Toronto – Wikipedia

Capital city of Ontario, Canada
This article is about the city in Ontario. For other uses, see Toronto ( disambiguation ) “ City of Toronto ” redirects hera. For the city ‘s government, see municipal government of Toronto

City in Ontario, Canada
Toronto ( tə-RON-toh, tə-RON-tə or TRON-tə ) [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] is the capital city of the canadian state of Ontario. With a record population of 2,794,356 in 2021, [ 15 ] it is the most populous city in Canada and the fourth most populous city in North America. The city is the anchor of the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration of 9,765,188 people ( as of 2021 ) surrounding the western end of Lake Ontario, [ 16 ] while the Greater Toronto Area proper had a 2021 population of 6,712,341. [ 17 ] Toronto is an international center of business, finance, arts, and culture, and is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the worldly concern. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] autochthonal peoples have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, located on a broad aslant tableland interspersed with rivers, abstruse ravines, and urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. [ 21 ] After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the sphere to the british Crown, the british established the town of York in 1793 and late designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. [ 23 ] During the War of 1812, the township was the web site of the Battle of York and suffered fleshy damage by american troops. [ 24 ] York was renamed and incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the das kapital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during canadian Confederation. [ 25 ] The city proper has since expanded past its original limits through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2 ( 243.3 sq mi ). The divers population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important finish for immigrants to Canada. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] More than 50 percentage of residents belong to a visible minority population group, [ 28 ] and over 200 clear-cut ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. [ 29 ] While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary terminology, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. [ 30 ] The mayor of Toronto is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief administrator of the city. The Toronto City Council is a unicameral legislative body, comprising 25 councillors since the 2018 municipal election, representing geographic wards throughout the city. [ 31 ] Toronto is a big centre for music, [ 32 ] field, [ 33 ] motion visualize production, [ 34 ] and television production, [ 35 ] and is dwelling to the headquarters of Canada ‘s major national broadcast networks and media outlets. [ 36 ] Its change cultural institutions, [ 37 ] which include numerous museums and galleries, festivals and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, and sports activities, [ 38 ] attract over 43 million tourists each year. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, [ 41 ] in particular the tallest free-standing structure on land in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. [ 42 ] The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada ‘s five largest banks, and the headquarters of many large canadian and multinational corporations. Its economy is highly diversify with strengths in engineering, design, fiscal services, life sciences, education, arts, fashion, aerospace, environmental initiation, food services, and tourism. [ 45 ] [ 46 ] [ 47 ] Toronto is the third-largest technical school hub in North America after Silicon Valley and New York City, and the fastest turn. [ 48 ] [ 49 ]



The parole Toronto was recorded with respective spellings in French and English, including Tarento, Tarontha, Taronto, Toranto, Torento, Toronto, and Toronton. Taronto referred to “ The Narrows ”, a channel of water through which Lake Simcoe discharges into Lake Couchiching where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral pisces. This narrows was called tkaronto by the Mohawk, meaning “ where there are trees standing in the water, ” [ 52 ] [ 53 ] and was recorded vitamin a early as 1615 by Samuel de Champlain. The parole “ Toronto ”, meaning “ plenty ” besides appears in a 1632 french dictionary of the Huron terminology, which is besides an iroquoian linguistic process. It besides appears on french maps referring to diverse locations, including georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, and several rivers. A portage path from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to far-flung use of the name .

Pre-19th hundred

The locate of Toronto put at the entrance to one of the oldest routes to the northwest, a path known and used by the Huron, Iroquois, and Ojibwe, and was of strategic importance from the begin of Ontario ‘s recorded history. [ 57 ] In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississaugas had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their fatherland in contemporary New York .
In the seventeenth hundred, the area was a crucial link for change of location, with the Humber and Rouge rivers providing a shortcut to the upper Great Lakes. These routes together were known as the Toronto Passage french traders founded Fort Rouillé in 1750 ( the current Exhibition grounds were by and by developed here ), but abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years ‘ War. [ 59 ] The british defeated the french and their autochthonal allies in the war, and the area became separate of the british colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an inflow of british settlers came hera as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario. The Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies. The fresh state of Upper Canada was being created and needed a capital. In 1787, the british Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres ( 1000 km2 ) of kingdom in the Toronto area. [ 60 ] Dorchester intended the placement to be named Toronto. The first 25 years after the Toronto purchase was silence, although “ there were casual autonomous fur traders ” give in the area, with the common complaints of orgy and drink. [ 57 ] In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark ( Niagara-on-the-Lake ) to York, [ 61 ] believing the raw web site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States. [ 62 ] The York garrison was built at the entrance of the township ‘s natural harbor, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The township ‘s settlement formed at the harbor ‘s eastern end behind the peninsula, near the contemporary intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street ( in the “ Old Town “ sphere ) .

nineteenth century

In 1813, as region of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town ‘s capture and loot by United States forces. [ 63 ] John Strachan negotiated the town ‘s capitulation. american soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set burn to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation. Because of the dismissal of York, british troops retaliated later in the war with the electrocution of Washington, D.C .
York was incorporated as the City of Toronto on March 6, 1834, adopting an autochthonal name. Reformist politician William Lyon Mackenzie became the first mayor of Toronto and led the abortive Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 against the british colonial politics. Toronto ‘s population of 9,000 included african-american slaves, some of whom were brought by the Loyalists, including Mohawk leader Joseph Brant, and fewer Black Loyalists, whom the Crown had freed ( most of the latter were resettled in Nova Scotia ). By 1834, refugee slaves from America ‘s South were besides immigrating to Toronto, settling in Canada to gain exemption. [ 64 ] Slavery was banned outright in Upper Canada ( and throughout the british Empire ) in 1834. [ 65 ] Torontonians integrated people of coloring material into their club. In the 1840s, an eat house at Frederick and King Streets, a position of mercantile prosperity in the early city, was operated by a bootleg man named Bloxom. As a major address for immigrants to Canada, the city grew quickly through the remainder of the nineteenth century. The beginning significant wave of immigrants were irish, fleeing the Great Irish Famine ; most of them were Catholic. By 1851, the Irish-born population had become the largest individual cultural group in the city. The scottish and english population welcomed smaller numbers of Protestant Irish immigrants, some from what is now Northern Ireland, which gave the Orange Order significant and durable influence over Toronto club .
see of Toronto in 1854. Toronto became a major address for immigrants to Canada in the second half of the nineteenth hundred. For brief periods, Toronto was doubly the capital of the unite state of Canada : first from 1849 to 1852, following unrest in Montreal, and subsequently 1856–1858. After this date, Quebec was designated as the capital until 1866 ( one year before canadian Confederation ). Since then, the das kapital of Canada has remained Ottawa, Ontario. [ 67 ] Toronto became the capital of the province of Ontario after its official creation in 1867. The seat of government of the Ontario Legislature is at Queen ‘s Park. Because of its provincial capital condition, the city was besides the placement of Government House, the residence of the viceregal representative of the Crown in mighty of Ontario. farseeing before the Royal Military College of Canada was established in 1876, supporters of the concept proposed military colleges in Canada. Staffed by british Regulars, adult male students underwent a three-month-long military course at the School of Military Instruction in Toronto. Established by Militia General Order in 1864, the school enabled officers of militia or candidates for commission or promotion in the Militia to learn military duties, drill and discipline, to command a ship’s company at Battalion Drill, to drill a company at Company Drill, the internal economy of a company, and the duties of a company ‘s policeman. [ 68 ] The school was retained at Confederation, in 1867. In 1868, Schools of cavalry and artillery instruction were formed in Toronto. [ 69 ]
The Gooderham and Worts buildings c. nineteenth century. The distillery became the world ‘s largest whiskey factory by the 1860s. In the nineteenth hundred, the city built an across-the-board sewage system to improve sanitation, and streets were illuminated with gasoline ignition as a regular military service. Long-distance railroad track lines were constructed, including a road completed in 1854 linking Toronto with the Upper Great Lakes. The Grand Trunk Railway and the Northern Railway of Canada joined in the building of the first Union Station in business district. The advent of the railway dramatically increased the numbers of immigrants arriving, commerce and diligence, as had the Lake Ontario steamers and schooners entering port before. These enabled Toronto to become a major gateway linking the world to the interior of the north american english continent. Toronto became the largest alcohol distillate ( in particular, spirits ) centre in North America. By the 1860s, the Gooderham and Worts Distillery operations became the earth ‘s largest whiskey factory. A continue section of this once dominant local diligence remains in the Distillery District. The harbor allowed for certain access to grain and sugar imports used in process. Expanding interface and rail facilities brought in northern forest for export and imported Pennsylvania char. Industry dominated the waterfront for the adjacent 100 years .
horse-drawn streetcars in 1890. The city ‘s streetcar system transitioned to electric-powered streetcars in 1892. horse-drawn streetcars gave room to electric streetcars in 1891, when the city granted the operation of the transit franchise to the Toronto Railway Company. The populace theodolite system passed into public possession in 1921 as the Toronto Transportation Commission, former renamed the Toronto Transit Commission. The system nowadays has the third-highest ridership of any city public transportation system in North America. [ 70 ]

