suburb of City of Parramatta, New South Wales, Australia
Parramatta ( ) is a suburb and major commercial centre [ 7 ] [ 8 ] in Greater Western Sydney, located in the submit of New South Wales, Australia. It is located approximately 24 kilometres ( 15 michigan ) west of the Sydney central business district on the banks of the Parramatta River. [ 2 ] Parramatta is the administrative seat of the local anesthetic politics area of the City of Parramatta and is often regarded as the main occupation zone of Greater Western Sydney. Parramatta besides has a retentive history as a second administrative center in the Sydney metropolitan region, playing host to a count of country politics departments [ 9 ] ampere well as state and federal courts. It is often colloquially referred to as “ Parra ”.
Reading: Parramatta – Wikipedia
Parramatta, founded as a british settlement in 1788, the same year as Sydney, is the oldest inland european settlement in Australia and is the economic concentrate of Greater Western Sydney. [ 10 ] Since 2000, government agencies such as the New South Wales Police Force and Sydney Water [ 11 ] have relocated to Parramatta from the centre of Sydney .
history [edit ]
native [edit ]
Radiocarbon dating suggests human bodily process occurred in Parramatta from around 30,000 years ago. [ 12 ] The Darug people who lived in the area before european liquidation regarded the area as rich in food from the river and forests. They named the area Baramada or Burramatta ( ‘Parramatta ‘ ) which means Eel ( “ Burra ” ) Place ( “ matta ” ). similar Darug words include Cabramatta ( Grub identify ) and Wianamatta ( Mother place ). [ 13 ] early references [ which? ] are derived from the words of Captain Watkin Tench, a white british man with a inadequate understanding of the Darug speech, and are faulty. [ citation needed ] To this day many eels and other ocean creatures are attracted to nutrients that are concentrated where the seawater of Port Jackson meets the fresh water of the Parramatta River. The Parramatta Eels Rugby League club chose their symbol as a result of this phenomenon . view of Parramatta in 1812 “Parramatta from May’s Hill” – Joseph Lycett (c1824) Joseph Lycett ( c1824 ) Parramatta in 1886
european [edit ]
Parramatta was founded in 1788, the lapp year as Sydney. As such, Parramatta is the moment oldest city in Australia, being alone 10 months younger than Sydney. The british Colonists, who had arrived in January 1788 on the First Fleet at Sydney Cove, had only adequate food to support themselves for a inadequate time and the dirt around Sydney Cove proved excessively inadequate to grow the sum of food that 1,000 convicts, soldiers and administrators needed to survive. During 1788, Governor Arthur Phillip had reconnoitred several places before choosing Parramatta as the most probably space for a successful large grow. [ 14 ] Parramatta was the furthest navigable compass point inland on the Parramatta River ( i.e. furthest from the sparse, flaxen coastal territory ) and besides the point at which the river became freshwater and consequently utilitarian for farming. On Sunday 2 November 1788, Governor Phillip took a separation of marines along with a surveyor and, in boats, made his way upriver to a localization that he called The Crescent, a defendable mound curved round a river bend, now in Parramatta Park. As a settlement developed, Governor Phillip gave it the name “ Rose Hill ” after british politician George Rose. [ 15 ] On 4 June 1791 Phillip changed the name of the township to Parramatta, approximating the condition used by the local Aboriginal people. [ 16 ] A neighbor suburb acquired the name “ Rose Hill ”, which today is spelt “ Rosehill “ .
