Air New Zealand have been exploring the possibilities of long-haul flights from New York to Sydney and Auckland, respectively, which would both rank among the longest non-stop flights in the world. [ 295 ] A small Sri Lanka has developed in the Tompkinsville vicinity of Staten Island. [ 296 ] Le Petit Sénégal, or fiddling Senegal, is based in Harlem. Richmond Hill, Queens is often thought of as “ little Guyana ” for its large Guyanese community, [ 297 ] arsenic well as Punjab Avenue ( ਪੰਜਾਬ ਐਵੇਨਿਊ ), or little Punjab, for its senior high school concentration of Punjabi people. little Poland is expanding quickly in Greenpoint, Brooklyn .

sexual predilection and sex identity

The New York metropolitan area is home to about 570,000 self-identifying gay and bisexual people, the largest in the United States and one of the earth ‘s largest. [ 299 ] [ 300 ] Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011, and were authorized to take place on July 23, 2011. [ 301 ] Brian Silverman, the generator of Frommer’s New York City from $90 a Day, wrote the city has “ one of the universe ‘s largest, loudest, and most knock-down LGBT communities ”, and “ Gay and lesbian polish is deoxyadenosine monophosphate much a part of New York ‘s basic identity as yellow cab, high-rise buildings, and Broadway theatre “. [ 302 ] LGBT travel scout Queer in the World states, “ The fabulosity of Gay New York is unrivaled on Earth, and gay culture seeps into every corner of its five boroughs ”. [ 303 ] The annual New York City Pride March ( or gay pride parade ) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan ; the parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June. [ 304 ] [ 27 ] The annual Queens Pride Parade is held in Jackson Heights and is accompanied by the ensuing Multicultural Parade. [ 305 ] stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 was the largest international Pride celebration in history, produced by Heritage of Pride and enhanced through a partnership with the I ❤ NY platform ‘s LGBT division, commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the Stonewall arise, with 150,000 participants and five million spectators attending in Manhattan alone. [ 306 ] New York City is besides home plate to the largest transgender population in the world, estimated at more than 50,000 in 2018, concentrated in Manhattan and Queens ; however, until the June 1969 Stonewall riots, this community had felt marginalized and neglected by the homosexual residential district. [ 305 ] [ 121 ] Brooklyn Liberation March, the largest transgender-rights demonstration in LGBTQ history, took place on June 14, 2020, stretching from Grand Army Plaza to Fort Greene, Brooklyn, focused on supporting Black transgender lives, drawing an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 participants. [ 307 ] [ 308 ]


Religious affiliation (2014)[309][310]
Christian 59%
Catholic 33%
Protestant 23%
Other Christian 3%
Unaffiliated 24%
Jewish 8%
Hindu 3%
Muslim 3%
Buddhist 1%
Other faiths 1%


largely a result of western european missionary work and colonialism, Christianity is the largest religion in New York City. [ 309 ] Roman Catholicism is the largest christian denomination ( 33 % ), followed by Protestantism ( 23 % ), and other Christians ( 3 % ). The Roman Catholic population are chiefly served by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York and Diocese of Brooklyn. easterly Catholics are divided into numerous jurisdictions throughout the city. evangelical protestantism is the largest branch of Protestantism in the city ( 9 % ), followed by Mainline Protestantism ( 8 % ), while the converse is normally true for other cities and metropolitan areas. [ 310 ] In Evangelicalism, Baptists are the largest group ; in Mainline Protestantism, Reformed Protestants compose the largest subset. The majority of historically african american english churches are affiliated with the National Baptist Convention ( USA ) and Progressive National Baptist Convention. The church of God in Christ is one of the largest predominantly Black Pentecostal denominations in the area. approximately 1 % of the population was Mormon. The greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America and other Orthodox Christians ( mainstream and freelancer ) were the largest eastern christian groups. The american Orthodox Catholic Church ( initially led by Aftimios Ofiesh ) was founded in New York City in 1927 .


Ultra-Orthodox [311]Jewish residents in Brooklyn. Brooklyn has the largest Jewish community in the United States, with approximately 600,000 individuals. judaism, with approximately 1.1 million adherents, [ 312 ] [ 313 ] more than one-half of whom live in Brooklyn, is the second largest religion and represents the largest metropolitan jewish population outside Tel Aviv, Israel. [ 311 ] [ 314 ] The ethno-religious population makes up 18.4 % of the city and its religious demographic makes up 8 %. [ 315 ] The first base recorded jewish settler was Jacob Barsimson, who arrived in August 1654 on a pass from the dutch West India Company. [ 316 ] Following the assassination of Alexander II of Russia, for which many blamed “ the Jews ”, the 36 years beginning in 1881 experienced the largest wave of jewish immigration to the United States. [ 317 ] In 2012, the largest jewish denominations were Orthodox, Haredi, and conservative Judaism. [ 318 ] Reform Jewish communities are prevailing through the area. Congregation Emanu-El of New York in Manhattan is the largest reform synagogue in the worldly concern .


Islam ranks as the third largest religion in New York City, following Christianity and Judaism, with estimates ranging between 600,000 and 1,000,000 observers of Islam, including 10 % of the city ‘s populace school children. [ 319 ] approximately 22.3 % of american Muslims live in New York City, with 1.5 million Muslims in the greater New York metropolitan area representing the largest metropolitan Muslim population in the Western Hemisphere. [ 320 ] Powers Street Mosque in Brooklyn is one of the oldest continuously operating mosques in the U.S., and the first Islamic constitution in the city and state. [ 321 ] [ 322 ]

hinduism and other religious affiliations

Following these three largest religious groups in New York City are Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Zoroastrianism, and a diverseness of other religions, a well as atheism. In 2014, 24 % of New Yorkers identified with no organized religious affiliation ; a little over 3 % of New Yorkers were atheist. [ 309 ]

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Wealth and income disparity

New York City, like other big cities, has a high academic degree of income disparity, as indicated by its Gini coefficient of 0.55 as of 2017. [ 323 ] In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in New York County ( Manhattan ) was $ 2,749, representing the highest total among big counties in the United States. [ 324 ] As of 2017, New York City was home to the highest issue of billionaires of any city in the world at 103, [ 325 ] including former Mayor Michael Bloomberg. [ 326 ] New York besides had the highest concentration of millionaires per caput among major U.S. cities in 2014, at 4.6 % of residents. [ 327 ] New York City is one of the relatively few american cities levying an income tax ( about 3 % ) on its residents. [ 328 ] [ 329 ] [ 330 ] As of 2018, there were 78,676 homeless people in New York City. [ 331 ]