twentieth century

The Great Toronto Fire of 1904 destroyed a bombastic section of downtown Toronto. The fire destroyed more than 100 buildings. [ 71 ] The fire claimed one victim, John Croft, who was an explosive expert clearing the ruins from the fire. [ 72 ] It caused CA $ 10,387,000 in damage ( roughly CA $ 277,600,000 in 2020 terms ). [ 73 ] The city received new european immigrant groups beginning in the late nineteenth hundred into the early twentieth hundred, particularly Germans, french, Italians, and Jews. They were soon followed by Russians, Poles, and other eastern european nations, in addition to chinese entering from the West. As the Irish before them, many of these migrants lived in overcrowd shanty-type slums, such as “ the Ward “ which was centred on Bay Street, now the heart of the state ‘s Financial District .
As new migrants began to prosper, they moved to better housing in other areas, in what is now understand to be succession waves of colony. Despite its fast-paced increase, by the 1920s, Toronto ‘s population and economic importance in Canada remained second to the much longer established Montreal, Quebec. however, by 1934, the Toronto Stock Exchange had become the largest in the area. In 1954, the City of Toronto and 12 surrounding municipalities were federated into a regional government known as Metropolitan Toronto. [ 74 ] The postwar boom had resulted in rapid suburban development and it was believed a organize land-use scheme and shared services would provide greater efficiency for the area. The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal boundaries, including highways, patrol services, water and populace transit. In that year, a half-century after the Great Fire of 1904, disaster struck the city again when Hurricane Hazel brought acute winds and news bulletin flood. In the Toronto area, 81 people were killed, about 1,900 families were leave homeless, and the hurricane caused more than CA $ 25 million in price. [ 75 ] In 1967, the seven smallest municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto were merged with larger neighbours, resulting in a six-municipality configuration that included the early city of Toronto and the surrounding municipalities of East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough, and York. [ 76 ]
In the decades after World War II, refugees from war-torn Europe and chinese job-seekers arrived, a well as construction labourers, particularly from Italy and Portugal. Toronto ‘s population grew to more than one million in 1951 when large-scale suburbanization began and doubled to two million by 1971. Following the elimination of racially based immigration policies by the former 1960s, Toronto became a finish for immigrants from all parts of the global. By the 1980s, Toronto had surpassed Montreal as Canada ‘s most populous city and chief economic hub. During this time, in contribution owing to the political uncertainty raised by the revival of the Quebec reign drift, many national and multinational corporations moved their head offices from Montreal to Toronto and Western Canadian cities. [ 77 ] On January 1, 1998, Toronto was greatly enlarged, not through traditional annexations, but as an amalgamation of the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto and its six lower-tier component municipalities : East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough, York, and the original city itself. They were dissolved by an act of the Government of Ontario, and formed into a single-tier City of Toronto ( colloquially dubbed the “ megacity “ ) replacing all six governments. The amalgamation was proposed as a cost-saving measure by the Progressive Conservative provincial government under Mike Harris. The announcement touched off blatant public objections. In March 1997, a referendum in all six municipalities produced a vote of more than 3:1 against amalgamation. [ 78 ] however, municipal governments in Canada are creatures of the provincial governments, and referendums have short to no legal effect. The Harris politics could thus legally ignore the results of the referendum, and did so in April when it tabled the City of Toronto Act. Both opposition parties held a filibuster in the provincial legislature, proposing more than 12,000 amendments that allowed residents on streets of the proposed megacity take part in public hearings on the fusion and adding historical designations to the streets. [ 79 ] This only delayed the bill ‘s inevitable passage, given the PCO ‘s majority. North York mayor Mel Lastman became the first “ megacity ” mayor, and the 62nd mayor of Toronto, with his electoral victory. [ 80 ] Lastman gained national attention after multiple snowstorms, including the January Blizzard of 1999, dumped 118 centimeter of snow and effectively immobilized the city. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] He called in the canadian Army to aid snow removal by practice of their equipment to augment police and emergency services. The go was ridiculed by some in early parts of the state, fuelled in separate by what was perceived as a frivolous use of resources. [ 83 ] [ 84 ]

twenty-first century

The city attracted international attention in 2003 when it became the concentrate of a major Severe acute respiratory syndrome ( SARS ) outbreak. Public health attempts to prevent the disease from spreading elsewhere temporarily dampened the local economy. [ 85 ] From August 14–17, 2003, the city was hit by a massive blackout which affected millions of Torontonians ( it besides affected most of Southern Ontario and parts of the United States ), stranding some hundreds of people in tall buildings, knocking out traffic lights and suspending underpass and streetcar military service across the city during those aforesaid days. [ 86 ] On March 6, 2009, the city celebrated the hundred-and-seventy-fifth anniversary of its origin as the City of Toronto in 1834. Toronto hosted the 4th G20 summit during June 26–27, 2010. This included the largest security operation in canadian history. Following large-scale protests and carouse, law enforcement conducted the largest mass arrest ( more than a thousand people ) in canadian history. [ 87 ] On July 8, 2013, hard flash implosion therapy hit Toronto after an afternoon of slow-moving, intense thunderstorms. Toronto Hydro estimated 450,000 people were without ability after the storm and Toronto Pearson International Airport reported 126 millimeter ( 5 in ) of rain had fallen over five hours, more than during Hurricane Hazel. [ 88 ] Within six months, from December 20 to 22, 2013, Toronto was brought to a about halt by the worst ice storm in the city ‘s history, rivalling the austereness of the 1998 Ice Storm ( which largely affected southeast Ontario, and Quebec ). At the height of the storm, over 300,000 Toronto Hydro customers had no electricity or heat. [ 89 ] Toronto hosted WorldPride in June 2014, [ 90 ] and the Pan American Games in 2015. [ 91 ] The city continues to grow and attract immigrants. A study by Toronto Metropolitan University showed that Toronto was the fastest-growing city in North America. The city added 77,435 people between July 2017 and July 2018. The Toronto metropolitan area was the second-fastest-growing metropolitan area in North America, adding 125,298 persons, compared with 131,767 in the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metroplex in Texas. The big growth in the Toronto metropolitan area is attributed to international migration to Toronto. [ 92 ] The COVID-19 pandemic in Canada first occurred in Toronto and is among the hotspots in the state. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] Toronto will host some games in the group stage of the 2026 FIFA World Cup, besides to be held in assorted early cities across North America. [ 95 ]


Toronto covers an area of 630 square kilometres ( 243 sq security service ), [ 96 ] with a maximum north–south distance of 21 kilometres ( 13 mi ). It has a maximum east–west outdistance of 43 km ( 27 secret intelligence service ) and it has a 46-kilometre ( 29 michigan ) long waterfront shoreline, on the northwestern prop up of Lake Ontario. The Toronto Islands and Port Lands extend out into the lake, allowing for a reasonably shelter Toronto Harbour south of the downtown core. [ 97 ] An Outer Harbour was constructed southeast of downtown during the 1950s and 1960s and it is now used for diversion. The city ‘s borders are formed by Lake Ontario to the south, the western boundary of Marie Curtis Park, Etobicoke Creek, Eglinton Avenue and Highway 427 to the west, Steeles Avenue to the union and the Rouge River and the Scarborough–Pickering township telephone line to the east .


Satellite image of Toronto and surrounding area. Urban areas of the city are interrupted by the Toronto ravine system The city is largely flat or aristocratic hills and the country lightly slopes up aside from the lake. The flat land is interrupted by the Toronto ravine system, which is cut by numerous creeks and rivers of the Toronto waterway system, most notably the Humber River in the west end, the Don River east of business district ( these two rivers flanking and defining the Toronto Harbour ), and the Rouge River at the city ‘s easterly limits. Most of the ravines and valley lands in Toronto today are parklands, and recreational trails are laid out along the ravines and valleys. The original town was laid out in a power system design on the flat complain union of the harbor, and this plan was unfold outwards as the city grew. The width and astuteness of respective of the ravines and valleys are such that respective grid streets, such as Finch Avenue, Leslie Street, Lawrence Avenue, and St. Clair Avenue, displace on one side of a ravine or valley and continue on the other side. Toronto has many bridges spanning the ravines. big bridges such as the Prince Edward Viaduct were built to span broad river valleys. Despite its deep ravines, Toronto is not unusually cragged, but its acme does increase steadily away from the lake. elevation differences range from 76.5 metres ( 251 foot ) above ocean floor at the Lake Ontario shore to 209 thousand ( 686 foot ) above ocean horizontal surface near the York University grounds in the city ‘s north end at the intersection of Keele Street and Steeles Avenue. [ 98 ] There are occasional cragged areas ; in finical, midtown Toronto has a number of precipitously sloping hills. Lake Ontario remains occasionally visible from the peaks of these ridges as far union as Eglinton Avenue, 7 to 8 kilometres ( 4.3 to 5.0 michigan ) inland. The other major geographic feature of Toronto is its escarpments. During the last frosting historic period, the lower part of Toronto was beneath Glacial Lake Iroquois. today, a series of escarpments mark the lake ‘s former limit, known as the “ Iroquois Shoreline ”. The escarpments are most big from Victoria Park Avenue to the mouth of Highland Creek where they form the Scarborough Bluffs. other discernible sections include the area near St. Clair Avenue West between Bathurst Street and the Don River, and north of Davenport Road from Caledonia to Spadina Road ; the Casa Loma grounds seat above this escarpment. [ 99 ] The geography of the lakeside is greatly changed since the first colony of Toronto. Much of the land on the north land of the harbor is landfill, filled in during the recently nineteenth century. Until then, the lakefront docks ( then known as wharves ) were set back farther inland than today. much of the adjacent Port Lands on the east side of the harbor was a wetland filled in early on in the twentieth hundred. [ 100 ] The shoreline from the harbor west to the Humber River has been extended into the lake. further west, landfill has been used to create extensions of state such as Humber Bay Park. The Toronto Islands were a natural peninsula until a storm in 1858 severed their connection to the mainland, [ 101 ] creating a channel to the harbor. The peninsula was formed by longshore drift taking the sediments deposited along the Scarborough Bluffs shore and transporting them to the Islands area .
The other informant of sediment for the Port Lands wetland and the peninsula was the deposit of the Don River, which carved a across-the-board valley through the sedimentary bring of Toronto and deposited it in the shallow harbor. The harbor and the distribution channel of the Don River have been dredged numerous times for shipping. The lower section of the Don River was straightened and channelled in the nineteenth hundred. The former mouthpiece drained into a wetland ; today, the Don River drains into the harbor through a concrete watercourse, the Keating Channel. To mitigate flood in the area, ampere well as to create park, a second more natural mouth is being built to the south during the early 2020s, thereby creating Villiers Island .