The former Female Orphan School was one of the first schools in the area In an try to deal with the food crisis, Phillip in 1789 granted a convict named James Ruse the estate of Experiment Farm at Parramatta on the condition that he develop a viable department of agriculture. There, Ruse became the first european to successfully grow grain in Australia. The Parramatta area was besides the web site of the pioneer of the australian wool diligence by John Macarthur ‘s Elizabeth Farm in the 1790s. Philip Gidley King ‘s account of his visit to Parramatta on 9 April 1790 is one of the earliest descriptions of the area. Walking four miles with Governor Phillip to Prospect, he saw roll grassland interspersed with brilliant trees and a great number of kangaroos and emu. [ 17 ] The Battle of Parramatta, a major battle of the australian frontier wars, occurred in March 1797 where Eora drawing card Pemulwuy led a group of Bidjigal warriors, estimated to be at least 100, in an attack on the town of Parramatta. The local garrison withdrew to their barracks and Peulwuy held the town until he was finally shot and wounded. A year former, a government farm at Toongabbie was attacked by Pemulwuy, who challenged the New South Wales Corps to a fight. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] Governor Arthur Phillip built a small house for himself on the hill of The Crescent. In 1799 this was replaced by a larger mansion which, substantially improved by Governor Lachlan Macquarie from 1815 to 1818, has survived to the show day, making it the oldest survive Government House anywhere in Australia. It was used as a retreat by Governors until the 1850s, with one Governor ( Governor Brisbane ) making it his principal home for a short period in the 1820s. In 1803, another celebrated incident occurred in Parramatta, involving a convicted condemnable named Joseph Samuel, primitively from England. Samuel was convicted of murder and sentenced to death by hanging, but the rope broke. In the second base undertake, the noose slipped off his neck. In the third undertake, the raw rope broke. Governor King was summoned and pardoned Samuel, as the incident appeared to him to be divine intervention. [ 20 ] In 1814, Macquarie opened a school for Aboriginal children at Parramatta as part of a policy of improving relations between Aboriginal and european communities. This school was later relocated to “ Black Town ”. [ 21 ]
climate [edit ]
Parramatta has a humid subtropical climate ( Köppen climate classification : Cfa ) with balmy to cool, slightly short winters and warm to normally hot summers, aboard moderate rain spread throughout the year. Summer maximal temperatures are quite variable, frequently reaching above 35 °C ( 95 °F ), on average 13.1 days in the summer temper, and sometimes remaining in the depleted 20s, specially after a cold presence or a sea breeze, such as the southerly fellow. Northwesterlies can occasionally bring hot winds from the defect that can raise temperatures higher than 40 °C ( 104 °F ) largely from November to February, and sometimes above 44 °C ( 111 °F ) in January and early February during severe heatwaves. The record highest temperature ( since 1967 ) was 47.0 °C ( 116.6 °F ) on 4 January 2020. Parramatta is warmer than Sydney CBD in the summer due to the urban heat island effect and its inland localization. In extreme cases though, it can be 5–10 °C ( 9–18 °F ) warmer than Sydney, particularly when sea breezes do not penetrate inland on hot summer and spring days. For example, on 28 November 2009, the city reached 29.3 °C ( 84.7 °F ), [ 22 ] while Parramatta reached 39.0 °C ( 102.2 °F ), [ 23 ] about 10 °C ( 18 °F ) higher. Rainfall is slenderly higher during the first three months of the year because the anticlockwise-rotating subtropical high is to the south of the country, thereby allowing damp easterlies from the Tasman Sea to penetrate the city. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] The second base half of the year tends to be dry ( late winter/spring ) since the subtropical high is to the north of the city, frankincense permitting dry westerlies from the interior to dominate. [ 26 ] Drier winters are besides owed to its stead on the leeward side of the Great Dividing Range, which block westerly cold fronts ( that are more coarse in late winter ) and therefore would become fohn winds, whereby allowing decent amount of cheery days and relatively low haste in that period. [ 27 ] Thunderstorms are common in the months from early spring to early fall, occasionally quite austere thunderstorms can occur. Snow is virtually obscure, having been recorded only in 1836 and 1896 [ 28 ] Parrammatta gets 106.6 days of clear up skies per annum. Depending on the hoist direction, summer weather may be humid or dry, though the humidity is by and large in the comfortable range, with the late summer/autumn period having a higher modal humidity than belated winter/early spring .