New York City is a ball-shaped hub of business and commerce and an established safe haven for ball-shaped investors, [ 13 ] and is sometimes described as the capital of the earth. The city is a plaza for worldwide deposit and finance, retailing, universe barter, exile, tourism, real estate of the realm, fresh media, traditional media, advertise, legal services, accountancy, insurance, field, manner, and the arts in the United States ; while Silicon Alley, metonymous for New York ‘s broad-spectrum high engineering sphere, continues to expand. The Port of New York and New Jersey is besides a major economic engine, handling criminal record cargo bulk in 2017, over 6.7 million TEUs. [ 333 ] many Fortune 500 corporations are headquartered in New York City, [ 334 ] as are a big total of multinational corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company. [ 335 ] New York City has been ranked foremost among cities across the globe in attracting capital, commercial enterprise, and tourists. [ 336 ] [ 337 ] New York City ‘s role as the clear global center for the advertising industry is metonymously reflected as “ Madison Avenue ”. [ 338 ] The city ‘s fashion industry provides approximately 180,000 employees with $ 11 billion in annual wages. [ 339 ] early important sectors include aesculapian research and engineering, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining contribution of employment. The city ‘s dress and garment industry, historically centered on the Garment District in Manhattan, peaked in 1950, when more than 323,000 workers were employed in the diligence in New York. In 2015, fewer than 23,000 New York City residents were employed in the manufacture of garments, accessories, and finished textiles, although efforts to revive the industry were afoot. [ 340 ] Food process is a $ 5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents. Chocolate is New York City ‘s head specialty-food export, with up to $ 234 million deserving of exports each year. [ 341 ] Entrepreneurs were forming a “ Chocolate District ” in Brooklyn as of 2014, [ 342 ] while Godiva, one of the world ‘s largest chocolatiers, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan. [ 343 ]

Wall Street

New York City ‘s most important economic sector lies in its function as the headquarters for the U.S. fiscal industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The city ‘s securities industry continues to form the largest segment of the city ‘s fiscal sector and is an important economic engine. many big fiscal companies are headquartered in New York City, and the city is besides base to a burgeoning number of fiscal startup companies. Lower Manhattan is dwelling to the New York Stock Exchange, at 11 Wall Street, and the Nasdaq, at 165 Broadway, representing the global ‘s largest and moment largest livestock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall average casual trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. [ 347 ] [ 348 ] Investment bank fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $ 40 billion in 2012, [ 349 ] while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage gamble and submission functions earned ampere much as $ 324,000 per annum. [ 350 ] In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street ‘s securities industry generated 19 % of New York State ‘s tax gross. [ 351 ] New York City remains the largest global center for trade in public equity and debt das kapital markets, driven in part by the size and fiscal development of the U.S. economy. [ 352 ] : 31–32 [ 353 ] New York besides leads in hedge fund management ; private fairness ; and the monetary book of mergers and acquisitions. several investing banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are crucial participants in other ball-shaped fiscal centers. [ 352 ] : 34–35 New York is besides the principal commercial bank center of the United States. [ 354 ] many of the universe ‘s largest media conglomerates are besides based in the city. Manhattan contained over 500 million hearty feet ( 46.5 million m2 ) of office space in 2018, [ 355 ] making it the largest position commercialize in the United States, [ 356 ] while Midtown Manhattan, with 400 million square feet ( 37.2 million m2 ) in 2018, [ 355 ] is the largest central business zone in the world. [ 357 ]

Tech and biotechnology

Silicon Alley, centered in New York, has evolved into a metonym for the celestial sphere encompassing the metropolitan region ‘s high technology industries [ 358 ] involving the internet, new media, fiscal engineering ( fintech ) and cryptocurrency, telecommunications, digital media, software development, biotechnology, game design, and other fields within information engineering that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. high engineering startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the area. The engineering sector has been claiming a greater share of New York City ‘s economy since 2010. [ 359 ] Tech : NYC, founded in 2016, is a non-profit organization which represents New York City ‘s engineering industry with government, civic institutions, in clientele, and in the media, and whose primary goals are to further augment New York ‘s substantial technical school endowment infrastructure and to advocate for policies that will nurture technical school companies to grow in the city. [ 360 ] The biotechnology sector is besides growing in New York City, based upon the city ‘s persuasiveness in academic scientific research and public and commercial fiscal support. On December 19, 2011, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a $ 2 billion calibrate educate of put on sciences called Cornell Tech on Roosevelt Island with the goal of transforming New York City into the world ‘s premier technology capital. [ 361 ] [ 362 ] By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotechnology investment firm, had raised more than $ 30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial fund to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 feather feet ( 65,000 m2 ) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation ‘s early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and guess capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimal of $ 100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology. [ 363 ]

real number estate

substantial estate is a major storm in the city ‘s economy, as the total respect of all New York City property was assessed at US $ 1.072 trillion for the 2017 fiscal year, an increase of 10.6 % from the former year, with 89 % of the increase coming from grocery store effects. [ 364 ] The Deutsche Bank Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at $ 1.1 billion in 2006. [ 364 ] New York City is home to some of the nation’s—and the world’s—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007, for $ 510 million, about $ 1,589 per feather foot ( $ 17,104/m2 ), breaking the barely month-old record for an american agency construction of $ 1,476 per hearty metrical foot ( $ 15,887/m2 ) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue. [ 365 ] In 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the clear ten ZIP codes in the United States by medial house price. [ 366 ] Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at $ 3,000 per square foot ( $ 32,000/m2 ) in 2017. [ 367 ] In 2019, the most expensive home sale always in the United States achieved completion in Manhattan, at a betray monetary value of $ 238 million, for a 24,000 square feet ( 2,200 m2 ) penthouse apartment overlooking Central Park. [ 368 ]