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Climate chart (explanation)
j degree fahrenheit megabyte A megabyte j joule A mho o north d




































Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Environment Canada[102]

The city of Toronto has a hot summer humid continental climate ( Köppen : Dfa ), [ 103 ] though was on the brink of a warm summer humid continental climate ( Dfb ) until the twentieth century but hush found in the metropolitan region, [ 104 ] with warm, humid summers and coldness winters. According to the classification applied by Natural Resources Canada, the city of Toronto is in implant boldness zone 7a, with some suburbs & nearby towns having lower zone ratings. [ 105 ] [ 106 ] The city experiences four clear-cut seasons, with considerable discrepancy in length. [ 107 ] As a result of the rapid passage of upwind systems ( such as high- and low-pressure systems ), the weather is varying from sidereal day to day in all seasons. [ 107 ] Owing to urbanization and its proximity to water, Toronto has a reasonably gloomy diurnal temperature range. The dense urbanscape makes for warmer nights year orotund ; the average night temperature is about 3.0 °C ( 5.40 °F ) quick in the city than in rural areas in all months. [ 108 ] however, it can be perceptibly cool on many spring and early summer afternoons under the charm of a lake breeze, since Lake Ontario is cool relative to the tune during these seasons. [ 108 ] These lake breezes by and large occur in summer, bringing relief on hot days. [ 108 ] other low-scale maritime effects on the climate include lake-effect coke, daze, and delaying of spring- and fall-like conditions, known as seasonal worker stave. [ 108 ]
Winters in Toronto are typically cold with patronize snow. Winters are cold with frequent snow. [ 109 ] During the winter months, temperatures are normally below 0 °C ( 32 °F ). [ 109 ] Toronto winters sometimes feature cold snaps when maximal temperatures remain below −10 °C ( 14 °F ), much made to feel cold by hoist cool. occasionally, they can drop below −25 °C ( −13 °F ). [ 109 ] Snowstorms, sometimes mix with ice and rain, can disrupt bring and travel schedules, while accumulating snow can fall anytime from November until mid-April. however, meek stretches besides occur in most winters, melting accumulated bamboozle. The summer months are characterized by very warm temperatures. [ 109 ] Daytime temperatures are normally above 20 °C ( 68 °F ), and frequently rise above 30 °C ( 86 °F ). [ 109 ] however, they can occasionally surpass 35 °C ( 95 °F ) accompanied by high humidity. leap and fall are transitional seasons with by and large mild or cool temperatures with alternating dry and moisture periods. [ 108 ] Daytime temperatures average around 10 to 12 °C ( 50 to 54 °F ) during these seasons. [ 109 ] precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, but summer is normally the wettest season, the bulk falling during thunderstorms. The median annual precipitation is about 831 mm ( 32.7 in ), with an average annual snow of about 1,220 mm ( 48 in ). [ 110 ] Toronto experiences an average of 2,066 cheerfulness hours or 45 percentage of day hours, varying between a low of 28 percentage in December to 60 % in July. [ 110 ]


Map of Toronto with major traffic routes. besides shown are the boundaries of six former municipalities, which form the current City of Toronto. Toronto encompasses an area once administered by several branch municipalities that were amalgamated over the years. Each developed a clear-cut history and identity over the years, and their names remain in common practice among Torontonians. Former municipalities include East York, Etobicoke, Forest Hill, Mimico, North York, Parkdale, Scarborough, Swansea, Weston and York. Throughout the city there exists hundreds of minor neighbourhoods and some larger neighbourhoods covering a few square kilometres. [ citation needed ] The many residential communities of Toronto express a character distinct from the skyscrapers in the commercial core. victorian and Edwardian-era residential buildings can be found in enclaves such as Rosedale, Cabbagetown, The Annex, and Yorkville. [ 118 ] The Wychwood Park neighborhood, historically significant for the architecture of its homes, and for being one of Toronto ‘s earliest planned communities, was designated as an Ontario Heritage Conservation zone in 1985. [ 119 ] The Casa Loma vicinity is named after “ Casa Loma ”, a castle built in 1911 by Sir Henry Pellat, complete with gardens, turrets, stables, an elevator, privy passages, and a bowl alley. [ 120 ] Spadina House is a 19th-century manor that is now a museum. [ 121 ]

Old Toronto

The pre-amalgamation City of Toronto covers the business district core and besides older neighbourhoods to the east, west, and north of it. It is the most dumbly populate depart of the city. The Financial District contains the First canadian Place, Toronto-Dominion Centre, Scotia Plaza, Royal Bank Plaza, Commerce Court and Brookfield Place. This area includes, among others, the neighbourhoods of St. James Town, Garden District, St. Lawrence, Corktown, and Church and Wellesley. From that point, the Toronto horizon extends north along Yonge Street. [ citation needed ] Old Toronto is besides home to many historically affluent residential enclaves, such as Yorkville, Rosedale, The Annex, Forest Hill, Lawrence Park, Lytton Park, Deer Park, Moore Park, and Casa Loma, most stretching away from downtown to the north. [ citation needed ] East and west of downtown, neighbourhoods such as Kensington Market, Chinatown, Leslieville, Cabbagetown and Riverdale are home to bustling commercial and cultural areas american samoa well as communities of artists with studio lofts, with many middle- and upper-class professionals. [ citation needed ] other neighbourhoods in the cardinal city retain an ethnic identity, including two smaller Chinatowns, the Greektown sphere, Little Italy, Portugal Village, and Little India, among others. [ citation needed ]


In an attempt to curb suburban sprawl, many suburban neighbourhoods in Toronto encouraged high-density populations by mixing house lots with apartment buildings far from the business district core. The inner suburbs are contained within the former municipalities of York and East York. [ 122 ] These are suppurate and traditionally propertyless areas, consisting chiefly of post–World War I little, single-family homes and little apartment blocks. [ 122 ] Neighbourhoods such as Crescent Town, Thorncliffe Park, Weston, and Oakwood Village consist chiefly of high-rise apartments, which are home to many raw immigrant families. During the 2000s, many neighbourhoods have become ethnically divers and have undergo gentrification as a result of increasing population, and a housing boom during the late 1990s and the early twenty-first hundred. The first neighbourhoods affected were Leaside and North Toronto, gradually progressing into the western neighbourhoods in York. [ citation needed ] The outer suburb comprising the former municipalities of Etobicoke ( west ), Scarborough ( east ) and North York ( north ) largely retain the grid plan laid before post-war growth. [ 123 ] Sections were long established and promptly growing towns before the suburban house boom began and the emergence of metropolitan government, existing towns or villages such as Mimico, Islington and New Toronto in Etobicoke ; Willowdale, Newtonbrook and Downsview in North York ; Agincourt, Wexford and West Hill in Scarborough where suburban development boomed around or between these and early towns beginning in the late 1940s. upscale neighbourhoods were built such as the Bridle Path in North York, the sphere surrounding the Scarborough Bluffs in Guildwood, and most of central Etobicoke, such as Humber Valley Village, and The Kingsway. One of largest and earliest “ design communities ” was Don Mills, parts of which were beginning built in the 1950s. [ 124 ] Phased development, mixing single-detached house with higher-density apartment blocks, became more popular as a suburban model of development. Over the late twentieth hundred and early on twenty-first century, North York City Centre, Etobicoke City Centre and Scarborough City Centre have emerged as secondary business districts outside Downtown Toronto. High-rise development in these areas has given the early municipalities distinct skylines of their own, with high-density transit corridors serving them. [ citation needed ]