|Climate data for Parramatta North (1991–2020 averages, 1967–present extremes)|
|Record high °C (°F)||47.0
|Average high °C (°F)||29.1
|Average low °C (°F)||17.9
|Record low °C (°F)||10.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||89.9
|Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1 millimeter )||8.6||9.0||9.9||7.0||6.3||7.9||6.0||4.8||5.7||7.0||8.7||8.3||89.2|
|Average afternoon relative humidity (%)||56||59||58||56||59||58||55||45||46||50||54||55||54|
|Average dew point °C (°F)||16.2
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||254.2||201.6||229.4||234.0||238.7||174.0||248.0||260.4||258.0||254.2||282.0||291.4||2,925.9|
|Source 1: Bureau of Meteorology|
|Source 2: Weather-Atlas (sunshine) |
commercial area [edit ]
Church Street Church Street is home to many shops and restaurants. The northern goal of Church Street, close up to Lennox Bridge, features al fresco dining with a diverse crop of cuisines. Immediately south of the CBD Church Street is known across Sydney as ‘Auto Alley ‘ for the many car dealerships lining both sides of the street vitamin a far as the M4 Motorway. [ 31 ]
Since 2000, Parramatta has seen the consolidation of its character as a government concentrate, with the resettlement of agencies such as the New South Wales Police Force Headquarters and the Sydney Water Corporation [ 11 ] from Sydney CBD. At the lapp clock, major construction work occurred around the railroad track station with the expansion of Westfield Shoppingtown and the creation of a new transport exchange. The westerly separate of the Parramatta CBD is known as the Parramatta Justice Precinct and houses the corporate headquarters of the New South Wales Department of Attorney General and Justice. other legal offices include the Children ‘s Court of New South Wales and the Sydney West Trial Courts, Legal Aid Commission of NSW, Office of Trustee and Guardian ( once the Office of the Protective Commissioner ), NSW Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, american samoa well as a branch of the Family Court. Nearby on Marsden Street is the Parramatta Courthouse and the Drug Court of New South Wales. The Garfield Barwick Commonwealth Law Courts Building ( named in honor of Sir Garfield Barwick ), houses courts of the Federal Magistrates Court and the Family Court of Australia. The naval special warfare Government has besides announced plans to secure up to 45,000m2 of new A-grade leased office space in Parramatta to relocate a foster 4,000 workers from the Sydney CBD. [ 32 ]
Eclipse Tower Parramatta Square ( previously known as Civic Place ) is a proposed civil precinct located in the affection of the city, adjacent to Parramatta Town Hall. The proposal includes a renovation of the Parramatta Civic Centre, a culture and arts center and a fresh plaza. The designs of the first two projects, a 65-storey residential skyscraper and an position construction were announced on 20 July 2012. [ 33 ] Parramatta Square will besides become home to 3,000 National Australia Bank employees to be relocated from the Sydney CBD by 2020. [ 34 ] Centenary Square, once known as Centenary Plaza, was created in 1975 when the then Parramatta City Council closed a section of the independent street to traffic to create a pedestrian plaza. It features an 1888 Centennial Memorial Fountain and adjoins the 1883 Parramatta Town Hall and St John ‘s Cathedral. [ 35 ] A hospital known as The Colonial Hospital was established in Parramatta in 1818. [ 36 ] This then became Parramatta District Hospital. Jeffery House was built in the 1940s. With the construction of the nearby Westmead Hospital building complex public hospital services in Parramatta were reduced but after renovation Jeffery House again provides clinical health services. Nearby, Brislington House has had a long history with health services. It is the oldest colonial build in Parramatta, dating to 1821. [ 37 ] It became a doctors residence before being incorporated into the Parramatta Hospital in 1949. Parramatta is a major clientele and commercial center, and home to Westfield Parramatta, the one-tenth largest denounce center in Australia. [ 38 ] Parramatta is besides the major enchant hub for western Sydney, servicing trains and buses, a good as having a ferry moor and future light rail and metro services. Major upgrades have occurred around Parramatta railroad track station with the creation of a new conveyance interchange, and the ongoing development of the Parramatta Square local politics precinct. [ 39 ]
Places of worship [edit ]
Church Street takes its name from St John ‘s Cathedral ( Anglican ), which was built in 1802 and is the oldest church in Parramatta. While the present build is not the beginning on the web site, the towers were built during the time of Governor Macquarie, and were based on those of the church service at Reculver, England, at the suggestion of his wife, Elizabeth. [ 40 ] The historic St John ‘s Cemetery is located nearby on O’Connell Street. [ 41 ]
