University of Michigan – Wikipedia

Public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
This article is about the main campus located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. For other uses, see University of Michigan ( disambiguation )
The University of Michigan ( U-M, UMich, or Michigan ) is a public inquiry university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Founded in 1817 by an act of the honest-to-god Michigan Territory, as the Catholepistemiad, or the University of Michigania, 20 years before the district became a country, the university is Michigan ‘s oldest. The initiation was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres ( 16 hour angle ) of what is immediately known as Central Campus, a U.S. historic district. The university has been governed by an elected board of regents independently of the department of state since 1850, when the state ‘s second constitution was officially adopted. [ 11 ]

The university consists of nineteen colleges and offers degree programs at undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral levels in some 250 disciplines. Michigan has nine master schools : the Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Ross School of Business, Medical School, Law School, Ford School of Public Policy, College of Pharmacy, School of Social Work, School of Public Health, and School of Dentistry. It affiliates with two regional universities located in Flint and Dearborn ( each individually accredited universities ) and operates a center located in Detroit. Michigan is home to the area ‘s oldest endlessly existing legal organization, oldest international professional dental brotherhood, oldest endlessly running university hospital and longest-standing testing ground for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences. Michigan has been a co-ed initiation since 1871. The university ‘s registration is approximately 32,000 undergraduate students and 16,000 calibrate students. [ 7 ] Undergraduate admission to the university is categorized as “ most selective. ” [ 12 ] closely one-half of the students are from out of department of state. International students from some 130 countries account for 15 percentage of the integral student body. [ 7 ] Michigan is one of the earliest american research universities and a establish member of the Association of American Universities. As a major research center, it ranked 2nd among american universities in research expenditures and produces a boastfully symmetry of the country ‘s publications and citations. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] It has been systematically ranked among the top universities in the United States by college and university rankings. [ 15 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] In external comparison, the university occupies top positions in rankings and enjoys a spot academic reputation. [ 18 ] As of October 2019, 26 Nobel Prize laureates, six Turing Award laureates and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university. It is besides a leading producer of Fulbright Scholars and MacArthur Fellows. [ 19 ] The university ‘s notice alumni include eight domestic and alien heads of express or heads of government ; 47 U.S. senators ; 218 members of the U.S. House of Representatives ; 42 U.S. Cabinet Secretaries ; 41 U.S. governors ; and 26 living billionaires. [ 20 ] As of 2022, Wolverine athletes have won 188 medals at the Olympic Games. [ 21 ] Michigan produced 921 venture capital -backed company founders as alumni or current students from 2006 to 2021, and these founders had raised a full of $ 26.7B, ranked 7th globally among universities overall. [ 22 ]

history [edit ]