The Distillery District holds the largest collection of preserved priggish industrial architecture in North America. In the 1800s, a booming industrial sphere developed around Toronto Harbour and lower Don River mouth, linked by vilify and water to Canada and the United States. Examples included the Gooderham and Worts Distillery, canadian Malting Company, the Toronto Rolling Mills, the Union Stockyards and the Davies pork process facility ( the divine guidance for the “ Hogtown ” nickname ). [ 125 ] [ 126 ] This industrial area expanded west along the seaport and rail lines and was supplemented by the infilling of the marshlands on the east side of the harbor to create the Port Lands. A dress diligence developed along lower Spadina Avenue, the “ Fashion District “. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, industrial areas were set up on the outskirts, such as West Toronto/The Junction, where the Stockyards relocated in 1903. [ 127 ] The Great Fire of 1904 destroyed a big sum of industry in the downtown. Some of the companies moved west along King Street, some as far west as Dufferin Street ; where the large Massey-Harris farm equipment fabricate complex was located. [ 128 ] Over time, pockets of industrial estate by and large followed rail lines and late highway corridors as the city grew outwards. This course continues to this sidereal day, the largest factories and distribution warehouses are in the suburban environs of Peel and York Regions ; but besides within the current city : Etobicoke ( concentrated around Pearson Airport ), North York, and Scarborough. [ citation needed ]
many of Toronto ‘s erstwhile industrial sites close to ( or in ) downtown have been redeveloped including parts of the Toronto waterfront, the rail yards west of downtown, and Liberty Village, the Massey-Harris district and large-scale development is afoot in the West Don Lands. [ citation needed ] The Gooderham & Worts Distillery produced spirits until 1990, and is preserved nowadays as the “ Distillery District ”, the largest and best-preserved collection of victorian industrial architecture in North America. Some industry remains in the area, including the Redpath Sugar Refinery. Similar areas that retain their industrial character, but are now largely residential are the Fashion District, Corktown, and parts of South Riverdale and Leslieville. Toronto inactive has some active older industrial areas, such as Brockton Village, Mimico and New Toronto. In the west end of Old Toronto and York, the Weston/ Mount Dennis and The Junction areas still contain factories, meat-packing facilities and rail yards close to medium-density residential, although the Junction ‘s Union Stockyards moved out of Toronto in 1994. [ 127 ] The brownfield industrial area of the Port Lands, on the east side of the harbor, is one area planned for renovation. [ 130 ] once a marsh that was filled in to create industrial space, it was never intensely developed — its domain unsuitable for large-scale development — because of flood and precarious land. [ 131 ] It still contains numerous industrial uses, such as the Portlands Energy Centre power implant, some port facilities, some movie and television receiver production studios, a concrete process facility and respective low-density industrial facilities. The Waterfront Toronto agency has developed plans for a naturalized mouth to the Don River and to create a flood barrier around the Don, making more of the kingdom on the harbor desirable for higher-value residential and commercial development. [ 132 ] A former chemicals plant site along the Don River is slated to become a large commercial building complex and exile hub. [ 133 ]


Population history of Toronto
Year Pop. ±%
1834 9,252 —    
1841 14,249 +54.0%
1851 30,776 +116.0%
1861 44,821 +45.6%
1871 56,092 +25.1%
1881 86,415 +54.1%
1891 144,023 +66.7%
1901 238,080 +65.3%
1911 381,383 +60.2%
1921 521,893 +36.8%
1931 856,955 +64.2%
1941 951,549 +11.0%
1951 1,176,622 +23.7%
1961 1,824,481 +55.1%
1971 2,089,729 +14.5%
1976 2,124,291 +1.7%
1981 2,137,395 +0.6%
1986 2,192,721 +2.6%
1991 2,275,771 +3.8%
1996 2,385,421 +4.8%
2001 2,481,494 +4.0%
2006 2,503,281 +0.9%
2011 2,615,060 +4.5%
2016 2,731,571 +4.5%
2021 2,794,356 +2.3%
Source: [134][135][136][137][138][139]

In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Toronto had a population of 2,794,356 animation in 1,160,892 of its 1,253,238 full individual dwellings, a variety of 2.3 % from its 2016 population of 2,731,571. With a land sphere of 631.1 km2 ( 243.7 sq security service ), it had a population density of 4,427.8/km2 ( 11,467.8/sq mi ) in 2021. [ 140 ] At the census metropolitan sphere ( CMA ) level in the 2021 census, the Toronto CMA had a population of 6,202,225 populate in 2,262,473 of its 2,394,205 total private dwellings, a switch of 4.6 % from its 2016 population of 5,928,040. With a kingdom area of 5,902.75 km2 ( 2,279.06 sq michigan ), it had a population density of 1,050.7/km2 ( 2,721.4/sq myocardial infarction ) in 2021. [ 141 ] In 2016, persons aged 14 years and under made up 14.5 per penny of the population, and those aged 65 years and complete made up 15.6 per cent. [ 142 ] The median age was 39.3 years. [ 142 ] The city ‘s sex population is 48 per cent male and 52 per cent female. [ 142 ] Women outnumber men in all age groups 15 and older. [ 142 ] The city ‘s foreign-born persons made up 47 per cent of the population, [ 28 ] compared to 49.9 per cent in 2006. [ 143 ] According to the United Nations Development Programme, Toronto has the second-highest share of constant foreign-born population among world cities, after Miami, Florida. While Miami ‘s foreign-born population has traditionally consisted primarily of Cubans and early latin Americans, no single nationality or culture dominates Toronto ‘s immigrant population, placing it among the most diverse cities in the earth. [ 143 ] In 2010, it was estimated over 100,000 immigrants arrive in the Greater Toronto Area each year. [ 144 ]


In 2016, the three most normally reported heathen origins overall were Chinese ( 332,830 or 12.5 per cent ), English ( 331,890 or 12.3 per penny ) and Canadian ( 323,175 or 12.0 per cent ). [ 28 ] Common regions of cultural beginning were European ( 47.9 per cent ), asian ( including Middle-Eastern – 40.1 per penny ), African ( 5.5 per cent ), Latin/Central/South American ( 4.2 per cent ), and north american aboriginal ( 1.2 per penny ). [ 28 ] In 2016, 51.5 per cent of the residents of the city proper belonged to a visible minority group, compared to 49.1 per cent in 2011, [ 28 ] [ 145 ] and 13.6 per cent in 1981. [ 146 ] The largest visible minority groups were South Asian ( indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan at 338,960 or 12.6 per penny ), East Asian ( Chinese at 332,830 or 12.5 per cent ), and Black ( 239,850 or 8.9 per cent ). [ 28 ] visible minorities are projected to increase to 63 per cent of the city ‘s population by 2031. [ 147 ] This diverseness is reflected in Toronto ‘s ethnic neighbourhoods, which include Chinatown, Corso Italia, Greektown, Kensington Market, Koreatown, Little India, Little Italy, Little Jamaica, Little Portugal and Roncesvalles ( Polish community ). [ 148 ]


Questions on religion are conducted in every other canadian census, with the latest census to include them being the 2011 canadian Census. [ 149 ] In 2011, the most normally reported religion in Toronto was Christianity, adhered to by 54.1 per cent of the population. A plurality, 28.2 per penny, of the city ‘s population was Catholic, followed by Protestants ( 11.9 per cent ), christian Orthodox ( 4.3 per penny ), and members of other christian denominations ( 9.7 per cent ). other religions significantly practised in the city are Islam ( 8.2 per cent ), Hinduism ( 5.6 per penny ), Judaism ( 3.8 per penny ), Buddhism ( 2.7 per penny ), and Sikhism ( 0.8 per penny ). Those with no religious affiliation made up 24.2 per cent of Toronto ‘s population. [ 145 ]


English is the prevailing speech spoken by Torontonians with approximately 95 per cent of residents having proficiency in the terminology, although only 54.7 per cent of Torontonians reported English as their beget natural language. [ 150 ] English is one of two official languages of Canada, with the early being french. approximately 1.6 per cent of Torontonians reported french as their mother clapper, although 9.1 per cent reported being bilingual in both official languages. [ 150 ] In addition to services provided by the federal politics, peasant services in Toronto are available in both official languages as a leave of the French Language Services Act. [ 151 ] approximately 4.9 per penny of Torontonians reported having no cognition in either of the official languages of the country. [ 150 ] Because the city is besides home to many other languages, municipal services, most notably its 9-1-1 emergency telephone avail, [ speed of light ] is equipped to respond in over 150 languages. [ 152 ] [ 153 ] In the 2001 canadian Census, the collective varieties of chinese and italian are the most wide spoken languages at work after English. [ 154 ] [ 155 ] approximately 55 per cent of respondents who reported proficiency in a chinese lyric reported cognition in Mandarin in the 2016 census. [ 150 ]