congregational Church ( 1871 ) St Patrick ‘s Cathedral ( Roman Catholic ) is one of the oldest catholic churches in Australia. construction commenced in 1836, but it was n’t officially arrant until 1837. In 1854 a new church service was commissioned, although the tugboat was not completed until 1880, with the steeple following in 1883. [ 42 ] It was built on the web site to meet the needs of a growing congregation. It was destroyed by fire in 1996, with only the stone walls remaining. On 29 November 2003, the new St Patrick ‘s Cathedral was dedicated. [ 43 ] The historic St Patrick ‘s Cemetery is located in North Parramatta. The Uniting Church is represented by Leigh Memorial Church. [ 44 ] Parramatta Salvation Army is one of the oldest active salvation Army Corps in Australia. Parramatta is besides home to the Parramatta and Districts Synagogue, which services the Jewish community of western Sydney. [ 45 ] The greek Orthodox Parish and Community of St Ioannis ( St John The Frontrunner ) Greek Orthodox Church was established in Parramatta in May 1960 under the ecumenic jurisdiction of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia to serve the predominantly emigrating greek population of Greater Western Sydney. primitively, the liturgies were held in the hall of St John ‘s Ambulance Brigade in Harris Park until the completion of the church service in December 1966 located in Hassall Street Parramatta. The parish sold this property in 2014 and is now located at the corner of George and Purchase Streets. [ 46 ] The Parish Community of St Ioannis continues to serve over 5,000 greek parishioners. [ 47 ] A Buddhist temple is located in Cowper Street, Parramatta. [ 48 ] Parramatta ‘s Mosque is in an apartment build up on Marsden Street, Parrmatta. [ 49 ] The district is served by BAPS Swaminarayan Hindu synagogue located on Eleanor St, Rosehill, [ 50 ] and a Murugan Hindu synagogue in Mays Hill, off Great western Highway. [ 51 ]
Parks [edit ]
Parramatta Park is a big park adjacent to Western Sydney Stadium that is a democratic venue for walk, jogging and bicycle ride. It was once the Governor ‘s Domain, being land set aside for the Governor to supply his farming needs, until it was gazetted as a public park in 1858. [ 52 ] As the Governor ‘s Domain, the grounds were well larger than the current 85 hectare Parramatta Park, extending from Parramatta Road in the south as apparent by a small gatehouse adjacent to Parramatta High School. For a time Parramatta Park housed a menagerie [ 53 ] until 1951 when the animals were transferred to Taronga Zoo.
Parramatta is known as the ‘River City ‘ as the Parramatta River flows through the Parramatta CBD. [ 54 ] Its foreshore features a playground, induct, field day tables and pathways that are increasingly popular with residents, visitors and CBD workers. [ 55 ] prince Alfred Square is a priggish era park located within the CBD on the northern side of the Parramatta River. It is one of the oldest public parks in New South Wales with trees dating from circa 1869. Prior to being a public parking lot, it was the locate of Parramatta ‘s second imprison from 1804 until 1841 and the first female factory in Australia between 1804 and 1821 .
transportation [edit ]
In contrast to the high flat of cable car colony throughout Sydney, a greater proportion of Parramatta ‘s workers travelled to work on public transportation ( 45.2 % ) than by cable car ( 36.2 % ) in 2016. [ 56 ]
Trains [edit ]
Parramatta railroad track station is a major ecstasy counterchange on the Sydney rail network. It is served by Sydney Trains ‘ Cumberland Line, Inner West & Leppington Line and North Shore & Western Line. [ 57 ] NSW TrainLink operate intercity services on the Blue Mountains Line equally well as services to rural New South Wales. The post was in the first place opened in 1855, located in what is immediately Granville, and known as Parramatta Junction. The post was moved to its stream location and opened on 4 July 1860, five years after the first base railroad track line in Sydney was opened, running from Sydney to Parramatta Junction. [ 58 ] The current station was upgraded, with work beginning in late 2003 and the new interchange open on 19 February 2006. [ 59 ] The original place still exists within the over-all structure as part of Platform 4 .
bus [edit ]
Parramatta is besides serviced by a major bus exchange located on the south easterly side of the railway place. The exchange is served by buses utilising the North West T-Way to Rouse Hill and the Liverpool-Parramatta T-Way to Liverpool. Parramatta is besides serviced by two high-frequency Metrobus services :
- M91 – Parramatta to Hurstville via Granville, Bankstown and Peakhurst (Transdev NSW)
- M92 – Parramatta to Sutherland via Lidcombe, Bankstown and Padstow (Transdev NSW)
A free bus Route 900 is operated by Transdev NSW in concurrence with the state politics. Route 900 circles Parramatta CBD. [ 60 ] A exempt bus besides links Parramatta Stadium to Parramatta railroad track station during major sporting events .