The University of Michigan was founded on the 26 of August, 1817, [ 1 ] as the Catholepistemiad, or the Catholcpistemiad Michigania, under an act of the Territory of Michigan. The bodied universe of the university had its ascent in the Act of 1817, and has been continuous throughout all subsequent changes of its organic law. [ 23 ] : 11 The seven-syllable Catholepistemiad was a mish-mash of Latin and Ancient Greek, translates to roughly “ School of Universal Knowledge. ” [ 24 ] Established in 1817, the Catholepistemiad was not a university in the contemporary sense but preferably a centralize system of schools, libraries, and other cultural institutions borrowing its model from the Imperial University of France founded by Napoleon I a ten earlier. [ 25 ] [ 23 ] : 10 Besides carrying on the central mental hospital, the President and Didactoriim of the Catholepistemiad were besides authorized to establish private colleges, academies, libraries, and so forth, throughout the Territory of Michigan. [ 23 ] : 10 It was only after the State of Michigan entered the Union in 1837 that a new plan was adopted to focus the corporation on higher education. [ 25 ] The charter of the Catholepistemiad is an extraordinary example of the score french charm upon American institutions which found its origin during the course of the Revolutionary War, and continued until it began to give manner to german charm in the third base or fourth decade of the nineteenth hundred. [ 23 ] : 10 shortly after the passing of the Act of 1817, Rev. John Monteith became the first president of the united states of the Catholepistemiad, and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, was frailty president of the united states. Monteith and Richard enacted that private schools should be established in Detroit, Monroe and Mackinaw, and before the goal of September, 1817, the three secret schools were in operation. [ 23 ] : 11 The cornerstone of the first school house, near the corner of Bates Street and Congress Street in Detroit, was laid on September 24, 1817. Subscriptions amounting to $ 5,000 collectible in instalments running over several years were obtained to carry on the work. [ 23 ] : 12 Of the full measure subscribed to start the work two-thirds came from Zion Masonic Lodge and its members. [ 26 ] In August 1818, a secret Lancasterian school teach by Lemuel Shattuck was opened in the building. These schools ‘ tuition rates ranged from $ 1.00 to $ 3.50 per one quarter of a year. [ 23 ] : 12 On April 30, 1821, the Territory of Michigan passed a new work changing materially the appearance, and slightly the nature of the existing educational organization. [ 23 ] : 13 A board of trustees was appointed to oversee the pot ; the positions of president of the united states and frailty president of the united states were eliminated, and Monteith and Richard were appointed to the board. [ 1 ] The University of Michigan took the invest of the Catholcpistemiad Michigania as the legal list of the pot .
After the State of Michigan entered the Union in 1837, the newly state ‘s early fundamental law granted the university an unusual degree of autonomy as a “ organize branch of country politics ”. It delegated full powers over all university matters granted to its governing Board of Regents. [ 25 ] On June 3–5, the Board of Regents held its first meet in Ann Arbor and formally accepted the proposal by the township to locate the university there. [ 1 ] The town of Ann Arbor had existed for only 13 years and had a population of about 2,000. [ 27 ] The master 40 acres ( 16 hour angle ) was the footing of the confront Central Campus. [ 28 ] This land was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. [ 29 ] Since the establish time period, the individual sector has remained the primary supplier of university finance to supplement tutelage collected from students. early benefactors of the university included businessman Dexter M. Ferry ( donor of Ferry Field ), Arthur Hill ( regent, donor of Hill Auditorium ), the Nichols family ( regents, donors of the Nichols Arboretum ), William E. Upjohn ( donor of the Peony Garden ), William P. Trowbridge, John S. Newberry, who funded the construction of Helen H. Newberry Residence, and Henry N. Walker, a politician who led a group of outstanding Detroit businessmen to fund the Detroit Observatory. Clara Harrison Stranahan, a close friend of Scottish-American industrialist Andrew Carnegie, donated $ 25,000 to the university in 1895 as a memorial of her don, Seth Harrison. The Waterman Gymnasium was financed by donations from affluent citizens and matched Joshua W. Waterman ‘s pledge of $ 20,000. When opened, the entire cost of the build was $ 61,876.49, to which private donors contributed $ 49,524.34. [ 23 ] : 67
In 1838, the Regents contracted with Alexander Jackson Davis, who according to Superintendent John Davis Pierce provided sincerely “ brilliant designs ” in the Gothic Revival expressive style ; but unfortunately the completion of them at that sidereal day would, as Pierce said, involve an outgo of half a million dollars. [ 23 ] : 31 Although approving the designs, the nasty budget of the newcomer university forced the Regents to ultimately abandon them and rather adopted a a lot less expensive design. [ 30 ] The superintendent of construction on the first structure to be built for the university was Isaac Thompson, an associate of Davis. [ 31 ] Asa Gray was the first professor appointed to Michigan on July 17, 1837. [ 32 ] His position was besides the first one devoted entirely to botany at any educational institution in America. The first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. football team students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. [ 36 ]
The years 1837-1850 disclosed unplayful weakness in the administration and working of the university. Regents of the university discovered that the constituent act from which they derived their powers, made them excessively pendent upon the legislature. The subject was brought to the care of the legislature more than once but without securing the desire action in order to achieve increased independence. By the former 1840s, the Regents achieved a hard position relative to collective bargain with the legislature as the public opinion was becoming coarse among capitalists, clergymen and intellectual elites, since by then the state derived significant tax tax income through them. Such a situation ultimately led to a exchange in the organic act of the university. Remodelled, the dissemble, which was approved April 8, 1851, emancipated the university from legislative restraint that would have been injudicious and harmful. The office of Regent was changed from an appointed one to an elected one, and the agency of President was created, with the Regents directed to select one. As Hinsdale argued, “ the freelancer position of the university has had a lot to do with its growth and prosperity. In fact, its larger increase may be dated from the time when the fresh sections began to take effect. ” [ 23 ] : 40 Michigan was the first university in the West to pursue master education, establishing its medical school in 1850, engineering courses in 1854, and a law school in 1859. [ 25 ] The university was among the beginning to introduce instruction in fields adenine divers as zoology and vegetation, modern languages, modern history, American literature, drugstore, dentistry, speech, journalism, teacher education, forestry, bacteriology, naval architecture, aeronautical engineering, computer engineering, and nuclear engineer. [ 25 ] In 1856, Michigan built the nation ‘s first chemical testing ground. [ 38 ] That lab was the first gear structure on the union american continent that was designed and equipped entirely for education in chemistry. [ 38 ] In 1869 Michigan opened the first university hospital in the state. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university ‘s president from 1871 to 1909, expanded the course of study to include professional studies in dentistry, architecture, engineer, government, and music. The University of Michigan conferred the degree of Bachelor of Science in 1855, four years after the Lawrence Scientific School at Cambridge conferred the degree in 1851, for the first time in the United States, making Michigan the second institution in the state to confer the academic degree. [ 23 ] : 48 The degree of Bachelor of Philosophy was conferred for the beginning prison term in the university ‘s history upon six students in 1870. [ 23 ] : 79 The degrees of Master of Philosophy and Doctor of Philosophy was first offered in 1875. [ 23 ] : 88 Methods of teaching had besides undergo crucial changes. The seminar method of study was first introduced into the university by Charles Kendall Adams in 1871-1872, making the university the beginning american institution to naturalize this product of the german territory. [ 39 ] [ 23 ] : 71 By 1866, registration had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, [ 40 ] although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first charwoman to attend classes ( without matriculating ) in 1866–7. [ 41 ] Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States. He returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicate and besides served in high-level posts in the government. [ 42 ] [ citation needed ] Michigan was involved with the building of the philippine education, legal, and public health systems during the earned run average of the american english colonization of the Philippines through the efforts of Michigan alumni that included Dean Conant Worcester and George A. Malcolm. [ 43 ] Throughout its history, Michigan has been one of the state ‘s largest universities, vying with the largest secret universities such as Harvard University in Cambridge and Columbia University ( then known as Columbia College ) in New York during the 19th and early twentieth centuries, and then holding this situation of national leadership until the emergence of the statewide populace university systems in the post-WWII years. [ 25 ] By the twist of the hundred, the university was the second largest in the United States after Harvard University. [ 44 ] Michigan is sometimes referred to as the “ Harvard of the West ” ( though separated by over 600 miles, Michigan is located precisely west of Harvard, at 42.3 degrees union ). There are several versions regarding the origin of the doctrine of analogy. placid, it is wide believed that the doctrine of analogy was initially circulated among the Bostonians, as the easterly people were called, in the Midwest. Descendants of Massachusetts founding families made up a big parcel of the university population in the nineteenth century ; among them was Regent Charles Hebard, a lineal descendant of William Bradford, a founding father of Plymouth Colony. [ 23 ] : 204 It was in the first half of the twentieth hundred that the analogy gained increase exposure nationally with the emanation of the broadcasting industry. The theme became normally parodied in reversion after Harvard alumnus John F. Kennedy referred to himself as “ a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University ” in the 1960 presidential campaign. [ 45 ]
From 1900 to 1920, the growth of higher education led the university to build numerous fresh facilities. The Martha Cook Building was constructed as an all-female residency in 1915 as the leave of a endow from William Wilson Cook in respect of his mother, Martha Walford Cook. [ 46 ] Cook planned to endow a professorship of law of corporations, but finally made possible the development of the Law Quadrangle. [ 47 ] The five buildings comprising the Law Quadrangle were constructed during the decade of 1923–33 on two city blocks purchased by the university : Lawyers Club, Dormitory Wing, John P. Cook Dormitory, William W Cook Legal Research Library, and Hutchins Hall. [ 47 ] The buildings, in the Tudor Gothic style, recalled the quadrangles of the two english ancient universities Oxford and Cambridge. [ 47 ]
West Engineering Building, 1905 In 1920, the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic inquiry initiatives. curtly after the war, in August 1946, Rensis Likert and his team formed the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan. This became the Institute for Social Research ( ISR ) in 1949 when Dorwin Cartwright moved the Group Dynamics Research Center, the first institute devoted explicitly to group dynamics, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to the University of Michigan. In 1947, the Regents appointed a War Memorial Committee to consider establishing a war memorial in respect of students and alumni who fell in World War II, and in 1948, approved a settlement to “ create a war memorial center to explore the ways and means by which the potentialities of nuclear energy may become a beneficent influence in the life of man, to be known as the Phoenix Project of the University of Michigan, ” leading to the world ‘s foremost academic course of study in nuclear skill and mastermind. [ 48 ] [ 25 ] The Memorial Phoenix Project was funded by over 25,000 private contributors by individuals and corporations, such as the Ford Motor Company. [ 49 ] The University of Michigan has been the locate of some authoritative academician movements, establishing the Michigan schools of think and developing the Michigan Models in respective fields. several signalize philosophers, John Dewey, Charles Horton Cooley, George Herbert Mead, and Robert Ezra Park, foremost met at Michigan. There, they would influence each early greatly. [ 50 ] In sociology, Angus Campbell co-authored the germinal bible The American Voter, in 1960, aboard Philip Converse, Warren Miller and Donald Stokes, which provided the basis for the Michigan school of intend in american political demeanor. One of the book ‘s elementary contributions was the introduction of the social-psychological concept of partisan identity and investigations into its effects on political behavior. This theory became known as the Michigan model of vote. [ 51 ] In occupation presidency, Michigan Business School developed the Michigan model of HRM in 1984 ; it is one of the two vying approaches to human resource management. In contrast to the Harvard model, the Michigan model is considered an example of hard HRM, while the Harvard mannequin is viewed as an exercise of delicate HRM. The Michigan mannequin of leadership, developed by Robert E. Quinn, Kim Cameron, and other Michigan staff, is now one of the most important management frameworks. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration. On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation ‘s first-ever faculty-led “ teach-in “ to protest against american policy in Southeast Asia. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] [ 54 ] In reply to a series of sit-ins in 1966 by Voice, the campus political party of Students for a democratic Society, U-M ‘s administration banned sit-ins. In reaction, 1,500 students participated in a one-hour sit-in inside the Administration Building, now known as the LSA Building. In April 1968, following the character assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., a group of respective twelve bootleg students occupied the Administration Building to demand that the university make public its three-year-old commitment as a federal contractor to affirmative carry through and to increase its efforts with deference to recruiting more african american students, faculty and staff. At that time there were no african american coaches, for case, in the Intercollegiate Athletics Department. The university ‘s Spectrum Center is the oldest collegiate LGBT scholar focus on in the U.S, pre-dating Penn ‘s. [ 55 ] due to concerns over the university ‘s fiscal site there have been suggestions for the accomplished interval of the university and state of matter through denationalization. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] even though the university is a public institution de jure, it has embraced fund models of a individual university that emphasize tuition support and raising funds from private donors. [ 58 ] Considering that “ the University of Michigan already has only minimal fiscal ties to the state, ” the legislature convened a panel in 2008 that recommended converting the University of Michigan from a public to a private institution. [ 59 ]
The University of Michigan was the first undertake in the New World to build a modern university in the european feel. The institution was the clearest and strongest display that had however been made of what, in this nation, at once came to be called the “ prussian ideas. ” It was a radically different approach path to higher education ; a complete civil system of education, in contradistinction to the ecclesiastical arrangement made out of the colonial colleges. Michigan alumni and staff members carried this newer concept of the university with them as they founded other institutions. Most notably, Andrew Dixon White and Charles Kendall Adams at Cornell University. [ 25 ] Cornell alumni David Starr Jordan and John Casper Branner passed the concept to Stanford University in the recently nineteenth century. Michigan besides has many historical links to other american universities through its graduates .