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Toronto is an international center for clientele and finance. broadly considered the fiscal and industrial capital of Canada, Toronto has a high concentration of banks and brokerage firms on Bay Street in the Financial District. The Toronto Stock Exchange is the world ‘s seventh-largest sprout rally by commercialize capitalization. [ 156 ] The five largest fiscal institutions of Canada, jointly known as the Big Five, have national offices in Toronto. The city is an authoritative center for the media, publish, telecommunication, data technology and film production industries ; it is home to Bell Media, Rogers Communications, and Torstar. early big canadian corporations in the Greater Toronto Area include Magna International, Celestica, Manulife, Sun Life Financial, the Hudson ‘s Bay Company, and major hotel companies and operators, such as Four Seasons Hotels and Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. Although much of the area ‘s manufacture activities take home outside the city limits, Toronto continues to be a sweeping and distribution point for the industrial sector. The city ‘s strategic position along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and its road and track connections help support the nearby production of drive vehicles, iron, steel, food, machinery, chemicals and newspaper. The completion of the Saint Lawrence Seaway in 1959 gave ships access to the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean. Toronto ‘s unemployment rate was 6.7 % as of July 2016. [ 157 ] According to the web site Numbeo, Toronto ‘s cost of living plus rent exponent was second highest in Canada ( of 31 cities ). [ 158 ] The local buy ability was the sixth low in Canada, mid-2017. [ 159 ] The average monthly social aid caseload for January to October 2014 was 92,771. The number of seniors living in poverty increased from 10.5 % in 2011 to 12.1 % in 2014. Toronto ‘s 2013 child poverty rate was 28.6 %, the highest among large canadian cities of 500,000 or more residents. [ 160 ]

Bay Street

The Financial District in Toronto centers on Bay Street, the equivalent to Wall Street in New York. The city hosts the headquarters of all five of Canada ‘s largest banks, Royal Bank of Canada, Toronto-Dominion Bank, Scotiabank, Bank of Montreal and Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, and was ranked as the safest bank system in the world between 2007 and 2014 the World Economic Forum. [ 122 ] Toronto ‘s economy has seen a sweetheart boom in increase thanks to a large number of corporations relocating their canadian headquarters into the city, and Canada ‘s growing cultural significance. Resulting in a number of companies setting up shop class in Toronto .

Hollywood North

Toronto is one of the centres of Canada ‘s film and television receiver industry, due in depart to the lower cost of production in Canada. The city ‘s streets and landmarks are seen in a assortment of films, mimicking the scenes of american cities such as Chicago and New York. The city provides a diversity of settings and neighbourhoods to shoot films, with production facilitated by Toronto ‘s Film and Television Office. Toronto ‘s film industry has extended beyond the Toronto CMA into adjoining cities such as Hamilton and Oshawa .


Toronto is a large hub of the Canadian and global engineering industry, generating $ 52 billion in revenues per annum. In 2017, Toronto technical school firms offered about 30,000 jobs which is higher than the combination of San Francisco Bay area, Seattle and Washington, D.C. [ 161 ] The sphere restrict between the Greater Toronto Area, the Kitchener-Waterloo region and the City of Hamilton was termed a “ digital corridor ” by the Branham Group, [ 162 ] a region highly concentrated with engineering companies and jobs like to Silicon Valley in California. It is the third gear largest center for information and communication engineering in North America, coming in behind New York City and Silicon Valley, [ 163 ] with over 168,000 people and 15,000 companies working in the Toronto engineering sector alone. [ 164 ] Toronto is besides home to a big startup ecosystem. In 2013, the city was ranked as the 8th best inauguration fit in the world and 3rd when it came to performance and support. [ 165 ]

real estate

substantial estate is a major force in the city ‘s economy, Toronto is home to some of the nation’s—and the world’s—most expensive substantial estate. The Toronto Regional Real Estate Board ( TRREB ), once the Toronto Real Estate Board, is a non-profit master association of file substantial estate brokers and salesperson in Toronto, and parts of the Greater Toronto Area. [ 166 ] TRREB was formed in 1920. [ 166 ] Many large Real estate investment trusts are based in Toronto .

Arts and polish

Toronto is the world ‘s one-third largest center for English-language field, home to venues like the Royal Alexandra Theatre, the oldest continuously operating theater in North America . Caribana is a festival celebrating Caribbean culture and traditions. Held each summer in the city, it is North America’s largest street festival. Toronto ‘s theater and performing arts scene has more than fifty ballet and dance companies, six opera companies, two symphony orchestras and a server of theatres. The city is home to the National Ballet of Canada, the canadian Opera Company, the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, the Canadian Electronic Ensemble, and the canadian Stage Company. noteworthy performance venues include the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts, Roy Thomson Hall, the Princess of Wales Theatre, the Royal Alexandra Theatre, Massey Hall, the meridian Arts Centre ( once the Toronto Centre for the Arts ), the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres and the Meridian Hall ( in the first place the “ O’Keefe Centre ” and once the “ Hummingbird Centre ” and the “ Sony Centre for the Performing Arts ” ). Ontario Place features the world ‘s first permanent wave IMAX movie field, the Cinesphere, [ 167 ] equally well as the Budweiser Stage ( once Molson Amphitheatre ), an alfresco venue for music concerts. In spring 2012, Ontario Place closed after a decline in attendance over the years. Although the Budweiser Stage and harbour still operate, the park and Cinesphere are no long in manipulation. There are ongoing plans to revitalise Ontario Place. [ 168 ] Each summer, the canadian Stage Company presents an outdoor Shakespeare production in Toronto ‘s High Park called “ Dream in High Park ”. Canada ‘s Walk of Fame acknowledges the achievements of successful Canadians, with a series of stars on intend blocks of sidewalks along King Street and Simcoe Street. The production of domestic and alien film and television receiver is a major local industry. As of 2011, Toronto ranks as the third largest production kernel for film and television after Los Angeles and New York City, [ 169 ] sharing the dub “ Hollywood North “ with Vancouver. [ 170 ] [ 171 ] [ 172 ] The Toronto International Film Festival is an annual event celebrating the external film industry. Another esteemed movie festival is the Take 21 ( once the Toronto Student Film Festival ), which screens the works of students 12–18 years of historic period from many different countries across the globe. Toronto ‘s Caribana ( once known as Scotiabank Caribbean Carnival ) takes place from mid-july to early August of every summer. [ 173 ] chiefly based on the Trinidad and Tobago Carnival, the first Caribana took place in 1967 when the city ‘s Caribbean community celebrated Canada ‘s Centennial. More than forty years late, it has grown to attract one million people to Toronto ‘s Lake Shore Boulevard per annum. tourism for the festival is in the hundred thousands, and each year, the event generates over $ 400 million in tax income into Ontario ‘s economy. [ 174 ] One of the largest events in the city, Pride Week takes place in former June, and is one of the largest LGBT festivals in the populace. [ 175 ]


Toronto ‘s buildings vary in design and age with many structures dating spinal column to the early on nineteenth century, while other big buildings were good newly built in the first ten of the twenty-first hundred. [ 176 ] Lawrence Richards, a member of the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Toronto, has said, “ Toronto is a new, brash, rag-tag place—a big shuffle of periods and styles. ” [ 177 ] Bay-and-gable houses, chiefly found in Old Toronto, are a distinct architectural sport of the city. Defining the Toronto horizon is the CN Tower, a telecommunication and tourism hub. Completed in 1976 at a acme of 553.33 metres ( 1,815 foot 5 in ), it was the world ‘s tallest [ 178 ] freestanding structure until 2007 when it was surpassed by Burj Khalifa in Dubai. [ 179 ] Toronto is a city of high-rises, and had 1,875 buildings over 30 metres ( 98 foot ) as of 2011. [ 180 ] Through the 1960s and 1970s, significant pieces of Toronto ‘s architectural inheritance were demolished to make direction for renovation or parking. In contrast, since 2000, amid the Canadian property bubble, Toronto has experienced a time period of condominium construction boom and architectural revival, with several buildings by world-renowned architects having opened. Daniel Libeskind ‘s Royal Ontario Museum addition, Frank Gehry ‘s remake of the Art Gallery of Ontario, and Will Alsop ‘s classifiable OCAD University expansion are among the city ‘s newfangled showpieces. [ 181 ] The mid-1800s Distillery District, on the eastern border of business district, has been redeveloped into a pedestrian-oriented arts, polish and entertainment neighborhood. [ 182 ] This construction boom has some observers call the phenomenon the Manhattanization of Toronto .
Toronto horizon at twilight, from Toronto Harbour looking north, in 2018