tourism is a vital diligence for New York City, which has witnessed a growing blend bulk of international and domestic tourists, receiving an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017. [ 369 ] Tourism had generated an all-time gamey $ 61.3 billion in overall economic impact for New York City in 2014, [ 369 ] pending 2015 statistics. approximately 12 million visitors to New York City were from outside the United States, with the highest numbers from the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, and China. I Love New York ( stylized I ❤ NY ) is both a logo and a birdcall that are the basis of an ad campaign and have been used since 1977 to promote tourism in New York City, [ 370 ] and late to promote New York State as well. The brand logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development, [ 371 ] appears in keepsake shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not. The birdcall is the department of state song of New York. major tourist destinations in Manhattan include Times Square ; Broadway dramaturgy productions ; the Empire State Building ; the Statue of Liberty ; Ellis Island ; the United Nations Headquarters ; the World Trade Center ( including the National September 11 Museum and One World Trade Center ) ; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art ; green spaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park ; the Stonewall Inn ; Rockefeller Center ; cultural enclaves including the Manhattan Chinatown, Koreatown, Curry Hill, Harlem, spanish Harlem, Little Italy, and Little Australia ; luxury shop along Fifth and Madison Avenues ; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village ; the Brooklyn Bridge ( shared with Brooklyn ) ; the Macy ‘s Thanksgiving Day Parade ; the ignite of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree ; the St. Patrick ‘s Day parade ; seasonal worker activities such as frost skating in Central Park in the winter ; the Tribeca Film Festival ; and absolve performances in Central Park at Summerstage. [ 372 ] Points of interest in the boroughs external Manhattan include numerous ethnic enclaves ; Flushing Meadows-Corona Park and the Unisphere in Queens ; the Bronx Zoo ; Coney Island, Brooklyn ; and the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx. Manhattan was on path to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10 % increase from 2013. [ 373 ] In October 2014, the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York for $ 1.95 billion, making it the world ‘s most expensive hotel ever sold. [ 374 ]

Media and entertainment

New York City has been described as the media capital of the global. [ 375 ] [ 376 ] The city is a outstanding placement for the american entertainment diligence, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there. [ 377 ] As of 2012, New York City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television output in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals. The filmed entertainment diligence has been growing in New York, contributing closely $ 9 billion to the New York City economy entirely as of 2015. [ 378 ] By book, New York is the world leader in independent film production—one-third of all american independent films are produced there. [ 379 ] [ 380 ] The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is besides based in New York. [ 381 ] In the first five months of 2014 alone, location film for television pilots in New York City exceeded the read production levels for all of 2013, [ 382 ] with New York surpassing Los Angeles as the top north american english city for the same distinction during the 2013–2014 bicycle. [ 383 ] New York City is besides a center for the advertise, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is besides the largest media grocery store in North America. [ 384 ] Some of the city ‘s media conglomerates and institutions include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, Bloomberg L.P., the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, AOL, and Viacom. Seven of the worldly concern ‘s exceed eight global advertise agency networks have their headquarters in New York. [ 385 ] Two of the top three record labels ‘ headquarters are in New York : Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group besides has offices in New York. New media enterprises are contributing an increasingly authoritative component to the city ‘s cardinal function in the media sphere .
More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city, [ 380 ] and the publication industry employs about 25,000 people. [ 386 ] Two of the three national daily newspapers with the largest circulations in the United States are published in New York : The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism and is considered the U.S. media ‘s “ newspaper of record ”. [ 387 ] Tabloid newspapers in the city include The New York Daily News, which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson, [ 388 ] and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton. [ 389 ] The city besides has a comprehensive examination cultural bid, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages. [ 390 ] El Diario La Prensa is New York ‘s largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation. [ 391 ] The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a big african american newspaper. The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease issue of its print edition and commute to a amply digital venture. [ 392 ] The television and radio industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city ‘s economy. The three major american broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York : ABC, CBS, and NBC. Many cable networks are based in the city vitamin a well, including CNN, MSNBC, MTV, Fox News, HBO, Showtime, Bravo, Food Network, AMC, and Comedy Central. News 12 Networks operated News 12 The Bronx and News 12 Brooklyn. The City of New York operates a populace broadcast service, NYC Media, [ 393 ] which has produced several original Emmy Award -winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government. WBAI, with newsworthiness and information program, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States. New York is besides a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television receiver channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971. [ 394 ] WNET is the city ‘s major populace television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS ) television programming. WNYC, a public radio receiver place owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio consultation in the United States. [ 395 ]


Primary and secondary education

The New York City Public Schools system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the largest public school system in the United States, serving about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 classify elementary and secondary schools. [ 396 ] The city ‘s public school arrangement includes nine specialized high schools to serve academically and artistically give students. The city government pays the Pelham Public Schools to educate a identical small, detach section of the Bronx. [ 397 ] The New York City Charter School Center assists the setup of new lease schools. [ 398 ] There are approximately 900 extra privately run layman and religious schools in the city. [ 399 ]

Higher education and research

More than 600,000 students are enrolled in New York City ‘s more than 120 higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the world, with more than half a million in the City University of New York ( CUNY ) system alone as of 2020, including both degree and professional programs. [ 401 ] According to Academic Ranking of World Universities, New York City has, on average, the best higher education institutions of any ball-shaped city. [ 402 ] The public CUNY system is one of the largest universities in the nation, comprising 25 institutions across all five boroughs : senior colleges, community colleges, and early graduate/professional schools. The public State University of New York ( SUNY ) arrangement includes campuses in New York City, including : Downstate Health Sciences University, Fashion Institute of Technology, Maritime College, and the College of Optometry. New York City is home to such noteworthy private universities as Barnard College, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Fordham University, New York University, New York Institute of Technology, Rockefeller University, and Yeshiva University ; several of these universities are ranked among the top universities in the world. [ 403 ] [ 404 ] The city besides hosts other smaller secret colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as : Pace University, St. John ‘s University, The Juilliard School, Manhattan College, Adelphi University – Manhattan, Mercy College ( New York ), The College of Mount Saint Vincent, Parsons School of Design, The New School, Pratt Institute, New York Film Academy, The School of Visual Arts, The King ‘s College, Marymount Manhattan College, and Wagner College. much of the scientific research in the city is done in music and the life sciences. In 2019, the New York metropolitan area ranked beginning on the list of cities and metropolitan areas by parcel of published articles in life sciences. [ 405 ] New York City has the most graduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with 127 Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions as of 2005 ; [ 406 ] while in 2012, 43,523 accredited physicians were practicing in New York City. [ 407 ] major biomedical research institutions include memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and Weill Cornell Medical College, being joined by the Cornell University / Technion-Israel Institute of Technology venture on Roosevelt Island. The graduates of SUNY Maritime College in the Bronx earned the highest median annual wage of any university graduates in the United States, $ 144,000 as of 2017. [ 408 ]