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campus [edit ]

The Ann Arbor campus is divided into four main areas : the North, Central, Medical, and South campuses. The physical infrastructure includes more than 500 major buildings, [ 67 ] with a compound area of more than 37.48 million square feet ( 860 acres ; 3.482 km2 ). [ 68 ] The Central and South Campus areas are conterminous, while the North Campus area is separated from them, chiefly by the Huron River. [ 69 ] There is besides leased space in buildings scattered throughout the city, many occupied by organizations affiliated with the University of Michigan Health System. An East Medical Campus was developed on Plymouth Road, with several university-owned buildings for outpatient worry, diagnostics, and outpatient operating room. [ 70 ] In addition to the U-M Golf Course on South Campus, the university operates a moment golf class on Geddes Road called Radrick Farms Golf Course. The golf course is only open to faculty, staff and alumnus. [ 71 ] Another off-campus adeptness is the Inglis House, which the university has owned since the 1950s. The Inglis House is a 10,000-square-foot ( 930 m2 ) mansion used to hold versatile social events, including meetings of the Board of Regents, and to host chew the fat dignitaries. [ 72 ] The university besides operates a big position build up called Wolverine Tower in southern Ann Arbor near Briarwood Mall. Another major adeptness is the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, which is located on the eastern outskirts of Ann Arbor. [ 73 ] All four campus areas are connected by bus topology services, the majority of which connect the North and Central campuses. There is a shuttlecock service connecting the University Hospital, which lies between North and Central campuses, with early medical facilities throughout northeastern Ann Arbor. [ 74 ] The 2021 state budget boosted University of Michigan fund by 5 % across all 3 campuses. [ 75 ] The university has besides seen increases in their sustainability efforts through climate, energy, food systems, water, and construction. [ 76 ]

central Campus [edit ]

United States historic seat
central Campus was the original placement of U-M when it moved to Ann Arbor in 1837. It originally had a school and dormitory build ( where Mason Hall nowadays stands ) and several houses for professors on 40 acres ( 16 hour angle ) of land bounded by North University Avenue, South University Avenue, East University Avenue, and State Street. The President ‘s House, located on South University Avenue, is the oldest build on campus angstrom well as the only surviving construction from the original 40-acre ( 16 hour angle ) campus. [ 28 ] Because Ann Arbor and Central Campus developed simultaneously, there is no distinct boundary between the city and university, and some areas contain a mix of private and university buildings. [ 78 ] Residence halls located on Central Campus are split up into two groups : the Hill Neighborhood and Central Campus. [ 79 ] central Campus is the location of the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, and is immediately adjacent to the medical campus. Most of the calibrate and professional schools, including the Ross School of Business, the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, the Law School and the School of Dentistry, are on Central Campus. Two big libraries, the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library and the Shapiro Undergraduate Library ( which are connected by a skywalk ), are besides on Central Campus. [ 80 ] adenine well as museums caparison collections in archeology, anthropology, paleontology, zoology, dentistry and art. Ten of the buildings on cardinal Campus were designed by Detroit-based architect Albert Kahn between 1904 and 1936. The most luminary of the Kahn-designed buildings are the Burton Memorial Tower and nearby Hill Auditorium. [ 81 ]

North Campus [edit ]

Earl V. Moore Building on North Campus North Campus is the most contiguous campus, built independently from the city on a large plot of farmland—approximately 800 acres ( 3.2 km2 ) —that the university bought in 1952. [ 82 ] It is newer than Central Campus, and thus has more modernist architecture, whereas most cardinal Campus buildings are authoritative or Collegiate Gothic in style. The architect Eero Saarinen, based in Birmingham, Michigan, created one of the early master plans for North Campus and designed several of its buildings in the 1950s, including the Earl V. Moore School of Music Building. [ 83 ] North and Central Campuses each have unique bell towers that reflect the prevailing architectural styles of their surroundings. Each of the bell towers houses a expansive carillon, 2 of entirely 57 globally. The North Campus tugboat is called Lurie Tower. [ 84 ] The University of Michigan ‘s largest residence hall, Bursley Hall, is located on North Campus. [ 79 ] North Campus houses the College of Engineering, the School of Music, Theatre & Dance, the Stamps School of Art & Design, the Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning, and an annex of the School of Information. [ 85 ] The campus is served by the Duderstadt Center, which houses the Art, Architecture and Engineering Library. The Duderstadt Center besides contains multiple calculator lab, video editing studios, electronic music studios, an audio studio, a video studio apartment, multimedia workspaces, and a 3D virtual reality room. [ 86 ] other libraries located on North Campus include the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and the Bentley Historical Library .

South Campus [edit ]

University of Michigan Golf Course was designed by scottish golf course architect Alister MacKenzie and opened in 1931. South Campus is the web site for the acrobatic programs, including major sports facilities such as Michigan Stadium, Crisler Center, and Yost Ice Arena. South Campus is besides the web site of the Buhr library memory facility, Revelli Hall, home plate of the Michigan Marching Band, the Institute for Continuing Legal Education, [ 87 ] and the Student Theatre Arts Complex, which provides shop and rehearsal outer space for student dramaturgy groups. [ 88 ] The university ‘s departments of public safety and exile services offices are located on South Campus. [ 87 ] U-M ‘s golf course is located south of Michigan Stadium and Crisler Center. It was designed in the recently 1920s by Alister MacKenzie, the graphic designer of Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia, home of the Masters Tournament. [ 89 ] The course opened to the populace in the spring of 1931. The University of Michigan Golf Course was included in a list of circus tent holes designed by what Sports Illustrated calls “ golf ‘s greatest path architect ”. The U-M Golf Course ‘s touch No. 6 hole—a 310-yard ( 280 megabyte ) equality 4, which plays from an elevated railway tee to a two-tiered, reniform green protected by four bunkers—is the second fix on the Alister MacKenzie Dream 18 as selected by a five-person gore that includes three-time Masters ace Nick Faldo and golf course architect Tom Doak. The listing of “ the best holes ever designed by Augusta National architect Alister MacKenzie ” is featured in SI ‘s Golf Plus special edition previewing the Masters on April 4, 2006. [ 90 ]

Organization and government [edit ]

The University of Michigan consists of a flagship campus in Ann Arbor, with two regional campuses in Dearborn and Flint. The Board of Regents, which governs the university and was established by the Organic Act of March 18, 1837, consists of eight members elected at large in biennial state elections [ 92 ] for overlapping eight-year terms. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] Between the establishment of the University of Michigan in 1837 and 1850, the Board of Regents ran the university directly ; although they were, by law, supposed to appoint a Chancellor to administer the university, they never did. rather, a rotating roll of professors carried out the daily administration duties. [ 95 ] The President of the University of Michigan is the star executive military officer of the university. The agency was created by the Michigan Constitution of 1850, which besides specified that the president was to be appointed by the Regents of the University of Michigan and preside at their meetings, but without a vote. [ 96 ] nowadays, the president ‘s function is at the Ann Arbor campus, and the president of the united states has the prerogative of living in the President ‘s House, the university ‘s oldest build, located on Central Campus in Ann Arbor. [ 97 ] Mark Schlissel was the fourteenth president of the university and served in that character from July 2014 to January 2022. Schlissel was fired by the board after an investigation determined he “ may have been involved in an inappropriate relationship with an employee of the university ”. [ 98 ] Mary Sue Coleman, who previously had served as Michigan ‘s president from 2002 to 2014, is serving as interim president of the united states subsequent to Dr. Schlissel ‘s dismissal. [ 98 ]
There are thirteen undergraduate schools and colleges. [ 99 ] By registration, the three largest undergraduate units are the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the College of Engineering, and the Ross School of Business. [ 100 ] At the alumnus flat, the Rackham Graduate School serves as the cardinal administrative unit of graduate education at the university. [ 101 ] There are 18 alumnus schools and colleges, the largest of which are the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the College of Engineering, the Law School, and the Ross School of Business. Professional degrees are conferred by the Schools of Architecture, Public Health, Dentistry, Law, Medicine, Urban Planning and Pharmacy. [ 100 ] The Medical School is partnered with the University of Michigan Health System, which comprises the university ‘s three hospitals, dozens of outpatient clinics, and many centers for checkup care, research, and education. [ citation needed ]

student government [edit ]