In 2018, 27.5 million tourists visited Toronto, generating $ 10.3 billion in economic activity. [ 183 ] The Toronto Eaton Centre receives over 47 million visitors per year. [ 184 ] early commercial areas popular with tourists include the PATH network, which is the world ‘s largest [ 185 ] underground patronize complex, vitamin a well as Kensington Market and St. Lawrence Market. [ 186 ] The Toronto Islands are close to downtown Toronto, and do not permit secret centrifugal vehicles beyond the airport. early tourist attractions include the CN Tower, Casa Loma, Toronto ‘s theaters and musicals, Yonge-Dundas Square, and Ripley ‘s Aquarium of Canada. The Royal Ontario Museum is a museum of world polish and natural history. The Toronto Zoo [ 187 ] [ 188 ] is home to over 5,000 animals representing over 460 distinct species. The Art Gallery of Ontario contains a bombastic collection of Canadian, European, African and contemporary artwork, and besides plays server to exhibits from museums and galleries all over the world. The Gardiner Museum of ceramic art is the only museum in Canada wholly devoted to ceramics, and the Museum ‘s solicitation contains more than 2,900 ceramic works from Asia, the Americas, and Europe. The city besides hosts the Ontario Science Centre, the Bata Shoe Museum, and Textile Museum of Canada. other big artwork galleries and museums include the Design Exchange, the Museum of Inuit Art, the TIFF Bell Lightbox, the Museum of Contemporary Art Toronto Canada, the Institute for Contemporary Culture, the Toronto Sculpture Garden, the CBC Museum, the Redpath Sugar Museum, the University of Toronto Art Centre, Hart House, the TD Gallery of Inuit Art, Little Canada and the Aga Khan Museum. The city besides runs its own museums, which include the Spadina House .
The Don Valley Brick Works is a erstwhile industrial locate that opened in 1889 and was partially restored as a park and inheritance web site in 1996, with far restoration being completed in stages since then. The canadian National Exhibition ( “ The Ex ” ) is held per annum at Exhibition Place, and is the oldest annual fair in the universe. The Ex has an average attendance of 1.25 million. [ 189 ] City denounce areas include the Yorkville vicinity, Queen West, Harbourfront, the Entertainment District, the Financial District, and the St. Lawrence Market neighborhood. The Eaton Centre is Toronto ‘s most popular tourist attraction with over 52 million visitors per annum. [ 190 ] Greektown on the Danforth is home to the annual “ taste of the Danforth “ festival which attracts over one million people in 2+1⁄2 days. [ 191 ] Toronto is besides home to Casa Loma, the early estate of Sir Henry Pellatt, a outstanding Toronto financier, industrialist and military man. early celebrated neighbourhoods and attractions in Toronto include The Beaches, the Toronto Islands, Kensington Market, Fort York, and the Hockey Hall of Fame .

Public spaces

Toronto has a divers array of populace spaces, from city squares to public parks overlooking ravines. Nathan Phillips Square is the city ‘s chief hearty in downtown, contains the 3D Toronto sign, [ 192 ] and forms the capture to City Hall. Yonge–Dundas Square, near City Hall, has besides gained attention in holocene years as one of the busiest gathering spots in the city. other squares include Harbourfront Square, on the Toronto waterfront, and the civic squares at the early city halls of the defunct Metropolitan Toronto, most notably Mel Lastman Square in North York. The Toronto Public Space Committee is an advocacy group concerned with the city ‘s public spaces. In late years, Nathan Phillips Square has been refurbished with newfangled facilities, and the central waterfront along Queen ‘s Quay West has been updated recently with a modern street architecture and a raw straight next to Harbourfront Centre. In the winter, Nathan Phillips Square, Harbourfront Centre, and Mel Lastman Square feature popular rinks for populace ice-skating. Etobicoke ‘s Colonel Sam Smith Trail opened in 2011 and is Toronto ‘s first skating drag. Centennial Park and Earl Bales Park put up outdoor skiing and snowboarding slopes with a chairlift, rental facilities, and lessons. respective parks have marked cross-country ski trails. There are many big downtown parks, which include Allan Gardens, Christie Pits, Grange Park, Little Norway Park, Moss Park, Queen ‘s Park, Riverdale Park and Trinity Bellwoods Park. An about concealed park is the compact Cloud Gardens, [ 193 ] which has both open areas and a glassed-in greenhouse, near Queen and Yonge. South of business district are two large parks on the waterfront : Tommy Thompson Park on the Leslie Street Spit, which has a nature continue, is open on weekends ; and the Toronto Islands, accessible from downtown by ferry. boastfully parks in the out areas managed by the city include High Park, Humber Bay Park, Centennial Park, Downsview Park, Guild Park and Gardens, Sunnybrook Park and Morningside Park. [ 194 ] Toronto besides operates respective populace golf courses. Most ravine lands and river deposit floodplains in Toronto are public parklands. After Hurricane Hazel in 1954, construction of buildings on floodplains was outlawed, and secret lands were bought for conservation. In 1999, Downsview Park, a former military base in North York, initiated an international design contest to realize its vision of creating Canada ‘s first base urban park. The achiever, “ Tree City ”, was announced in May 2000. approximately 8,000 hectares ( 20,000 acres ), or 12.5 percentage of Toronto ‘s land basal is maintained park. [ 195 ] Morningside Park is the largest park managed by the city, which is 241.46 hectares ( 596.7 acres ) in size. [ 195 ] In accession to public parks managed by the municipal politics, parts of Rouge National Urban Park, the largest urban park in North America, is in the easterly assign of Toronto. Managed by Parks Canada, the national park is centred around the Rouge River and encompasses respective municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area. [ 196 ]


Toronto is represented in five major league sports, with teams in the National Hockey League ( NHL ), Major League Baseball ( MLB ), National Basketball Association ( NBA ), canadian Football League ( CFL ), and Major League Soccer ( MLS ). It was once represented in a sixth and seventh ; the USL W-League that announced on November 6, 2015, that it would cease operation ahead of 2016 season and the Canadian Women ‘s Hockey League ceased operations in May 2019. [ 197 ] [ 198 ] [ 199 ] The city ‘s major sports venues include the Scotiabank Arena ( once Air Canada Centre ), Rogers Centre ( once SkyDome ), Coca-Cola Coliseum ( once Ricoh Coliseum ), and BMO Field. Toronto is one of four north american cities ( aboard Chicago, Los Angeles, & Washington, D.C. ) to have won titles in its five major leagues ( MLB, NHL, NBA, MLS and either NFL or CFL ), and the merely one to have done so in the Canadian Football League .

professional sports

Toronto is family to the Toronto Maple Leafs, one of the NHL ‘s Original Six clubs, and has besides served as home to the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1958. The city had a fat history of frost ice hockey championships. Along with the Maple Leafs ‘ 13 Stanley Cup titles, the Toronto Marlboros and St. Michael ‘s College School -based Ontario Hockey League teams, combined, have won a record 12 Memorial Cup titles. The Toronto Marlies of the American Hockey League besides play in Toronto at Coca-Cola Coliseum and are the farm team for the Maple Leafs. The Toronto Six, the first canadian franchise in the National Women ‘s Hockey League, began play with the 2020–21 season. The city is home to the Toronto Blue Jays MLB baseball team. The team has won two World Series titles ( 1992, 1993 ). The Blue Jays play their home games at the Rogers Centre in the downtown effect. Toronto has a long history of minor-league professional baseball dating back to the 1800s, culminating in the Toronto Maple Leafs baseball team, whose owner first proposed an MLB team for Toronto. [ 200 ] The Toronto Raptors basketball team entered the NBA in 1995, and have since earned eleven playoff spots and five Atlantic Division titles in 24 seasons. They won their first NBA title in 2019. [ 201 ] The Raptors are the alone NBA team with their own television transmit, NBA TV Canada. They play their home games at Scotiabank Arena, which is shared with the Maple Leafs. In 2016, Toronto hosted the sixty-fifth NBA All-Star game, the beginning to be held outside the United States. [ 202 ] The city is represented in canadian football by the CFL ‘s Toronto Argonauts, which was founded in 1873. The club has won 17 Grey Cup Canadian championship titles. The clubhouse ‘s home games are played at BMO Field. Toronto is represented in soccer by the Toronto FC MLS team, who have won seven canadian Championship titles, arsenic well as the MLS Cup in 2017 and the Supporters ‘ Shield for best regular season record, besides in 2017. [ 203 ] They partake BMO Field with the Toronto Argonauts. Toronto has a high grade of participation in soccer across the city at several smaller stadiums and fields. Toronto FC had entered the league as an expansion team in 2007. [ 204 ] [ 205 ] The Toronto Rock is the city ‘s National Lacrosse League team. They won five National Lacrosse League Cup titles in seven years in the late 1990s and the first decade of the twenty-first hundred, appearing in an NLL-record five true championship games from 1999 to 2003, and are first all-time in the number of Champion ‘s Cups won. The Rock once shared the Scotiabank Arena with the Maple Leafs and the Raptors, however, the Toronto Rock moved to the nearby city of Hamilton while retaining its Toronto name. Toronto has hosted several National Football League ( NFL ) exhibition games at the Rogers Centre. Ted Rogers leased the Buffalo Bills from Ralph Wilson for the purposes of having the Bills play eight home games in the city between 2008 and 2013. The Toronto Wolfpack became Canada ‘s first professional rugby league team and the earth ‘s first transatlantic professional sports team when they began play in the Rugby Football League ‘s League One competition in 2017. [ 206 ] due to COVID-19 restrictions on international travel the team withdrew from the Super League in 2020 with its future uncertain. [ 207 ] The rugby club ‘s ownership changed in 2021, now ‘Team Wolfpack ‘ will play in the newly formed north american english Rugby League tournament. [ 208 ] Toronto is home to the Toronto Rush, a semi-professional ultimate team that competes in the american Ultimate Disc League ( AUDL ). [ 209 ] [ 210 ] Ultimate ( phonograph record ), in Canada, has its beginning roots in Toronto, with 3300 players competing per annum in the Toronto Ultimate Club ( League ). [ 211 ]

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Collegiate sports

The University of Toronto in downtown Toronto was where the first recorded college football game was held in November 1861. [ 212 ] many post-secondary institutions in Toronto are members of U Sports or the canadian Collegiate Athletic Association, the former for universities and the latter for colleges. Toronto was home to the International Bowl, an NCAA sanctioned post-season college football game that pitted a Mid-American Conference team against a Big East Conference team. From 2007 to 2010, the game was played at Rogers Centre annually in January .