Human resources

Public health

The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation ( HHC ) operates the populace hospitals and clinics in New York City. A public benefit pot with $ 6.7 billion in annual revenues, HHC is the largest municipal healthcare system in the United States serving 1.4 million patients, including more than 475,000 uninsured city residents. [ 410 ] HHC was created in 1969 by the New York State Legislature as a public benefit pot ( chapter 1016 of the Laws 1969 ). [ 411 ] HHC operates 11 acute care hospitals, five nurse homes, six diagnostic and treatment centers, and more than 70 community-based primary caution sites, serving chiefly the poor people and working course. HHC ‘s MetroPlus Health Plan is one of the New York area ‘s largest providers of government-sponsored health policy and is the plan of option for about half a million New Yorkers. [ 412 ] HHC ‘s facilities annually provide millions of New Yorkers services interpreted in more than 190 languages. [ 413 ] The most well-known hospital in the HHC system is Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States. Bellevue is the delegate hospital for treatment of the President of the United States and other world leaders if they become brainsick or injured while in New York City. [ 414 ] The president of HHC is Ramanathan Raju, MD, a surgeon and erstwhile CEO of the Cook County health system in Illinois. [ 415 ] In August 2017, Mayor Bill de Blasio signed legislation outlawing pharmacies from selling cigarettes once their existing licenses to do so run out, beginning in 2018. [ 416 ]

Public safety

Police and jurisprudence enforcement

The New York Police Department ( NYPD ) has been the largest patrol force in the United States by a significant margin, with more than 35,000 swear officers. [ 417 ] Members of the NYPD are frequently referred to by politicians, the media, and their own police cars by the dub, New York’s Finest .
Police officers of New York Police Department ( NYPD ) crime has continued an overall down course in New York City since the 1990s. [ 418 ] In 2012, the NYPD came under examination for its use of a stop-and-frisk plan, [ 419 ] [ 420 ] [ 421 ] which has undergo respective policy revisions since then. In 2014, New York City had the third lowest mangle rate among the largest U.S. cities, [ 422 ] having become importantly safer after a spike in crime in the 1970s through 1990s. [ 423 ] Violent crime in New York City decreased more than 75 % from 1993 to 2005, and continued decreasing during periods when the nation as a solid visit increases. [ 424 ] By 2002, New York City was ranked 197th in crime among the 216 U.S. cities with populations greater than 100,000. [ 424 ] In 1992, the city recorded 2,245 murders. [ 425 ] In 2005, the homicide rate was at its lowest flat since 1966, [ 426 ] and in 2009, the city recorded fewer than 461 homicides for the first gear time ever since crime statistics were first published in 1963. [ 425 ] In 2017, 60.1 % of violent crime suspects were Black, 29.6 % Hispanic, 6.5 % White, 3.6 % asian and 0.2 % american english Indian. [ 427 ] New York City experienced 292 homicides in 2017. [ 428 ] Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city ‘s crime pace. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD, [ 429 ] including its habit of CompStat and the break windows theory. [ 430 ] Others cite the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes, [ 431 ] including from immigration. [ 432 ] Another hypothesis is that widespread exposure to lead contamination from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime beckon in the mid-20th century, most astutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. A firm correlation coefficient was found demonstrating that crimson crime rates in New York and other adult cities began to fall after jumper cable was removed from american gasoline in the 1970s. [ 433 ] Another theory cited to explain New York City ‘s falling homicide rate is the inverse correlation coefficient between the number of murders and the increasingly wet climate in the city. [ 434 ] Organized crime has long been associated with New York City, beginning with the Forty Thieves and the Roach Guards in the Five Points in the 1820s. The twentieth hundred saw a rise in the Mafia, dominated by the Five Families, a well as in gangs, including the Black Spades. [ 435 ] The Mafia and gang presence has declined in the city in the twenty-first hundred. [ 436 ] [ 437 ]


The Fire Department of New York ( FDNY ) provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary reaction to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and hand brake aesculapian services for the five boroughs of New York City. The FDNY is the largest municipal fire department in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department. The FDNY employs approximately 11,080 uniform firefighters and more than 3,300 uniform EMTs and paramedics. The FDNY ‘s motto is New York’s Bravest. The fire department faces multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single class homes to high-rise structures, the FDNY besides responds to fires that occur in the New York City Subway. [ 438 ] Secluded bridges and tunnels, a well as large parks and wooded areas that can give upgrade to brush fires, besides salute challenges. The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn, [ 439 ] and the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island. [ 440 ] There are three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units. One agency, at 11 Metrotech Center in Brooklyn, houses Manhattan/Citywide, Brooklyn, and Staten Island Fire Communications ; the Bronx and Queens offices are in divide buildings .

Public library system

The New York Public Library ( NYPL ), which has the largest collection of any public library arrangement in the United States, serves Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island. [ 441 ] Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library ( QPL ), the nation ‘s second largest public library system, while the Brooklyn Public Library ( BPL ) serves Brooklyn. [ 441 ] In 2013, the New York Public Library and the Brooklyn Public Library announced that they would merge their technical services departments into a new department called BookOps. This proposed fusion anticipated a savings of $ 2 million for the Brooklyn Public Library and $ 1.5 million for the New York Public Library. Although not presently part of the fusion, it is expected that the Queens Public Library will finally contribution some resources with the other city libraries. [ 442 ] [ 443 ]

culture and contemporary life

New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the universe by Manhattan ‘s Baruch College. [ 444 ] A book containing a series of essays titled New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 has besides been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia. [ 445 ] In describing New York, generator Tom Wolfe said, “ culture merely seems to be in the air, like part of the weather. ” [ 446 ] numerous major american cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the african-american literary canon in the United States. [ 447 ] [ 448 ] The city became the center of stand-up drollery in the early twentieth century, sleep together [ 449 ] in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s, and the birthplace of pelvis hop in the 1970s. [ 450 ] The city ‘s hood [ 451 ] and hard-core [ 452 ] scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s. New York has long had a boom scene for jewish american literature. The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and ocular art ; abstract expressionism ( besides known as the New York School ) in painting ; and hep hop, [ 166 ] punk rock, salsa, freestyle, Tin Pan Alley, sealed forms of wind, and ( along with Philadelphia ) disco in music. New York City has been considered the dancing capital of the populace. [ 453 ] [ 454 ] The city is besides frequently the dress for novels, movies ( see List of films set in New York City ), and television programs. New York Fashion Week is one of the world ‘s leading fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media. [ 455 ] [ 456 ] New York has besides frequently been ranked the top fashion capital of the worldly concern on the annual tilt compiled by the Global Language Monitor. [ 457 ]


The fast-paced streets of New York City, January 2020 One of the most common traits attributed to New York City is its fast pace, [ 458 ] [ 459 ] [ 460 ] which spawned the term New York minute. [ 461 ] Journalist Walt Whitman characterized New York ‘s streets as being traversed by “ speed, febrile, electric push ”. [ 460 ]


New York City has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 artwork galleries. [ 462 ] The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts. [ 462 ] Wealthy business magnates in the nineteenth century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, which have become internationally celebrated. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate dramaturgy productions, and in the 1880s, New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage mannequin that became known as the Broadway musical. strongly influenced by the city ‘s immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart, George M. Cohan, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City itself is the subject or background of many plays and musicals .