Housed in the Michigan Union, the Central Student Government ( CSG ) is the cardinal scholar government of the university. With representatives from each of the university ‘s colleges and schools, including calibrate students, CSG represents students and manages scholar funds on the campus. CSG is a 501 ( vitamin c ) ( 3 ) arrangement, autonomous from the University of Michigan. [ 102 ] In recent years CSG has organized Airbus, a fare serve between campus and the Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, and has led the university ‘s efforts to register its student population to vote, with its Voice Your Vote Commission ( VYV ) registering 10,000 students in 2004. VYV besides works to improve entree to non-partisan voting-related information and increase scholar voter turnout. [ 103 ] CSG was successful at reviving Homecoming activities, including a circus and parade, for students after a roughly eleven-year absence in October 2007, [ 104 ] and during the 2013–14 school year, was implemental in persuading the university to rescind an unpopular change in student football seating policy at Michigan Stadium. [ 105 ] In 2017, CSG successfully petitioned the Ann Arbor City Council to create a Student Advisory Council to give student stimulation into Ann Arbor city affairs. [ 106 ] There are student administration bodies in each college and educate, freelancer of Central Student Government. undergraduate students in the LS & A are represented by the LS & A student Government ( LSA SG ). [ 107 ] Engineering Student Government ( ESG ) manages undergraduate student government affairs for the College of Engineering. Graduate students enrolled in the Rackham Graduate School are represented by the Rackham Student Government ( RSG ), and law students are represented by the Law School Student Senate ( LSSS ) as is each early college with its own respective politics. In addition, the students who live in the residence halls are represented by the University of Michigan Residence Halls Association ( RHA ), which contains the third most constituents after CSG and LSA SG. [ 108 ]
William W. Cook Legal Research Library and other buildings comprising the Law Quadrangle were built during 1923–33 and then donated to the university by William Wilson Cook. It was the university ‘s most significant private endowment at the time. A longstanding goal of the student government is to create a student-designated seat on the Board of Regents, the university ‘s regulate torso. [ 109 ] such a appellation would achieve parity with other Big Ten schools that have student regents. In 2000, students Nick Waun and Scott Trudeau ran for the board on the statewide vote as third-party nominees. Waun ran for a moment time in 2002, along with Matt Petering and Susan Fawcett. [ 110 ] Although none of these campaigns has been successful, a poll conducted by the State of Michigan in 1998 concluded that a majority of Michigan voters would approve of such a placement if the measure were put before them. [ 109 ] A change to the dining table ‘s makeup would require amending the Michigan Constitution. [ 111 ]

Finances [edit ]

Total Endowment and Annual Giving, by year[13]
x $1000
x $1000
2018 11,901,760 9 490,035 15
2017 10,936,014 8 456,132 15
2016 9,743,461 9 433,776 14
2015 9,952,113 9 394,310 18

As of 2019, U-M ‘s fiscal endowment ( the “ University Endowment Fund ” ) was valued at $ 12.4 billion. [ 115 ] The endowment is primarily used according to the donors ‘ wishes, which include the documentation of teaching and research. In mid-2000, U-M embarked on a fund-raise political campaign called “ The Michigan Difference ”, which aimed to raise $ 2.5 billion, with $ 800 million designated for the permanent endowment. [ 116 ] Slated to run through December 2008, the university announced that the campaign had reached its aim 19 months early in May 2007. [ 117 ] ultimately, the political campaign raised $ 3.2 billion over 8 years. Over the course of the das kapital campaign, 191 extra professorships were endowed, bringing the university full to 471 as of 2009. [ 118 ] Like closely all colleges and universities, U-M suffered significant realized and unfulfilled losses in its endowment during the moment half of 2008. In February 2009, a university spokesperson estimated losses of between 20 and 30 percentage. [ 119 ] The university achieved the fourth-highest overall research publication output among american inquiry universities in the 2020 Nature Index, behind Harvard, Stanford and MIT. [ 14 ] In the 1980s, the university received increase grants for research in the sociable and physical sciences. During the 1980s and 1990s, the university devoted substantial resources to renovating its massive hospital complex and improving the academic facilities on the North Campus. In its 2011 annual fiscal report, the university announced that it had dedicated $ 497 million per class in each of the anterior 10 years to renovate buildings and infrastructure around the campus. In the early 2000s, Michigan faced declining department of state fund ascribable to state of matter budget shortfalls. In fact, the university did not receive direct department of state appropriations until 1867, and for most of its history, state support has been limited. [ 25 ] James Duderstadt, Michigan president of the united states from 1988 to 1996, had argued for years that it was a misnomer to call schools like the University of Michigan “ state universities. ” The submit ‘s annual contribution to the school ‘s function budget was less than 6 %. “ The state is our small minority stockholder, ” he said. [ 56 ] In 2011 less than 5 % of its subscribe comes from state appropriations, a number continued to drop distillery further in the years ahead. [ 25 ] Between the years 2000 and 2008, the university was engaged in a $ 2.5 billion capital raising campaign which, after an eight-year duration, raised $ 3.11 billion, at the clock a record for a US populace university. [ 120 ]

Academics [edit ]

reputation and rankings [edit ]

The University of Michigan is a big, four-year, residential inquiry university accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. [ 130 ] [ 131 ] [ 132 ] The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises the majority of enrollments and emphasizes education in the arts, sciences, and professions with a high level of coexistence between graduate and undergraduate programs. The university has “ very high gear ” research activity and the comprehensive graduate platform offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields a well as professional degrees in medicine, law, and dentistry. [ 130 ] U-M has been included on Richard Moll ‘s list of Public Ivies. [ 133 ] With over 200 undergraduate majors, and 100 doctoral and 90 master ‘s programs, [ 134 ] U-M conferred 6,490 undergraduate degrees, 4,951 calibrate degrees, and 709 beginning master degrees in 2011–2012. [ 135 ] The 2021 U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges report ranked Michigan 3rd among public universities in the United States. [ 136 ] Michigan was ranked 6th in the 2021 U.S. News & World Report Best Undergraduate Engineering Programs Rankings. [ 137 ] Michigan was ranked 3rd in the 2021 U.S. News & World Report Best Undergraduate Business Programs Rankings. [ 138 ] The 2020 Princeton Review College Hopes & Worries Survey ranked Michigan as the No. 9 “ Dream College ” among students and the No. 7 “ Dream College ” among parents. [ 139 ]

Graduation Rates Retention Rates
Recipients of a
Federal Pell Grant
Recipients of a
Subsidized Stafford
Loan who did not
receive a Pell Grant
Students who did not
receive either a Pell
Grant or a subsidized
Stafford Loan
4-year 6-year 4-year 6-year 4-year 6-year 4-year 6-year
Fall 2014 Cohort 70.0% 88.5% 80.2% 93.6% 83.0% 94.3% 80.9% 93.4% Increase 96.2% Decrease
Fall 2013 Cohort 70.6% 87.6% 78.6% 93.3% 82.3% 94.4% 80.0% 93.2% Increase 96.9% Decrease
Fall 2012 Cohort 68.6% 85.3% 78.4% 90.5% 81.4% 93.6% 79.0% 91.9% Increase 97.3% Increase
Fall 2011 Cohort 66.0% 86.9% 74.3% 90.5% 80.4% 93.0% 77.1% 91.6% Increase 97.1% Increase
Fall 2010 Cohort 67.4% 84.8% 72.0% 87.1% 79.6% 93.6% 76.5% 91.2% Increase 97.0% Decrease
USNWR Global Program Rankings [ 144 ]
Program Ranking
Social Sciences & Public Health 6
Surgery 11
Arts & Humanities 10
Oncology 15
Computer Science 18
Economics & Business 12
Clinical Medicine 12
Infectious Diseases 12
Biology & Biochemistry 17
Psychiatry/Psychology 13
Cardiac & Cardiovascular Systems 18
Gastroenterology and Hepatology 22
Engineering 21
Pharmacology & Toxicology 27
Molecular Biology & Genetics 15
Mathematics 21
Endocrinology and Metabolism 23
Public, Environmental and Occupational Health 22
Cell Biology 26
Physics 25
Mechanical Engineering 36
Space Science 25
Environment/Ecology 35
Immunology 31
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging 37
Chemistry 46
Condensed Matter Physics 85
Optics 57
Physical Chemistry 84
Microbiology 43
Materials Science 44
Neuroscience & Behavior 40
Energy and Fuels 76
Civil Engineering 46
Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology 56
Geosciences 67
Chemical Engineering 94
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 87
Plant and Animal Science 93
Electrical and Electronic Engineering 105
USNWR National Undergraduate Rankings [ 145 ]
Engineering (overall) 6
Aerospace /Aeronautical / Astronautical 5
Biomedical 7
Chemical 11
Civil 7
Computer 7
Electrical / Electronic / Communications 5
Environmental / Environmental Health 2
Industrial / Manufacturing 3
Materials 5
Mechanical 6
Business (overall) 4
Accounting 5
Analytics 10
Entrepreneurship 5
Finance 3
International Business
Management 2
Management Information Systems
Marketing 1
Production / Operation Management 3
Quantitative Analysis 9
Supply Chain Management / Logistics 7
Computer Science (overall) 13
Artificial Intelligence 11
Computer Systems 7
Cybersecurity 10
Data Analytics/Science 10
Mobile/Web Applications 8
Programming Languages
Nursing 4
USNWR National Graduate Rankings [ 146 ]
Social Work 1
Sociology 2
Biostatistics 4
Nursing–Midwifery 2
Health Care Management 3
Pharmacy 3
Psychology 3
Engineering 9
Political Science 4
Library and Information Studies 6
Medicine: Primary Care 20
Public Health 6
History 2
Education 8
English 8
Fine Arts 8
Public Affairs 8
Law 10
Nursing: Master’s 8
Clinical Psychology 10
Earth Sciences 6
Computer Science 11
Statistics 7
Economics 12
Mathematics 11
Business 10
Nursing: Doctorate 7
Physics 15
Medicine: Research 17
Chemistry 14
Biological Sciences 23

research [edit ]