Charles Street Ferry Wharf
ferry [edit ]
The Parramatta ferry wharf is at the Charles Street Weir, which divides the tidal seawater from the fresh water of the upper river, on the eastern boundary of the Central Business District. The wharf is the westernmost destination of Sydney Ferries ‘ Parramatta River ferry services. [ 61 ]
Light rail [edit ]
The Parramatta Light Rail project was announced in 2015. Lines originating from Carlingford and Olympic Park via Wentworth Point will form a combined road at Rydalmere or Camellia and pass through Parramatta before terminating at Westmead. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] The tune will open in 2023 .
Metro [edit ]
Sydney Metro West is a plan metro line between the Sydney cardinal business zone and Westmead. The line was announced in 2016 and would include a station at Parramatta. [ 64 ]
road [edit ]
Parramatta Road has constantly been an important thoroughfare for Sydney from its earliest days. From Parramatta the major western road for the state of matter is the great western Highway. The M4 Western Motorway, running parallel to the Great Western Highway has taken much of the traffic aside from these roads, with capture and exit ramps close to Parramatta. James Ruse Drive serves as a partial ring-road circling around the eastern part of Parramatta to join with the Cumberland Highway to the north west of the city. The main north-south route through Parramatta is Church Street. To the union it becomes Windsor Road, and to the south it becomes Woodville Road .
Demographics [edit ]
According to the 2016 census conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the suburb of Parramatta had a population of 25,798. Of these : [ 1 ]
- Ethnic diversity
- The most common country of birth in Parramatta is India representing 29.8% of the population, outnumbering Australian born residents at 24.3%. The next most common are China 12.0%, the Philippines 2.2%, South Korea 1.5% and Nepal 1.5%. However, only 6.5% identify their ancestry as Australian; the other common self-identified ancestries were Indian 26.9%, Chinese 16.3%, English 7.7% and Filipino 2.4%. About one quarter (23.5%) of people spoke English at home; other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 11.8%, Hindi 9.8%, Cantonese 4.5%, Tamil 4.4%, Gujarati 4.1% and Arabic 4.1%.
- This question is optional in the Census. Of the people who answered it, the most common response was Hinduism 28.5%; the next most common responses were “No Religion” 21.4%, Catholic 12.7%, Unstated 11.5% and Islam 6.2%.
- Age distribution
- Parramatta has an over-representation of young adults when compared to the country as a whole. Parramatta residents’ median age was 31 years, compared to the national median of 37. Children aged under 15 years made up 16.2% of the population (national average is 19.3%) and people aged 65 years and over made up 6.8% of the population (national average is 14.0%).
- The average weekly household income was $1,739, compared to the national average of $1,234.
- The majority of dwellings in Parramatta (81.6%) were flats, units or apartments; 10.2% were separate houses, and 6.7% were semi-detached (mostly townhouses). The average household size was 2.6 people.
celebrated residents [edit ]
education [edit ]
Parramatta is home to several basal and secondary schools. Arthur Phillip High School is the oldest public school in the zone ( it is in buildings which have been endlessly used as a educate since 1875 ), established in 1960 in its own properly. Parramatta High School was the first co-ed school in the Sydney metropolitan sphere established in 1913. Our dame of Mercy College is one of the oldest catholic schools in Australia. Macarthur Girls High School is successor to an earlier school ‘Parramatta Commercial and Household Arts School ‘. Others schools include Parramatta Public School, Parramatta East Public School, Parramatta West Public School, and St Patrick ‘s Primary Parramatta .