Performing arts

Broadway dramaturgy is one of the premier forms of English-language field in the world, named after Broadway, the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square, [ 463 ] besides sometimes referred to as “ The Great White Way “. [ 464 ] [ 465 ] [ 466 ] Forty-one venues in Midtown Manhattan ‘s Theatre District, each with at least 500 seats, are classified as Broadway theatres. According to The Broadway League, Broadway shows sold approximately $ 1.27 billion deserving of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4 % increase from $ 1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stand at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5 % addition from the 2012–2013 season ‘s 11.57 million. [ 467 ] Performance artists displaying divers skills are omnipresent on the streets of Manhattan. Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is base to numerous influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, vitamin a well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute is in Union Square, and Tisch School of the Arts is based at New York University, while Central Park SummerStage presents release music concerts in Central Park. [ 468 ]

ocular arts

New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites. Museum Mile is the mention for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, [ 470 ] in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill. [ 471 ] The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of polish in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one sea mile ( 1.6 kilometer ). Ten museums occupy the distance of this section of Fifth Avenue. [ 472 ] The one-tenth museum, the Museum for African Art, joined the ensemble in 2009, although its museum at 110th Street, the beginning raw museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim in 1959, [ 473 ] opened in late 2012. In addition to other program, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation. [ 474 ] Many of the populace ‘s most lucrative artwork auctions are held in New York City. [ 475 ] [ 476 ]


New York City ‘s food culture includes an array of international cuisines influenced by the city ‘s immigrant history. Central and Eastern European immigrants, specially jewish immigrants from those regions, brought bagels, cheesecake, hot dogs, knishes, and delicatessens ( or delicatessen ) to the city. italian immigrants brought New York-style pizza and italian cuisine into the city, while jewish immigrants and irish immigrants brought pastrami [ 478 ] and corned beef, [ 479 ] respectively. chinese and early asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias, diners, and coffeehouses are omnipresent throughout the city. Some 4,000 fluid food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabs [ 480 ] examples of modern New York street food. The city is home to “ about one thousand of the finest and most divers haute cuisine restaurants in the earth ”, according to Michelin. [ 481 ] The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene assigns letter grades to the city ‘s restaurants based upon their inspection results. [ 482 ] As of 2019, there were 27,043 restaurants in the city, up from 24,865 in 2017. [ 483 ] The Queens Night Market in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park attracts more than ten thousand people nightly to sample food from more than 85 countries. [ 484 ]

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New York City is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad align of themes, including holidays, nationalities, homo rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. The primary predilection of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy ‘s Thanksgiving Day Parade is the global ‘s largest parade, [ 485 ] beginning aboard Central Park and processing south to the flagship Macy ‘s Herald Square store ; [ 486 ] the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and describe millions of spectators in person. [ 485 ] other luminary parades including the annual New York City St. Patrick ‘s Day Parade in March, the LGBT Pride March in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams equally well as other heroic accomplishments march north along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan .

stress and dialect

The New York sphere is home to a distinctive regional address traffic pattern called the New York dialect, alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. It has broadly been considered one of the most recognizable accents within american English. [ 487 ] The traditional New York area dialect is characterized as non-rhotic, so that the audio [ ɹ ] does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant ; therefore the pronunciation of the city identify as “ New Yawk. ” [ 488 ] There is no [ ɹ ] in words like park [ pɑək ] or [ pɒək ] ( with vowel backed and diphthongized due to the low-back chain transfer ), butter [ bʌɾə ], or here [ hiə ]. In another have called the low back range switch, the [ ɔ ] vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, chocolate, and coffee and the much homophonous [ ɔr ] in core and more are tensed and normally raised more than in general american English. In the most antique and extreme versions of the New York dialect, the vowel sounds of words like “ daughter ” and of words like “ vegetable oil ” became a diphthong [ ɜɪ ]. This is often misperceived by speakers of early accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced “ goil ” and oil is pronounced “ erl ” ; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like “ Joizey ” ( Jersey ), “ Toidy-Toid Street ” ( 33rd St. ) and “ terlet ” ( gutter ). [ 488 ] The character Archie Bunker from the 1970s television situation comedy All in the Family was an model of having used this model of manner of speaking. The classical version of the New York City dialect is broadly centered on in-between and wage-earning New Yorkers. The inflow of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this classifiable dialect, [ 488 ] and the traditional form of this address traffic pattern is no long as prevailing among general New Yorkers as it has been in the past. [ 488 ]