Research outputs, by year[147][148][149][14]
Share National Rank Global Rank
2020 398.64 Increase 4 11
2019 343.84 Decrease 5 14
2018 344.48 Increase 6 14
2017 336.06 Increase 5 11

Michigan is one of the founding members ( in the year 1900 ) of the Association of American Universities. With over 6,200 staff members, 73 of whom are members of the National Academy and 471 of whom hold an endowed moderate in their discipline, [ 150 ] the university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States. According to the National Science Foundation, Michigan spent $ 1.6 billion on research and growth in 2018, ranking it 2nd in the state. [ 151 ] This human body totaled over $ 1 billion in 2009. [ 152 ] The Medical School spent the most at over $ 445 million, while the College of Engineering was second at more than $ 160 million. [ 152 ] U-M besides has a technology transfer agency, which is the university conduit between testing ground inquiry and corporate commercialization interests .
The Thomas Henry Simpson Memorial Institute for Medical Research was constructed in 1924 as the result of a contribution from the widow of iron baron Thomas H. Simpson, in memory of her late husband, who had died of baneful anemia In 2009, the university signed an agreement to purchase a facility once owned by Pfizer. The skill includes over 170 acres ( 0.69 km2 ) of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly 1,600,000 squarely feet ( 150,000 m2 ) of wet testing ground distance, and 400,000 square feet ( 37,000 m2 ) of administrative space. At the time of the agreement, the university ‘s intentions for the space were not amply articulated, but the anticipation was that the new outer space would allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people. [ 153 ] The university is besides a major subscriber to the checkup field with the EKG [ 154 ] and the gastroscope. [ 155 ] The university ‘s 13,000-acre ( 53 km2 ) biological post in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of alone 47 Biosphere Reserves in the United States. [ 156 ] In the mid-1960s U-M researchers worked with IBM to develop a new virtual memory architectural model [ 157 ] that exemplar became region of IBM ‘s Model 360/67 mainframe calculator ( the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the “ M ” digest for Michigan ). [ 158 ] The Michigan Terminal System ( MTS ), an early time-sharing calculator operating system developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67 ‘s virtual memory features. [ 159 ]

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R&D statistics, by year[13][112][113][114]
x $1000
x $1000
2017 1,434,535 2 822,436 3 118 9
2016 1,357,228 2 780,080 3 113 12
2015 1,300,340 2 728,712 3 108 13
2014 1,279,603 2 733,779 3 106 13

U-M is home to the National Election Studies and the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index. The Correlates of War project, besides located at U-M, is an collection of scientific cognition about war. The university is besides home to major inquiry centers in optics, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The Institute for Social Research ( ISR ), the state ‘s longest-standing testing ground for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, [ 160 ] is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. undergraduate students are able to participate in diverse research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program ( UROP ) angstrom well as the UROP/Creative-Programs. [ 161 ] The U-M library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes as of 2012. [ 162 ] U-M was the original dwelling of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitize pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten-spot journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with Google. [ 163 ] The University of Michigan Press is besides a part of the U-M library system. In the late 1960s U-M, together with Michigan State University and Wayne State University, founded the Merit Network, one of the first university calculator networks. [ 164 ] The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by U-M. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan won a national competition to upgrade and expand the National Science Foundation Network ( NSFNET ) anchor from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and late to 45 million bits per moment. [ 165 ] In 2006, U-M joined with Michigan State University and Wayne State University to create the University Research Corridor. This attempt was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state ‘s three lead inquiry institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan ‘s economy. [ 166 ] The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail ( MiLR, pronounced ‘MY-lar ‘ ), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and early home and external net connection points in Chicago. [ 167 ] In May 2021, the university announced plans to cut carbon emissions from its campuses. The plan covers all of its operations and goals include removing emissions from direct, on-campus sources by 2040. [ 168 ]

student body [edit ]

undergraduate admissions [edit ]

Admissions statistics
class[169] 2021 enteringclass

Admit rate 19.5%
(16,235 out of 83,029)
Yield rate 46.4%
Test scores middle 50%
SAT EBRW 680–760
SAT Math 710–790
ACT Composite 32–35
High school GPA
Average 3.90

The requirements for entree to the freshman classify were first published in August 1841, with fluency in ancient languages, such as Latin and Greek, being among the many requirements. [ 23 ] : 33 Candidates for admission to the freshman class were examined in English grammar, geography, arithmetical, algebra, Virgil, Cicero ‘s Select Orations, Jacob ‘s or Felton ‘s greek Reader, Andrews and Stoddard ‘s Latin Grammar, and Sophocles ‘s greek Grammar. In 1851, the university dropped the prerequisite for students who did not wish to pursue the common collegiate course embracing the ancient languages, permitting their entrance fee without interrogation in such languages. [ 23 ] : 44 This provision may be considered a preliminary to scientific department of education. Requirements for admission varied from department to department in the early days, and admissions were largely given by referral. Candidates were required to do no more than satisfying professors on such question as professors saw match to make of their ability to do the exercise to obtain entrance fee to the university. Such a commit was deemed blemished, finally leading to corruption. In 1863, a inflexible generalized capture examination was imposed, creating one standard of qualifications for entrance fee to all the departments, academical and professional. [ 23 ] : 79 The early government praised the then-new practice for its character in strengthening entree to the university. [ 23 ] : 44 The capture examen imposed in 1863 had played a significant function in the entrance fee process during the nineteenth hundred until the emergence of the countrywide exchangeable tests, which were not offered until 1900. entree is based on academic art, extracurricular activities, and personal qualities. U.S. News & World Report rates Michigan “ Most selective ” [ 12 ] and The Princeton Review rates its admissions selectivity of 96 out of 99. [ 170 ] Admissions are characterized as “ more selective, lower transfer-in ” according to the Carnegie Classification. [ 130 ] [ 171 ] Michigan received over 83,000 applications for a station in the 2021–22 newcomer class, making it one of the most applied-to universities in the United States. [ 171 ] [ 172 ] In late years, annual numbers of applications for freshman admission have exceeded 83,000. Around 16,000 students are offered entrance fee annually, with a target newcomer course of more than 7,000 students. [ 171 ] Students come from all 50 U.S. states and about 100 countries. [ 171 ] In academic year 2019–20 full-time undergraduate students made up about 97 percentage of the undergraduate scholar body, with a first-time student retentiveness rate of about 97 percentage. [ 169 ] In 2003, two lawsuits involving U-M ‘s affirmative military action admissions policy reached the U.S. Supreme Court ( Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger ). President George W. Bush publicly opposed the policy before the court issued a rule. [ 173 ] The motor hotel found that race may be considered as a factor in university admissions in all public universities and private universities that accept federal financing, but it ruled that a point system was unconstitutional. In the first case, the woo upheld the Law School admissions policy, while in the second it ruled against the university ‘s undergraduate admissions policy. [ citation needed ] The argument continued because in November 2006, Michigan voters passed Proposal 2, banning most affirmative natural process in university admissions. Under that jurisprudence, race, gender, and national lineage can no long be considered in admissions. [ 174 ] U-M and early organizations were granted a stay from execution of the law soon after that referendum. This allow time for proponents of affirmative action to decide legal and built-in options in reply to the first step results. In April 2014, the Supreme Court ruled in Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action that Proposal 2 did not violate the U.S. Constitution. The admissions office states that it will attempt to achieve a divers scholar body by looking at other factors, such as whether the student attended a disadvantage school, and the level of education of the scholar ‘s parents. [ 174 ]

registration [edit ]