Toronto, along with Montreal, hosts an annual tennis tournament called the Canadian Open ( not to be confused with the identically named golf tournament ) between the months of July and August. In odd-numbered years, the men ‘s tournament is held in Montreal, while the women ‘s tournament is held in Toronto, and vice versa in even-numbered years .
The city hosts the annual Honda Indy Toronto car raceway, separate of the IndyCar Series schedule, held on a street circuit at Exhibition Place. It was known previously as the Champ Car ‘s Molson Indy Toronto from 1986 to 2007. Both thoroughbred and standardbred horse racing events are conducted at Woodbine Racetrack in Rexdale. Toronto hosted the 2015 Pan american Games in July 2015, and the 2015 Parapan american english Games in August 2015. It beat the cities of Lima, Peru and Bogotá, Colombia, to win the rights to stage the games. [ 213 ] The games were the largest multi-sport consequence always to be held in Canada ( in terms of athletes competing ), double the size of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia. [ 214 ] Toronto was a campaigner city for the 1996 and 2008 Summer Olympics, which were awarded to Atlanta and Beijing respectively. [ 215 ] Toronto is among assorted cities in North America to host group phase games for the 2026 FIFA World Cup. historic sports clubs of Toronto include the Granite Club ( established in 1836 ), the Royal Canadian Yacht Club ( established in 1852 ), the Toronto Cricket Skating and Curling Club ( established before 1827 ), the Argonaut Rowing Club ( established in 1872 ), the Toronto Lawn Tennis Club ( established in 1881 ), and the Badminton and Racquet Club ( established in 1924 ) .


Toronto is a single-tier municipality governed by a mayor–council system. The structure of the municipal government is stipulated by the City of Toronto Act. The mayor of Toronto is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the head executive of the city. The Toronto City Council is a unicameral legislative torso, comprising 25 councillors, since the 2018 municipal election, representing geographic wards throughout the city. [ 31 ] The mayor and members of the city council serve four-year terms without terminus limits. ( Until the 2006 municipal election, the mayor and city councillors served three-year terms. ) As of 2016, the city council has twelve standing committees, each consist of a electric chair ( some have a vice-chair ), and a count of councillors. [ 216 ] The mayor names the committee chairs and the remaining members of the committees are appointed by city council. An executive committee is formed by the chairs of each of standing committee, along with the mayor, the deputy mayor and four other councillors. Councillors are besides appointed to oversee the Toronto Transit Commission and the Toronto Police Services Board. The city has four residential district councils that consider local matters. City council has delegated final decision-making authority on local, act matters, while others—like planning and zoning issues—are recommended to the city council. Each city council member serves as a penis of a community council. [ 216 ] There are about 40 subcommittees and advisory committees appointed by the city council. These bodies are made up of city councillors and secret citizen volunteers. Examples include the pedestrian Committee, Waste Diversion Task Force 2010, and the Task Force to Bring Back the Don. [ 217 ] The City of Toronto had an approved operate on budget of CA $ 13.53 billion in 2020 and a ten-year das kapital budget and plan of CA $ 43.5 billion. [ 218 ] The city ‘s revenues include subsidies from the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario ( for programs mandated by those governments ), 33 % from property tax, 6 % from the land transplant tax and the rest from other tax revenues and exploiter fees. [ 219 ] The city ‘s largest operate expenditures are the Toronto Transit Commission at CA $ 2.14 billion, [ 220 ] and the Toronto Police Service, CA $ 1.22 billion. [ 221 ]


The historically depleted crime rate in Toronto has resulted in the city having a reputation as one of the safest major cities in North America. [ 222 ] [ 223 ] [ 224 ] For case, in 2007, the homicide rate for Toronto was 3.3 per 100,000 people, compared with Atlanta ( 19.7 ), Boston ( 10.3 ), Los Angeles ( 10.0 ), New York City ( 6.3 ), Vancouver ( 3.1 ), and Montreal ( 2.6 ). Toronto ‘s robbery rate besides ranks depleted, with 207.1 robberies per 100,000 people, compared with Los Angeles ( 348.5 ), Vancouver ( 266.2 ), New York City ( 265.9 ), and Montreal ( 235.3 ). [ 225 ] [ 226 ] [ 227 ] [ 228 ] [ 229 ] [ 230 ] Toronto has a comparable pace of car larceny to respective U.S. cities, although it is not among the highest in Canada. [ 222 ] In 2005, Toronto media coined the term “ year of the Gun ”, because of a record number of gun-related homicides, 52, out of 80 homicides in sum. [ 224 ] [ 231 ] The full number of homicides dropped to 70 in 2006 ; that class, closely 2,000 people in Toronto were victims of a crimson gun-related crime, about one-fourth of the national total. [ 232 ] 84 homicides were committed in 2007, roughly half of which involve guns. Gang-related incidents have besides been on the originate ; between the years of 1997 and 2005, over 300 gang-related homicides have occurred. As a resultant role, the Ontario government developed an anti-gun scheme. [ 233 ] In 2011, Toronto ‘s murder rate plummeted to 51 murders—nearly a 26 % shed from the previous year. The 51 homicides were the lowest number the city has recorded since 1999 when there were 47. [ 234 ] While subsequent years did see a return to higher rates, it remained about flat pipeline of 57–59 homicides in from 2012 to 2015. 2016 went to 75 for the first gear clock in over 8 years. 2017 had a drop off of 10 murders to close the class at 65, with a homicide rate of 1.47 per 100,000 population. [ 235 ] [ 236 ] The total phone number of homicides in Toronto reached a record 96 in 2018 ; the number included fatalities from the Toronto avant-garde approach and the Danforth shoot. The commemorate year for per caput murders was previously 1991, with 3.9 murders per 100,000 people. [ 237 ] The 2018 homicide pace was higher than in Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton, Vancouver, Ottawa, Montreal, Hamilton, New York City, San Diego, and Austin. [ 238 ]



Toronto is home to twenty public hospitals, including The hospital for Sick Children, Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Michael ‘s Hospital, North York General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Western Hospital, Etobicoke General Hospital, St. Joseph ‘s Health Centre, Scarborough General Hospital, Birchmount Hospital, Centenary Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health ( CAMH ), and Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, many of which are affiliated with the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine. In 2007, Toronto was reported as having some of the longer average emergency room waiting times in Ontario. Toronto hospitals at the time employed a organization of triage to ensure dangerous injuries receive rapid treatment. [ 239 ] After initial screen, initial assessments by physicians were completed within the waiting rooms themselves for greater efficiency, within a median of 1.2 hours. Tests, consultations, and initial treatments were besides provided within waiting rooms. 50 % of patients waited 4 hours before being transferred from the emergency room to another room. [ 239 ] The least-urgent 10 % of cases wait over 12 hours. [ 239 ] The extended waiting-room times experienced by some patients were attributed to an overall deficit of acute caution beds. [ 239 ] Toronto ‘s Discovery District [ 240 ] is a center of research in biomedicine. It is on a 2.5-square-kilometre ( 620-acre ) research ballpark that is integrated into Toronto ‘s downtown core. It is besides family to the MaRS Discovery District, [ 241 ] which was created in 2000 to capitalize on the research and invention potency of the Province of Ontario. Another establish is the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine ( MCMM ). [ 242 ] specialize hospitals are besides outside of the downtown effect. These hospitals include the Baycrest Health Sciences geriatric hospital and the Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital for children with disabilities. Toronto is besides host to a wide variety of health-focused non-profit organizations that work to address specific illnesses for Toronto, Ontario and canadian residents. Organizations include Crohn ‘s and Colitis Canada, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the canadian Cancer Society, the Alzheimer Society of Canada, Alzheimer Society of Ontario and Alzheimer Society of Toronto, all located in the same office at Yonge–Eglinton, the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society of Canada, the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation, the Canadian Foundation for AIDS Research, Cystic Fibrosis Canada, the Canadian Mental Health Association, the ALS Society of Canada, and many others. These organizations work to help people within the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, or Canada who are affected by these illnesses. Toronto is besides home to the Geneva Centre for Autism. As well, most of these organizations engage in fundraising to promote inquiry, services, and public awareness .