New York City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League, [ 490 ] Major League Baseball, [ 491 ] the National Basketball Association, [ 492 ] the National Hockey League, [ 493 ] and Major League Soccer. [ 494 ] The New York metropolitan area hosts the most sports teams in the four major union american professional sports leagues with nine, one more than Los Angeles, and has 11 top-level professional sports teams if Major League Soccer is included, besides one more than Los Angeles. participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been endlessly hosting professional sports since the give birth of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1882. The city has played host to more than forty major master teams in the five sports and their respective competing leagues. Four of the ten most expensive stadiums always built global ( MetLife Stadium, the fresh Yankee Stadium, Madison Square Garden, and Citi Field ) are located in the New York metropolitan area. [ 495 ] Madison Square Garden, its harbinger, the original Yankee Stadium and Ebbets Field, are sporting venues located in New York City, the latter two having been commemorated on U.S. postage stamps. New York was the first of eight american cities to have won titles in all four major leagues ( MLB, NHL, NFL and NBA ), having done so following the Knicks ‘ 1970 title. In 1972, it became the first city to win titles in five sports when the Cosmos won the NASL final. New York has been described as the “ Capital of Baseball ”. [ 496 ] There have been 35 Major League Baseball World Series and 73 pennants won by New York team. It is one of only five metro areas ( Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore–Washington, and the San Francisco Bay Area being the others ) to have two baseball teams. additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series and occurring most recently in 2000. No early metropolitan area has had this happen more than once ( Chicago in 1906, St. Louis in 1944, and the San Francisco Bay Area in 1989 ). The city ‘s two Major League Baseball teams are the New York Mets, who play at Citi Field in Queens, [ 497 ] and the New York Yankees, who play at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx. These teams compete in six games of interleague play every even season that has besides come to be called the Subway Series. The Yankees have won a record 27 championships, [ 498 ] while the Mets have won the World Series doubly. [ 499 ] The city besides was once home to the Brooklyn Dodgers ( now the Los Angeles Dodgers ), who won the World Series once, [ 500 ] and the New York Giants ( now the San Francisco Giants ), who won the World Series five times. Both teams moved to California in 1958. [ 501 ] There is besides one Minor League Baseball team in the city, the Mets-affiliated Brooklyn Cyclones, [ 502 ] and the city will gain a club in the freelancer Atlantic League when the Staten Island FerryHawks begin play in 2022. [ 503 ] The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants and the New York Jets, although both teams play their family games at MetLife Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey, [ 504 ] which hosted Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014. [ 505 ] The metropolitan area is home to three National Hockey League teams. The New York Rangers, the traditional representative of the city itself and one of the league ‘s Original Six, toy at Madison Square Garden in Manhattan. The New York Islanders, traditionally representing Nassau and Suffolk Counties of Long Island, act in UBS Arena in Elmont, New York, and played in Brooklyn ‘s Barclays Center from 2015 to 2020. The New Jersey Devils turn at Prudential Center in nearby Newark, New Jersey and traditionally represent the counties of neighboring New Jersey which are coextensive with the boundaries of the New York metropolitan area and media market. The city ‘s National Basketball Association teams are the Brooklyn Nets ( previously known as the New York Nets and New Jersey Nets as they moved around the metropolitan area ) and the New York Knicks, while the New York Liberty is the city ‘s Women ‘s National Basketball Association team. The beginning national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. [ 506 ] The city is well known for its links to basketball, which is played in closely every park in the city by local youth, many of whom have gone on to play for major college programs and in the NBA. In soccer, New York City is represented by New York City FC of Major League Soccer, who play their home games at Yankee Stadium [ 507 ] and the New York Red Bulls, who play their family games at Red Bull Arena in nearby Harrison, New Jersey. [ 508 ] NJ/NY Gotham FC besides plays their home games in Red Bull Arena, representing the metropolitan area in the National Women ‘s Soccer League. Historically, the city is known for the New York Cosmos, the highly successful former professional soccer team which was the american home of Pelé. A newfangled translation of the New York Cosmos was formed in 2010, and most recently played in the third-division National Independent Soccer Association before going on hiatus in January 2021. The annual United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the global ‘s four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. [ 509 ] The New York City Marathon, which courses through all five boroughs, is the world ‘s largest running marathon, [ 489 ] with 51,394 finishers in 2016 [ 510 ] and 98,247 applicants for the 2017 race. [ 489 ] The Millrose Games is an annual track and playing field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. Boxing is besides a big part of the city ‘s dissipated scenery, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year. [ 511 ] The city is besides considered the host of the Belmont Stakes, the last, longest and oldest of cavalry race ‘s Triple Crown races, held just over the city ‘s border at Belmont Park on the first or second base Sunday of June. The city besides hosted the 1932 U.S. Open golf tournament and the 1930 and 1939 PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club. The celtic games are played in Riverdale, Bronx at Gaelic Park, family to the New York GAA, the lone north american team to compete at the aged inter-county level .


Two yellow taxis on a narrow street lined with shops. [512] As of 2012, the city had about 6,000 loanblend taxis ( shown ) in service, the largest numeral of any city in North America. environmental issues in New York City are affected by the city ‘s size, concentration, abundant populace fare infrastructure, and placement at the mouth of the Hudson River. For case, it is both one of the country ‘s biggest sources of pollution, and has the lowest per-capita greenhouse natural gas emissions rate and electricity custom .

environmental impact reduction

New York City has focused on reducing its environmental shock and carbon paper footprint. Mass transportation system habit in New York City is the highest in the United States. besides, by 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis and early blank diesel vehicles, representing approximately 28 % of New York ‘s taxi fleet in serve, the most of any city in North America. [ 514 ] New York City is the host of Climate Week NYC, the largest climate week to take place globally and regarded as major annual climate acme. New York ‘s high rate of populace transit use, more than 200,000 daily cyclists as of 2014, [ 515 ] and many pedestrian commuters make it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States. [ 516 ] Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21 % of all modes for trips in the city ; nationally the pace for metro regions is about 8 %. [ 517 ] In both its 2011 and 2015 rankings, Walk Score named New York City the most walkable big city in the United States, [ 518 ] [ 519 ] [ 520 ] and in 2018, Stacker ranked New York the most walkable U.S. city. [ 521 ] Citibank sponsored the initiation of 10,000 public bicycles for the city ‘s bike-share project in the summer of 2013. [ 522 ] New York City ‘s numeral “ in-season bicycle index ” of bicycling in the city had hit an all-time eminent of 437 when measured in 2014. [ 523 ] The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency Supreme Court case forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants. The city is a drawing card in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings, including the Hearst Tower among others. [ 175 ] Mayor Bill de Blasio has committed to an 80 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions between 2014 and 2050 to reduce the city ‘s contributions to climate change, beginning with a comprehensive examination “ green Buildings ” plan .

Water honor and handiness

The New York City drink water issue is extracted from the protected Catskill Mountains watershed. [ 524 ] As a result of the watershed ‘s integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drink water is pure enough not to require refining through water discussion plants. [ 525 ] The city ‘s municipal water system is the largest in the United States, moving over one billion gallons of water per day ; [ 526 ] a leak in the Delaware aqueduct results in some 20 million gallons a day being lost under the Hudson River. [ 527 ] The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergo construction of a $ 3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City ‘s water provide by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20 % addition to the city ‘s current handiness of urine. [ 528 ] The ongoing expansion of New York City Water Tunnel No. 3, an built-in part of the New York City water supply system, is the largest capital construction project in the city ‘s history, [ 529 ] with segments serving Manhattan and the Bronx completed, and with segments serving Brooklyn and Queens planned for structure in 2020. [ 530 ] In 2018, New York City announced a $ 1 billion investment to protect the integrity of its urine organization and to maintain the purity of its unfiltered water provision. [ 526 ]