In Fall 2016, the university had an registration of 44,718 students : 28,983 undergraduate students, 12,565 graduate students and 2,665 first master students [ 7 ] [ 100 ] in a sum of 600 academic programs. Of all students, 37,954 ( 84.9 % ) are U.S. citizens or permanent residents and 6,764 ( 15.1 % ) are international students. [ 7 ] In 2014, undergraduates were enrolled in 12 schools or colleges : about 61 percentage in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts ; 21 percentage in the College of Engineering ; 5.3 percentage in the Ross School of Business ; 3.3 percentage in the School of Kinesiology ; 2.7 percentage in the School of Music, Theatre & Dance ; and 2 percentage in the School of Nursing. Small numbers of undergraduates were enrolled in the colleges or schools of Art & Design, Architecture & Urban Planning, Dentistry, Education, Pharmacy, and public Policy. [ 100 ] In 2014, the School of Information opened to undergraduates, with the new Bachelor of Science in Information degree. Among undergraduates, 70 percentage graduate with a bachelor ‘s degree within four years, 86 percentage graduate within five years and 88 percentage graduating within six years. [ 175 ]
West Hall at the Southeast corner of the Diag Of the university ‘s 12,714 non-professional alumnus students, 5,367 are seeking academic doctorates and 6,821 are seeking overcome ‘s degrees. The largest number of headmaster ‘s degree students are enrolled in the Ross School of Business ( 1,812 students seeking MBA or Master of Accounting degrees ) and the College of Engineering ( 1,456 students seeking M.S. or M.Eng. degrees ). The largest total of doctoral students are enrolled in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts ( 2,076 ) and College of Engineering ( 1,496 ). While the majority of U-M ‘s calibrate degree-granting schools and colleges have both undergraduate and calibrate students, a few schools entirely issue graduate degrees. soon, the School for Environment and Sustainability, School of Public Health, and School of Social Work entirely have graduate students. [ 100 ] In Fall 2014, 3,411 lake michigan students were enrolled in U-M ‘s master schools : the School of Dentistry ( 628 students ), Law School ( 1,047 students ), medical School ( 1,300 students ), and College of Pharmacy ( 436 students ). [ 100 ]

student life [edit ]

residential life [edit ]

The University of Michigan ‘s campus caparison system can accommodate approximately 10,000 students, or closely 25 percentage of the sum scholar population at the university. [ 178 ] The residence halls are located in three discrete geographic areas on campus : central Campus, Hill Area ( between Central Campus and the University of Michigan Medical Center ) and North Campus. Family housing is located on North Campus and chiefly serves graduate students. The largest residence mansion has a capacitance of 1,270 students, [ 179 ] while the smallest accommodates 25 residents. [ 180 ] A majority of upper-division and graduate students live in off-campus apartments, houses, and cooperatives, with the largest concentrations in the Central and South Campus areas .
Lawyers Club Dining Hall The residential system has a number of “ living-learning communities ” where academic activities and residential life are combined. These communities focus on areas such as research through the Michigan Research and Discovery Scholars, medical sciences, community service and the german speech. [ 181 ] The Michigan Research and Discovery Scholars and the Women in Science and Engineering Residence Program are housed in Mosher-Jordan Hall. The residential College ( RC ), a living-learning community that is a division of the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, besides has its principal instructional space in East Quad. The Michigan Community Scholars Program, dedicated to civic engagement, community overhaul learn and intercultural understand and dialogue, is located in West Quad. [ 182 ] The Lloyd Hall Scholars Program ( LHSP ) is located in Alice Lloyd Hall. The Health Sciences Scholars Program ( HSSP ) is located in Couzens Hall. The North Quad building complex houses two extra living-learning communities : the Global Scholars Program [ 183 ] and the Max Kade german Program. [ 184 ] It is “ technology-rich, ” and houses communication-related programs, including the School of Information, the Department of Communication Studies, and the Department of Screen Arts and Cultures. [ 185 ] [ 186 ] North Quad is besides home to services such as the Language Resource Center and the Sweetland Center for Writing. [ 187 ]
The residential arrangement besides has a total of “ theme communities ” where students have the opportunity to be surrounded by students in a residential hall who partake alike interests. These communities focus on global leadership, the college transition experience, and internationalism. [ 188 ] The Adelia Cheever Program is housed in the Helen Newberry House. [ 189 ] The beginning year experience is housed in the Baits II Houses and Markley Hall along with portions of all early buildings with the exception of North Quad, Northwood, and Stockwell Hall. [ 190 ] The Sophomore Experience is housed in Stockwell Hall and the Transfer Year Experience is housed in Northwood III. [ 191 ] [ 192 ] The newly organized International Impact plan is housed in North Quad. [ 193 ]

Groups and activities [edit ]

The university lists 1,438 student organizations. [ 194 ] With a history of scholar activism, some of the most visible groups include those dedicated to causes such as civil rights and labor movement rights, such as local anesthetic chapters of Students for a democratic Society and United Students Against Sweatshops ( USAS ). The latter group seeks to hold accountable multinational companies that exploit their workers in factories around the global where college apparel is produced. Although the student body broadly leans toward leftist politics, [ 195 ] there are besides conservative groups, such as Young Americans for Freedom, and non-partisan groups, such as the Roosevelt Institute .
There are besides several engineering projects teams, including the University of Michigan Solar Car Team, which has placed first in the north american Solar Challenge six times and third in the World Solar Challenge four times. [ 196 ] Michigan Interactive Investments, [ 197 ] the TAMID Israel Investment Group, and the Michigan Economics Society [ 198 ] are besides affiliated with the university. The university besides showcases many community serve organizations and charitable projects, including Foundation for International Medical Relief of Children, Dance Marathon at the University of Michigan, [ 199 ] The Detroit Partnership, Relay For Life, U-M Stars for the Make-A-Wish Foundation, InnoWorks at the University of Michigan, SERVE, Letters to Success, PROVIDES, Circle K, Habitat for Humanity, [ 200 ] and Ann Arbor Reaching Out. intramural sports are popular, and there are refreshment facilities for each of the three campuses. [ 201 ] Fraternities and sororities play a function in the university ‘s social life ; approximately 17 % of undergraduates are involved in greek life sentence. Membership numbers for the 2009–2010 school year reached the highest in the concluding two decades. Four different Greek councils—the Interfraternity Council, Multicultural Greek Council, National Pan-Hellenic Council, and Panhellenic Association—represent most greek organizations. Each council has a different recruitment process. [ 202 ] The Michigan Union and Michigan League are student activity centers located on Central Campus ; Pierpont Commons is on North Campus. The Michigan Union houses a majority of scholar groups, including the scholar government. The William Monroe Trotter House, located east of Central Campus, is a multicultural scholar center operated by the university ‘s Office of Multi-Ethnic Student Affairs. [ 203 ] The University Activities Center ( UAC ) is a student-run scheduling administration and is composed of 14 committees. [ 204 ] Each group involves students in the plan and execution of a variety of events both on and off campus .
The Michigan Marching Band, composed of more than 350 students from about all of U-M ‘s schools, [ 205 ] is the university ‘s march band. Over 100 years honest-to-god, [ 206 ] the band performs at every home football bet on and travels to at least one away game a year. The student-run and led University of Michigan Pops Orchestra is another melodious ensemble that attracts students from all academic backgrounds. It performs regularly in the Michigan Theater. The University of Michigan Men ‘s Glee Club, founded in 1859 and the moment oldest such group in the country, is a men ‘s chorus with over 100 members. [ 207 ] Its eight-member subset a cappella group, the University of Michigan Friars, which was founded in 1955, is the oldest presently running a cappella group on campus. [ 208 ] The University of Michigan is besides home to over twenty other a cappella groups, including Amazin ‘ Blue, The Michigan G-Men, and Compulsive Lyres, all of which have competed at the International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella ( ICCA ) finals in New York City. compulsive Lyres are the first and only group from Michigan to claim an ICCA championship, having won in 2002. [ 209 ] The Michigan G-Men are one of entirely six groups in the state to compete at ICCA finals four times, one of only two TTBB ensembles to do so, and placed third base at the contest in 2015. [ 210 ] Amazin ‘ Blue placed fourthly at ICCA finals in 2017. In 2020, The A Cappella Archive ranked The Michigan G-Men and Amazin ‘ Blue at # 7 and # 13, respectively, out of all groups that have ever competed in ICCA. [ 211 ]
National respect societies such as Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, and Tau Beta Pi have chapters at U-M. [ 212 ] Degrees “ with Highest distinction ” are recommended to students who rank in the peak 3 % of their classify, “ with high distinction ” to the adjacent 7 %, and “ with Distinction ” to the next 15 %. Students earning a minimum overall GPA of 3.4 who have demonstrated high academician accomplishment and capacity for freelancer work may be recommended for a academic degree “ with Highest Honors, ” “ with high Honors, ” or “ with Honors. ” [ 212 ] Those students who earn all A ‘s for two or more consecutive terms in a calendar year are recognized as James B. Angell Scholars and are invited to attend the annual Honors Convocation, an event which recognizes undergraduate students with signalize academic achievements. [ 212 ]
The arch to the Law Quadrangle The University of Michigan besides encourages many cultural and cultural student organizations on campus. There are presently over 317 organizations under this category. [ 213 ] There are organizations for about every culture from the Arab Student Association to Persian Student Association [ 214 ] to African Students Association [ 215 ] to even the egyptian Student Association. [ 216 ] These organizations hope to promote respective aspects of their acculturation along with raising political and social awareness around campus by hosting an assortment of events throughout the school year. These clubs besides help students make this big University into a smaller community to help find people with alike interests and backgrounds .