Toronto is a central transportation system hub for road, rail and air networks in Southern Ontario. There are many forms of transmit in the city of Toronto, including highways and populace transit. Toronto besides has an extensive network of bicycle lanes and multi-use trails and paths .

public transportation

Toronto ‘s chief populace department of transportation system is operated by the Toronto Transit Commission ( TTC ). [ 70 ] The backbone of its public transportation net is the Toronto metro arrangement, which includes three heavy-rail rapid transportation system lines spanning the city, including the u-shaped Line 1 and east–west trace 2. Line 3 is a sparkle metro telephone line that entirely serves the city ‘s easterly district of Scarborough .
The TTC besides operates an extensive net of buses and streetcars, with the latter serving the downtown core, and buses providing service to many parts of the city not served by the sparse metro network. TTC buses and streetcars use the same fare system as the underpass, and many underpass stations offer a fare-paid area for transfers between rail and coat vehicles. There have been numerous plans to extend the metro and implement light-rail lines, but many efforts have been thwarted by budgetary concerns. Since July 2011, the only subway-related employment is the Line 1 extension north of Sheppard West station ( once named Downsview ) to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre in Vaughan, a suburb north of Toronto. By November 2011, construction on Line 5 Eglinton began. Line 5 is scheduled to finish construction by 2022. [ 243 ] [ 244 ] In 2015, the Ontario government promised to fund Line 6 Finch West which is to be completed by 2023. In 2019, the Government of Ontario released a transit plan for the Greater Toronto Area which includes a new 16-kilometres Ontario Line, [ 245 ] Line 1 extension to Richmond Hill Centre [ 246 ] and an annex for Line 5 Eglinton to Toronto Pearson Airport. [ 247 ] [ 248 ] Toronto ‘s century-old Union Station is besides getting a major renovation and upgrade which would be able to accommodate more vilify dealings from GO Transit, Via Rail, UP Express and Amtrak. [ 249 ] construction on a new Union Station Bus Terminal is besides in the works with an expect completion in 2020. [ 250 ] Toronto ‘s public theodolite network besides connects to early municipal networks such as York Region Transit, Viva, Durham Region Transit, and MiWay. The Government of Ontario operates a regional rail and bus theodolite system called GO Transit in the Greater Toronto Area. GO Transit carries over 250,000 passengers every weekday ( 2013 ) and 57 million annually, with a majority of them travelling to or from Union Station. [ 251 ] [ 252 ] Metrolinx is presently implementing Regional Express Rail into its GO Transit network and plans to electrify many of its rail lines by 2030. [ 253 ]


Canada ‘s busiest airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport ( IATA : YYZ ), straddles the city ‘s western boundary with the suburban city of Mississauga. The Union Pearson Express ( UP Express ) train service provides a send link between Pearson International and Union Station. It began carrying passengers in June 2015. Limited commercial and passenger service to nearby destinations in Canada and the USA is offered from the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport ( IATA : YTZ ) on the Toronto Islands, southwest of business district. Buttonville Municipal Airport ( IATA : YKZ ) in Markham provides general aviation facilities. Downsview Airport ( IATA : YZD ), near the city ‘s union end, is owned by de Havilland Canada and serves the Bombardier Aviation aircraft factory. Within a few hours ‘ drive, Hamilton ‘s John C. Munro International Airport ( IATA : YHM ) and Buffalo ‘s Buffalo Niagara International Airport ( IATA : BUF ) serve as alternate airports for the Toronto area in addition to serving their respective cities. A secondary international airport, to be located northeast of Toronto in Pickering, has been planned by the Government of Canada .

Intercity exile

Toronto Union Station serves as a hub for VIA Rail ‘s intercity services in Central Canada and includes services to assorted parts of Ontario, Corridor services to Montreal and national capital Ottawa, and long-distance services to Vancouver and New York City. The Toronto Coach Terminal in downtown Toronto besides serves as a hub for intercity bus services in Southern Ontario, served by multiple companies and providing a comprehensive network of services in Ontario and neighbor provinces and states. GO Transit provides intercity busbar services from the Union Station Bus Terminal and early bus terminals in the city to destinations within the greater Toronto area .


The power system of major city streets was laid out by a concession road organization, in which major arterial roads are 6,600 ft ( 2.0 kilometer ) apart ( with some exceptions, particularly in Scarborough and Etobicoke, as they used a different survey ). major east-west arterial roads are broadly parallel with the Lake Ontario shoreline, and major north–south arterial roads are roughly vertical to the shoreline, though slenderly slant north of Eglinton Avenue. This arrangement is sometimes broken by geographic accidents, most notably the Don River ravines. Toronto ‘s grid north is approximately 18.5° to the west of dependable north. many arterials, particularly north–south ones, due to the city in the first place being within the early York County, continue beyond the city into the 905 suburbs and further into the rural countryside. There are a count of municipal expressways and provincial highways that serve Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area. In detail, Highway 401 bisects the city from west to east, bypassing the business district core. It is the busiest road in North America, [ 254 ] and one of the busiest highways in the world. [ 255 ] [ 256 ] early provincial highways include Highway 400 which connects the city with Northern Ontario and beyond and Highway 404, an extension of the Don Valley Parkway into the northerly suburbs. The Queen Elizabeth Way ( QEW ), North America ‘s first divided intercity highway, terminates at Toronto ‘s western boundary and connects Toronto to Niagara Falls and Buffalo. The independent municipal expressways in Toronto include the Gardiner Expressway, the Don Valley Parkway, and to some extent, Allen Road. Toronto ‘s traffic congestion is one of the highest in North America, and is the second gear highest in Canada after Vancouver. [ 257 ]

Public library

Toronto Public Library is the largest public library system in Canada, and in 2008 had averaged a higher circulation per head than any early populace library system internationally, making it the largest neighbourhood-based library arrangement in the world. [ 258 ] Within North America, it besides had the highest circulation and visitors when compared to other large urban systems. [ 259 ] Established as the library of the Mechanics ‘ Institute in 1830, the Toronto Public Library now consists of 100 outgrowth libraries [ 260 ] and has over 12 million items in its collection. [ 259 ] [ 261 ] [ 262 ] [ 263 ]


There are four populace school boards that provide elementary and secondary education in Toronto, the Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir, the Conseil scolaire Viamonde ( CSV ), the Toronto Catholic District School Board ( TCDSB ), and the Toronto District School Board ( TDSB ). CSV and TDSB are secular populace school boards, whereas MonAvenir and TCDSB are separate populace school boards. CSV and MonAvenir are french first lyric school boards, whereas TCDSB and TDSB are English first linguistic process school boards. TDSB operates the most schools among the four Toronto-based school boards, with 451 elementary schools, 105 secondary schools, and five adult learn centres. [ 264 ] TCDSB operates 163 elementary schools, 29 secondary schools, three combined institutions, and one adult learning kernel. CSV operates 11 elementary schools, and three secondary coil schools in the city. [ 265 ] MonAvenir operates nine elementary schools, [ 266 ] and three secondary schools in Toronto. [ 267 ]
Five public universities are based in Toronto. Four of these universities are based in business district Toronto : OCAD, Toronto Metropolitan University, the Université de l’Ontario français, and the University of Toronto. The University of Toronto besides operates two satellite campuses, one of which is in the city ‘s eastern district of Scarborough, while the other is in the neighbor city of Mississauga. York University is the only Toronto-based university not situated in downtown Toronto, operating a campus in the northwestern helping of North York, and a secondary campus in midtown Toronto. The University of Guelph-Humber is besides based in northwestern Toronto, although it is not an independent public university able of issuing its own degrees. Guelph-Humber is jointly managed by the University of Guelph, based in Guelph, Ontario, and Humber College in Toronto. There are four diploma and degree granting colleges based in Toronto. These four colleges, Centennial College, George Brown College, Humber College, and Seneca College, function several campuses throughout the city. The city is besides home to a satellite campus of Collège Boréal, a french inaugural terminology college. The city is besides base to several auxiliary schools, seminaries, and vocational schools. Examples of such institutions include The Royal Conservatory of Music, which includes the Glenn Gould School ; the Canadian Film Centre, a media training institute founded by film maker Norman Jewison ; and Tyndale University, a christian post-secondary initiation and Canada ‘s largest seminary. The Toronto Public Library [ 268 ] consists of 100 [ 269 ] branches with more than 11 million items in its collection. [ 270 ]


Toronto is Canada ‘s largest media market, [ 271 ] and has four conventional dailies, two alt-weeklies, and three exempt commuter papers in a greater metropolitan area of about 6 million inhabitants. The Toronto Star and the Toronto Sun are the outstanding day by day city newspapers, while national dailies The Globe and Mail and the National Post are besides headquartered in the city. The Toronto Star, The Globe and Mail, and National Post are circular newspapers. StarMetro is distributed as free commuter newspapers. several magazines and local newspapers cover Toronto, including Now and Toronto Life, while numerous magazines are produced in Toronto, such as Canadian Business, Chatelaine, Flare and Maclean’s. Daily Hive, Western Canada ‘s largest online-only issue, opened their Toronto function in 2016. [ 272 ] Toronto contains the headquarter of the major English-language canadian television networks CBC, CTV, Citytv, Global, The Sports Network ( TSN ) and Sportsnet. much ( once MuchMusic ), M3 ( once MuchMore ) and MTV Canada are the main music television receiver channels based in the city, though they no longer chiefly show music video recording as a result of transmit drift .

sister cities

partnership cities

  • Chicago, Illinois, United States (1991)[273]
  • Chongqing, China (1986)[273]
  • Frankfurt, Germany (1989)[273]
  • Milan, Italy (2003)[273]

friendship cities

noteworthy people

See besides




further read

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