Air timbre

According to the 2016 World Health Organization Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database, [ 531 ] the annual modal concentration in New York City ‘s air out of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less ( PM2.5 ) was 7.0 micrograms per cubic meter, or 3.0 micrograms within the commend limit of the WHO Air Quality Guidelines for the annual think of PM2.5. [ 532 ] The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, in partnership with Queens College, conducts the New York Community Air Survey to measure pollutants at about 150 locations. [ 533 ]

environmental revival

Newtown Creek, a 3.5-mile ( 6-kilometer ) a long estuary that forms separate of the boundary line between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, has been designated a Superfund site for environmental clean-up and redress of the waterway ‘s recreational and economic resources for many communities. [ 534 ] One of the most heavy use bodies of water system in the Port of New York and New Jersey, it had been one of the most contaminate industrial sites in the area, [ 535 ] containing years of cast-off toxins, an estimated 30 million US gallons ( 110,000 m3 ) of spilled oil, including the Greenpoint petroleum spill, sensitive sewage from New York City ‘s sewer system, [ 535 ] and other collection .

Government and politics


New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a solid mayor–council form of politics [ 536 ] since its consolidation in 1898. In New York City, the city government is responsible for public department of education, correctional institutions, public base hit, recreational facilities, sanitation, water provision, and wellbeing services. The mayor and council members are elected to four-year terms. The City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. [ 537 ] Each condition for the mayor and council members lasts four years and has a two consecutive-term limit, [ 538 ] which is reset after a four-year break. The New York City Administrative Code, the New York City Rules, and the City Record are the code of local laws, compilation of regulations, and official journal, respectively. [ 539 ] [ 540 ]
Each borough is coextensive with a judicial zone of the state Unified Court System, of which the Criminal Court and the Civil Court are the local anesthetic courts, while the New York Supreme Court conducts major trials and appeals. Manhattan hosts the First Department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division while Brooklyn hosts the Second Department. There are besides several extrajudicial administrative courts, which are executive agencies and not function of the state Unified Court System. uniquely among major american cities, New York is divided between, and is host to the main branches of, two different U.S. district courts : the District Court for the Southern District of New York, whose independent courthouse is on Foley Square near City Hall in Manhattan and whose legal power includes Manhattan and the Bronx ; and the District Court for the Eastern District of New York, whose chief courthouse is in Brooklyn and whose legal power includes Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and U.S. Court of International Trade are besides based in New York, besides on Foley Square in Manhattan .


The stage mayor is Eric Adams. He was elected in 2021 with 67 % of the vote, and assumed office on January 1, 2022. The democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. As of April 2016, 69 % of register voters in the city are Democrats and 10 % are Republicans. [ 541 ] New York City has not been carried by a Republican in a statewide or presidential election since President Calvin Coolidge won the five boroughs in 1924. In 2012, Democrat Barack Obama became the first base presidential candidate of any party to receive more than 80 % of the overall vote in New York City, sweeping all five boroughs. Party platforms center on low-cost housing, education, and economic development, and british labour party politics are of importance in the city. Thirteen out of 27 U.S. congressional districts in the state of New York include portions of New York City. [ 542 ] New York is one of the most authoritative sources of political fund-raise in the United States. At least four of the top five ZIP Codes in the nation for political contributions were in Manhattan for the 2004, 2006, and 2008 elections. The top ZIP Code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of George W. Bush and John Kerry. [ 543 ] The city has a solid asymmetry of payments with the national and state governments. It receives 83 cents in services for every $ 1 it sends to the federal government in taxes ( or annually sends $ 11.4 billion more than it receives back ). City residents and businesses besides sent an extra $ 4.1 billion in the 2009–2010 fiscal year to the department of state of New York than the city received in return key. [ 544 ]


New York City ‘s comprehensive department of transportation system is both complex and across-the-board .

rapid transit

Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass theodolite in the United States, and two-thirds of the state ‘s rail riders live in the New York City metropolitan sphere. [ 545 ] [ 546 ]


The iconic New York City Subway organization is the largest rapid transit system in the worldly concern when measured by stations in operation, with 472, and by length of routes. about all of New York ‘s metro organization is open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight closure common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong, [ 547 ] [ 548 ] London, Paris, Seoul, [ 549 ] [ 550 ] and Tokyo. The New York City Subway is besides the busiest metropolitan rail transit organization in the Western Hemisphere, with 1.76 billion passenger rides in 2015, [ 551 ] while Grand Central Terminal, besides referred to as “ Grand Central Station ”, is the populace ‘s largest railway station by number of prepare platforms .
Public enchant is substantive in New York City. 54.6 % of New Yorkers commuted to work in 2005 using aggregate passage. [ 552 ] This is in line to the rest of the United States, where 91 % of commuters travel in automobiles to their workplace. [ 553 ] According to the New York City Comptroller, workers in the New York City sphere spend an average of 6 hours and 18 minutes getting to work each week, the longest commute time in the nation among boastfully cities. [ 554 ] New York is the only U.S. city in which a majority ( 52 % ) of households do not have a cable car ; lone 22 % of Manhattanites own a car. [ 555 ] Due to their high usage of batch transportation system, New Yorkers spend less of their family income on exile than the national average, saving $ 19 billion per annum on transportation compared to other urban Americans. [ 556 ] New York City ‘s commuter rail network is the largest in North America. [ 545 ] The rail network, connecting New York City to its suburbs, consists of the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, and New Jersey Transit. The combine systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station and contain more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines. [ 545 ] In Queens, the raise AirTrain people mover system connects 24 hours a day JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road ; a separate AirTrain organization is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems. [ 557 ] [ 558 ] For intercity rail, New York City is served by Amtrak, whose busiest station by a meaning margin is Pennsylvania Station on the West Side of Manhattan, from which Amtrak provides connections to Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. along the Northeast Corridor, and long-distance train serve to other north american cities. [ 559 ] The Staten Island Railway rapid transit arrangement entirely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson ( PATH string ) links Midtown and Lower Manhattan to northeastern New Jersey, primarily Hoboken, Jersey City, and Newark. Like the New York City Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day ; meaning three of the six rapid transit systems in the world which operate on 24-hour schedules are wholly or partially in New York ( the others are a part of the Chicago ‘L ‘, the PATCO Speedline serving Philadelphia, and the Copenhagen Metro ). Multibillion-dollar heavy rail transportation system projects under construction in New York City include the Second Avenue Subway, and the East Side Access project. [ 560 ]