Collegiate secret societies [edit ]

The University of Michigan hosts three hidden societies : Michigauma, Adara, and the Vulcans. Michigauma and Adara were once under the umbrella group “ The Tower Society ”, the name referring to their historic locations in the Michigan Union loom. Michigauma was all-male while Adara was all-female, although both late became co-ed .

  • Michigauma, more recently known as the Order of Angell, was formed in 1902 by a group of seniors in coordination with University president James Burrill Angell. The group disbanded itself in 2021 due to public concerns about elitism and the society’s history. The group was granted a lease for the top floor of the Michigan Union tower in 1932, which they referred to as the “tomb,” but the society vacated the space in 2000. Until more recent reforms, the group’s rituals were inspired by the culture of Native Americans.[217] Some factions on campus identified Michigauma as a secret society, but many disputed that characterization, as its member list has been published some years in The Michigan Daily and the Michiganensian, and online since 2006 reforms.
  • Adara, known as Phoenix, was formed in the late 1970s by women leaders on campus and disbanded itself in 2021 amid campus criticisms of secret societies.[218] In the early 1980s they joined the tower society and occupied the sixth floor of the tower just below Michigamua.
  • Vulcans, occupied the fifth floor of the Union tower though were not formally a part of the tower society. They draw their heritage from the Roman god Vulcan. The group which used to do its tapping publicly is known for its long black robes and for its financial contributions of the College of Engineering.
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Media and publications [edit ]

several academic journals are published at the university :
The student newspaper is The Michigan Daily, founded in 1890 and editorially and financially independent of the university. The Daily is published five days a workweek during academic class, and weekly from May to August. The yearbook is the Michiganensian, founded in 1896. other student publications at the university include the conservative The Michigan Review and the progressive Michigan Independent. The humor publication Gargoyle Humor Magazine is besides published by Michigan students. WCBN-FM ( 88.3 FM ) is the student-run college radio station which plays in freeform format. WOLV-TV is the student-run television place that is primarily shown on the university ‘s cable television television system. WJJX was previously the school ‘s student-run radio station. A carrier wave current station, it was launched in 1953. [ 220 ]

safety [edit ]

The University of Michigan Division of Public Safety and Security ( DPSS ) is creditworthy for law enforcement and condom on the main campus. The Division of Public Safety leadership team is made up of one executive director, three part deputy directors, three police chiefs and four directors. In addition, the team is besides joined by two platform managers and an executive assistant. [ 221 ] The University of Michigan Police Department ( UMPD ) is a full-service community-oriented jurisprudence enforcement agency under the DPSS. Its police officers are licensed by the Michigan Commission on Law enforcement Standards ( MCOLES ), and have full authority to investigate, search, halt and habit reasonable pull, if necessity, to protect people and property under Michigan law and the U-M Regents ’ Ordinance. [ 222 ] The extra Victims Unit ( SVU ) of the U-M Police Department ( UMPD ) assists those who have experienced interpersonal violence, such as sexual assault, familiar partner ferocity, dating ferocity, stalking or child misuse. [ 223 ] violent crime is rare on the campus though a few of the cases have been ill-famed including Theodore Kaczynski ‘s undertake murder of professor James V. McConnell and research assistant Nicklaus Suino in 1985. Kaczynski, besides known as the Unabomber, graduated from Michigan with his ph in 1967. A radical leftist belligerent organization Weather Underground was founded at the university in 1969. [ 224 ] It was late designated a domestic terrorist group by the FBI. [ 225 ] In 2014, the University of Michigan was named one of 55 higher department of education institutions under probe by the Office of Civil Rights “ for possible violations of federal law over the treat of sexual ferocity and harassment complaints. ” President Barack Obama ‘s White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault was organized for such investigations. [ 226 ] Seven years subsequently, in 2021, the university attracted national attention when a report card commissioned by the university was released that detailed an probe into sexual assault allegations against doctor Robert Anderson who reportedly sexually abused at least 950 university students, many of whom were athletes, from 1966 to 2003. [ 227 ] several football players from that time say fabled football coach Bo Schembechler ignored and enabled the abuse and told players to “ toughen up ” after being molested. [ 228 ] Schembechler reportedly punched his then 10-year-old son Matthew after he reported abuse by Dr. Anderson. [ 229 ] Following the exposure of a similar history of mistreat at Ohio State University, male survivors of both Anderson at Michigan and Strauss at Ohio State spoke out to combat intimate pervert. [ 230 ] The University of Michigan settled with the survivors for $ 490 million. [ 231 ]

Athletics [edit ]

Burgee of University of Michigan The University of Michigan ‘s sports teams are called the Wolverines. They participate in the NCAA Division I football Bowl Subdivision and in the Big Ten Conference in all sports except women ‘s water polo, which is a member of the Collegiate Water Polo Association. U-M boasts 27 varsity sports, including 13 men ‘s teams and 14 women ‘s teams. [ 232 ] In 10 of the past 14 years concluding in 2009, U-M has finished in the top five of the NACDA Director ‘s Cup, a rank compiled by the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics to tabulate the success of universities in competitive sports. U-M has finished in the top 10 of the Directors ‘ Cup standings in 21 of the award ‘s 29 seasons between 1993-2021 and has placed in the top six in nine of the last 10 seasons. [ 233 ] More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, [ 234 ] and as of 2021 its students and alumni have won 155 Olympic medals. [ 235 ] Michigan Stadium is the largest college football stadium in the nation and one of the largest football-only stadiums in the world, with an official capacity of 107,601 [ 236 ] ( the extra seat is said to be “ reserved ” for Fritz Crisler [ 237 ] ) though attendance—frequently over 111,000 spectators—regularly exceeds the official capability. [ 238 ] The NCAA ‘s record-breaking attendance has become commonplace at Michigan Stadium. U-M is besides home to 29 men ‘s and women ‘s golf club sports teams, such as rugby, ice hockey, volleyball, box, soccer, and tennis .

National championships [edit ]

The Michigan football program ranks first in NCAA history in full wins ( 976 through the end of the 2021 season ) and fourth among FBS schools in winning percentage ( .729 ). [ 239 ] [ 240 ] The team won the first Rose Bowl crippled in 1902. U-M had 40 straight winning seasons from 1968 to 2007, including back-to-back bowl bet on appearances from 1975 to 2007. [ 241 ] The Wolverines have won a record 42 Big Ten championships. The plan has 11 home championships, most recently in 1997, [ 242 ] and has produced three Heisman Trophy winners : Tom Harmon, Desmond Howard and Charles Woodson. [ 243 ] The men ‘s internal-combustion engine ice hockey team, which plays at Yost Ice Arena, has won nine national championships. [ 244 ] The men ‘s basketball team, which plays at the Crisler Center, has appeared in five Final Fours and won the national backing in 1989. The program besides voluntarily vacated victories from its 1992–1993 and 1995–1999 seasons in which illicit payments to players took place, angstrom well as its 1992 and 1993 Final Four appearances. [ 245 ] The men ‘s basketball team has most recently won back-to-back Big Ten Tournament Championships .

In the Olympics [edit ]

Through the 2012 Summer Olympics, 275 U-M students and coaches had participated in the Olympics, winning medals in each Summer Olympic Games except 1896, and winning gold medals in all but four Olympiads. U-M students/student-coaches ( for example, notably, Michael Phelps ) have won a full of 185 Olympic medals : 85 golds, 48 silvers, and 52 bronzes. [ 246 ]

Fight songs and chants [edit ]

The University of Michigan ‘s fight song, “ The Victors “, was written by scholar Louis Elbel in 1898 following the last-minute football victory over the University of Chicago that won a league backing. The song was declared by John Philip Sousa to be “ the greatest college competitiveness song ever written. ” [ 247 ] The song refers to the university as being “ the Champions of the West. ” At the fourth dimension, U-M was part of the western Conference, which would belated become the Big Ten Conference. Michigan was considered to be on the Western Frontier when it was founded in the old Northwest district. Although chiefly used at sporting events, the Michigan competitiveness birdcall is frequently heard at early events as well. President Gerald Ford had it played by the United States Marine Band as his entrance hymn during his term as president from 1974 to 1977, in preference over the more traditional “ Hail to the Chief “, [ 248 ] and the Michigan Marching Band performed a slow-tempo variation of the fight song at his funeral. [ 249 ] The crusade song is besides sing during commencement beginning ceremonies. The university ‘s alma flat song is “ The Yellow and Blue. ” A common rally cry is “ Let ‘s Go Blue ! “ which has a complementary color short musical arrangement written by former students Joseph Carl, a sousaphonist, and Albert Ahronheim, a drum major. [ 250 ] Before “ The Victors ” was officially the university ‘s competitiveness sung, the song “ There ‘ll Be a hot meter in the Old Town Tonight “ was considered to be the school song. [ 251 ] After Michigan temporarily withdrew from the western Conference in 1907, a new Michigan fight birdcall “ Varsity “ was written in 1911 because the argumentation “ champions of the West ” was no longer appropriate. [ 252 ]