several third education facilities are besides located within Parramatta. A University of New England study centre and two western Sydney University campuses are situated in the suburb. The western Sydney University Parramatta Campus consists of four sites : Parramatta South ( the main site ), Parramatta North ( including the adjacent UWS Village, the Parramatta City campus located at 100 George Street and the Flagship Parramatta City Campus located at One Parramatta Square. Parramatta South campus occupies the locate of the historic Female Orphan School. [ 66 ] Alphacrucis College is a national vocational and higher education college is besides located in the suburb. The University of Sydney has besides announced that it intends to establish a raw campus in Parramatta. [ 67 ]
Media [edit ]
The Parramatta Advertiser is the local newspaper serving Parramatta and surrounding suburbs. On 16 March 2020, the australian Broadcasting Corporation opened a fresh western Sydney newsroom in Horwood Place at Parramatta incorporating space for 12 staff and news production equipment with the capacity to broadcast live radio receiver programs. [ 68 ] According to the ABC, the first step formed separate of its strategic goal to improve its presence in out metropolitan areas. [ 68 ] Additionally, the ABC announced on 16 June 2021 its purpose to relocate approximately 300 employees to Parramatta, which is separate of a five-year plan which aims to have 75 % of its content makers based aside from the network ‘s Ultimo headquarter by 2025. [ 69 ] [ 70 ]
acculturation and mutant [edit ]
diverse events are held on the Parramatta River As the center of the City of Parramatta, ampere well as the center and second largest clientele zone of Sydney, Parramatta hosts many festivals and events. [ 71 ] Riverside Theatres is a performing arts center located on the northern bank of Parramatta River. The city hosts the pursue events :
- January – Sydney Festival and Australia Day
- February – Lunar New Year and Tropfest
- April – Anzac Day
- July – Winterlight and Burramatta Day (Naidoc)
- October – Parramasala and Parramatta Lanes
- November – Loy Krathong, Christmas in Parramatta and Foundation Day
- December – New Year’s Eve
Parramatta Park contains Old Government House and therefore Parramatta was once the capital of the colony of New South Wales until Governors returned to residing in Sydney in 1846. [ 75 ] Another have is the natural amphitheater located on one of the bends of the river, named by Governor Philip as “ the Crescent ”, which is used to stage concerts. It is home to the Dairy Cottage, built from 1798 to 1805, primitively a single-room bungalow and is one of the earliest survive cottages in Australia. The remains of Governor Brisbane ‘s private astronomic observatory, constructed in 1822, are visible. Astronomers who worked at the observatory, discovering thousands of newfangled stars and deep sky objects, include James Dunlop and Carl Rümker. In 1822, the architect S. L. Harris designed the Bath House for Governor Brisbane and built it in 1823. Water was pumped to the construct through conduct pipes from the river. In 1886, it was converted into a pavilion. [ 76 ]
cultural events [edit ]
- The Rosehill Race Course holds various race meets throughout the year, including: Derby Day, Golden Rose Day, and Rosehill Gardens Race Day.
- The Parramatta Farmers Markets occurs every Friday, and has local produce.
Sporting teams [edit ]
Parramatta is the home of several professional sports teams. These teams include the Parramatta Eels of the National Rugby League and Western Sydney Wanderers of the A-League. Both teams once played matches at Parramatta Stadium that has since been demolished, and replaced with the 30,000-seat Western Sydney Stadium. [ 78 ] Parramatta Stadium was besides home to the nowadays dissolved Sydney Wave of the early Australian Baseball League and Parramatta Power of the early National Soccer League. The newly built Bankwest stadium opened its gates for the community on 14 April 2019 with loose entrance for all fans. Located on O ’ Connell Street, the stadium is in proximity of the Parramatta CBD. The possibility sporting consequence was the 2019 Round 6 NRL clash between western Sydney rivals the Parramatta Eels and Wests Tigers on Easter Monday 22 April. The Eels won the match by a score of 51-6. It is being predicted that the fresh stadium will boost western Sydney economy by contributing millions of dollars to it. [ 79 ]
Events [edit ]
Duran Duran films “ Union of the Snake ” video recording with Russell Mulcahy, in Parramatta -using 35mm film .
inheritance listings [edit ]
Parramatta has a count of heritage-listed sites, including :
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
Dictionary of Sydney entries [edit ]
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