New York City ‘s public bus fleet runs 24/7 and is the largest in North America. [ 562 ] The Port Authority Bus Terminal, the chief intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7,000 buses and 200,000 commuters daily, making it the busiest busbar station in the world. [ 561 ]


New York ‘s airspace is the busiest in the United States and one of the world ‘s busiest breeze department of transportation corridors. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, and LaGuardia Airport ; 130.5 million travelers used these three airports in 2016. [ 563 ] JFK and Newark Liberty were the busiest and fourthly busiest U.S. gateways for external air passengers, respectively, in 2012 ; as of 2011, JFK was the busiest airport for international passengers in North America. [ 564 ]
Plans have advanced to expand passenger bulk at a one-fourth airport, Stewart International Airport near Newburgh, New York, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. [ 565 ] Plans were announced in July 2015 to wholly rebuild LaGuardia Airport in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities. [ 566 ] early commercial airports in or serving the New York metropolitan area include Long Island MacArthur Airport, Trenton–Mercer Airport and Westchester County Airport. The primary cosmopolitan aviation airport serving the area is Teterboro Airport .


The Staten Island Ferry is the universe ‘s busiest ferry route, carrying more than 23 million passengers from July 2015 through June 2016 on the 5.2-mile ( 8.4 kilometer ) path between Staten Island and Lower Manhattan and running 24 hours a day. [ 567 ] early ferry systems shuttlecock commuters between Manhattan and other locales within the city and the metropolitan area. NYC Ferry, a NYCEDC enterprise with routes planned to travel to all five boroughs, was launched in 2017, with second graders choosing the names of the ferries. [ 568 ] meanwhile, Seastreak ferry announced construction of a 600-passenger high-speed luxury ferry in September 2016, to shuttle riders between the Jersey Shore and Manhattan, anticipated to start service in 2017 ; this would be the largest vessel in its class. [ 569 ]

Taxis, vehicles for rent, and trams

jaundiced medallion taxicabs are wide recognized icons of the city. other features of the city ‘s transportation system infrastructure embrace 13,587 scandalmongering cab ; [ 570 ] other vehicle for hire companies ; [ 571 ] [ 572 ] and the Roosevelt Island Tramway, an antenna tramline that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan Island .

Streets and highways

Despite New York ‘s heavy reliance on its huge public transit system, streets are a specify have of the city. The Commissioners ‘ plan of 1811 greatly influenced the city ‘s physical development. Several of the city ‘s streets and avenues, including Broadway, [ 573 ] Wall Street, [ 574 ] Madison Avenue, [ 338 ] and Seventh Avenue are besides used as metonym for national industries there : the dramaturgy, finance, advertising, and manner organizations, respectively. New York City besides has an extensive vane of freeways and parkways, which link the city ‘s boroughs to each early and to North Jersey, Westchester County, Long Island, and southwestern Connecticut through respective bridges and tunnels. Because these highways serve millions of out borough and suburban residents who commute into Manhattan, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic congestion that are a casual happening, particularly during bang hour. [ 575 ] [ 576 ] Congestion price in New York City will go into impression in 2022 at the earliest. [ 577 ] [ 578 ] [ 579 ] New York City is besides known for its rules regarding turning at crimson lights. Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits mighty or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety. In New York City, consequently, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a polarity permitting such maneuvers is present. [ 580 ]

river crossings

New York City is located on one of the earth ‘s largest natural harbors, [ 583 ] and the borough of Manhattan and Staten Island are primarily coextensive with islands of the lapp names, while Queens and Brooklyn are located at the west end of the larger Long Island, and the Bronx is located on New York State ‘s mainland. This position of boroughs separated by water led to the development of an across-the-board infrastructure of bridges and tunnels. The George Washington Bridge is the universe ‘s busiest motor fomite bridge, [ 581 ] [ 582 ] connecting Manhattan to Bergen County, New Jersey. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is the longest abeyance bridge in the Americas and one of the global ‘s longest. [ 584 ] [ 585 ] The Brooklyn Bridge is an picture of the city itself. The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cementum, and their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the gem towers. This bridge was besides the longest pause bridge in the worldly concern from its opening until 1903, and is the inaugural steel-wire suspension bridge. The Queensboro Bridge is an important objet d’art of cantilever architecture. The Manhattan Bridge, opened in 1909, is considered to be the precursor of modern pause bridges, and its design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges around the world ; the Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge, Triborough Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of structural expressionism. [ 586 ] [ 587 ] Manhattan Island is linked to New York City ‘s extinct boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels a well. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the earth. [ 588 ] The burrow was built alternatively of a bridge to allow unchained passage of big passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan ‘s piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the populace ‘s first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927. [ 589 ] [ 590 ] The Queens-Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its prison term when it was completed in 1940. [ 591 ] President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it. [ 592 ] The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel ( officially known as the Hugh L. Carey Tunnel ) runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern gratuity of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn .

bicycle network

Cycling in New York City is associated with mix cycle conditions that include urban concentration, relatively flat terrain, congested roadways with “ stop-and-go ” traffic, and many pedestrians. The city ‘s big cycling population includes utility cyclists, such as delivery and messenger services ; cycling clubs for amateur cyclists ; and increasingly commuters. [ 593 ] Cycling is increasingly popular in New York City ; in 2017 there were approximately 450,000 daily motorcycle trips, compared with 170,000 daily motorcycle trips in 2005. [ 594 ] As of 2017, New York City had 1,333 miles ( 2,145 kilometer ) of bicycle lanes, compared to 513 miles ( 826 kilometer ) of bicycle lanes in 2006. [ 594 ] As of 2019, there are 126 miles ( 203 kilometer ) of segregated or “ protected ” bicycle lanes citywide. [ 595 ]

noteworthy people

ball-shaped outreach

In 2006, the Sister City Program of the City of New York, Inc. [ 596 ] was restructured and renamed New York City Global Partners. Through this program, New York City has expanded its international outreach to a network of cities worldwide, promoting the exchange of ideas and invention between their citizenry and policymakers. New York ‘s historic sister cities are denoted below by the year they joined New York City ‘s partnership network. [ 597 ]

See besides


  1. ^ Mean monthly maximum and minimum ( i.e. the ask highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given calendar month ) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020 .
  2. ^[205] official upwind observations for Central Park were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle since 1919 .


far recitation

Preceded byTrenton, New Jersey Capital of the United States
of America

Succeeded byPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania

New York City at Wikipedia’s at Wikipedia ‘s

sister projects

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