Museums [edit ]

The university is besides home to several public and research museums including but not circumscribed to the University Museum of Art, University of Michigan Museum of Natural History, Detroit Observatory, Sindecuse Museum of Dentistry, and the LSA Museum of Anthropological Archaeology. Kelsey Museum of Archeology has a collection of Roman, Greek, Egyptian, and Middle Eastern artifacts. [ 253 ] Between 1972 and 1974, the museum was involved in the mining of the archaeological web site of Dibsi Faraj in northern Syria. [ 254 ] The Kelsey Museum re-opened November 1, 2009 after a renovation and expansion. [ 255 ] The solicitation of the University of Michigan Museum of Art include closely 19,000 objects that couple cultures, eras, and media and include european, American, Middle Eastern, Asian, and African artwork, arsenic well as changing exhibits. The museum of Art re-opened in 2009 after a three-year renovation and expansion. [ 256 ] UMMA presents special exhibitions and diverse educational programs featuring the ocular, performing, film and literary arts that contextualize the veranda experience. [ 257 ] The University of Michigan Museum of Natural History began in the mid-19th century and expanded greatly with the contribution of 60,000 specimens by Joseph Beal Steere in the 1870s. The build besides houses three research museums : the Museum of Anthropology, Museum of Paleontology. today, the collections are chiefly housed and displayed in the Ruthven Museums Building which was completed in 1928. [ 258 ]

celebrated alumni [edit ]

In summation to the former U.S. president of the united states Gerald Ford, the university has, as of 2020, produced thirty-four Pulitzer Prize winners, twenty-seven Rhodes Scholars, [ 259 ] one Mitchell Scholar [ 260 ] and nine Nobel laureates. As of 2012, the university has about 500,000 animation alumni. [ 261 ] More than 250 Michigan graduates have served american samoa legislators as either a United States Senator ( 47 graduates ) or as a congressional congressman ( over 215 graduates ), including former House Majority Leader Dick Gephardt [ 262 ] and U.S. Representative Justin Amash, who represented Michigan ‘s Third Congressional District. [ 263 ] Mike Duggan, Mayor of Detroit, earned his bachelor ‘s academic degree and J.D. degree at Michigan, while the former Michigan Governor Rick Snyder earned his bachelor, M.B.A., and J.D. degrees from Michigan. Former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Ben Carson received his medical degree from the U-M checkup school. Thomas E. Dewey, another Michigan alumnus, was the Governor of New York from 1943 to 1954 and was the Republican Party ‘s presidential campaigner in the 1944 and 1948 presidential elections. The 13th President of Pakistan, Arif Alvi, completed his victor ‘s degree in prosthodontics in 1975 .
U-M ‘s contributions to aeronautics include aircraft graphic designer Clarence “ Kelly ” Johnson of Lockheed Skunk Works fame, [ 264 ] Lockheed president of the united states Willis Hawkins, and several astronauts including the all-U-M crew of both Gemini 4 [ 265 ] and Apollo 15. [ 266 ]
numerous U-M graduates contributed greatly to the field of calculator skill, including Claude Shannon ( who made major contributions to the mathematics of information theory ), [ 267 ] and Turing Award winners Edgar Codd, Stephen Cook, Frances E. Allen and Michael Stonebraker. U-M besides counts among its alumni about two twelve billionaires, including big tech-company founders and co-founders such as Dr. J. Robert Beyster, who founded Science Applications International Corporation ( SAIC ) in 1969 [ 268 ] and Google co-founder Larry Page. [ 269 ]
several outstanding and/or groundbreaking women have studied at Michigan—by 1900, closely 150 women had received advanced degrees from U-M. [ 270 ] Sarah Dix Hamlin was the beginning female scholar accepted to the University of Michigan. She graduated in 1874. [ 271 ] Marjorie Lee Browne received her M.S. in 1939 and her doctoral degree in 1950, becoming the third african American woman to earn a PhD in mathematics. [ 272 ] [ 273 ] Many, however, were forced to leave the university to continue their studies or to become staff in their own properly elsewhere, like Katharine Coman —when U-M President James Angell offered her a “ Dean of Women ” position, she told him that ″′if the regents … wish to propose a chaperon for students, and propose to dignify that position by allowing the womanhood who holds it to do a fiddling University teach, ′ she was not interest. If, however, the regents accepted women as equal partners and as staff, and if she were one of respective women given proper rate and authority, she would consider it.″ [ 270 ] Michigan ‘s Regents did not accept, so rather Coman became dean, laminitis of the Economics Department, and the beginning female statistics professor in the US at Wellesley College. [ 274 ] : 15 celebrated writers who attended U-M include dramatist Arthur Miller, [ 262 ] essayists Susan Orlean, [ 262 ] Jia Tolentino, [ 275 ] Sven Birkerts, journalists and editors Mike Wallace, [ 262 ] Jonathan Chait of The New Republic, indian generator and columnist Anees Jung, Daniel Okrent, [ 262 ] and Sandra Steingraber, food critics Ruth Reichl and Gael Greene, novelists Brett Ellen Block, Elizabeth Kostova, Marge Piercy, [ 262 ] Brad Meltzer, [ 262 ] Betty Smith, [ 262 ] and Charles Major, screenwriter Judith Guest, [ 262 ] Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Theodore Roethke, National Book Award winners Keith Waldrop and Jesmyn Ward, composer/author/puppeteer Forman Brown, and Alireza Jafarzadeh ( a Middle East analyst, writer, and TV commentator ). In Hollywood, celebrated alumni include actors Michael Dunn, [ 262 ] Darren Criss, James Earl Jones, [ 262 ] David Alan Grier, [ 262 ] actresses Lucy Liu, [ 262 ] Gilda Radner, [ 262 ] and Selma Blair, [ 262 ] television receiver director Mark Cendrowski, and film maker Lawrence Kasdan. [ 262 ] many Broadway and melodious field actors, including Gavin Creel, [ 262 ] Andrew Keenan-Bolger, his sister Celia Keenan-Bolger, and Taylor Louderman attended U-M for melodious dramaturgy. The musical field group StarKid Productions had their start at the university, and staged multiple productions there. [ 276 ] musical graduates include operatic soprano Jessye Norman, [ 262 ] singer Joe Dassin, wind guitarist Randy Napoleon, and Mannheim Steamroller fall through Chip Davis. [ 262 ] well-known composers who are alumnus include Frank Ticheli, Andrew Lippa, and the Oscar and Tony Award-winning couple Benj Pasek and Justin Paul. Pop ace Madonna [ 262 ] and rock candy legend Iggy Pop, [ 262 ] attended but did not graduate .
other U-M graduates include early Dean of Harvard Law School Martha Minow, Dean of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania Erika H. James, current Dean of Yale Law School, Heather Gerken, assisted-suicide preach Dr. Jack Kevorkian, [ 262 ] Weather Underground radical militant Bill Ayers, [ 277 ] militant Tom Hayden, [ 262 ] architect Charles Moore, [ 278 ] the swedish Holocaust bomber Raoul Wallenberg, [ 279 ] and Civil War General Benjamin D. Pritchard. [ 280 ] Neurosurgeon and CNN foreman medical correspondent Sanjay Gupta attended both college and medical educate at the university. [ 281 ] Clarence Darrow attended law school at U-M at a clock when many lawyers did not receive any dinner dress education. [ 262 ] Frank Murphy, who was mayor of Detroit, governor of Michigan, lawyer general of the United States, and Supreme Court department of justice was besides a calibrate of the Law School. [ 262 ] conservative initiate Ann Coulter is another U-M law school calibrate ( J.D. 1988 ). [ 262 ] Vaughn R. Walker, a federal zone judge in California who overturned the controversial California Proposition 8 in 2010 and ruled it unconstitutional, received his undergraduate degree from U-M in 1966. [ 282 ] Kenneth Marin, who became a professor of economics after he graduated from the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, was appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson as a member of the White House Consumer Advisory Council where he served on Wage and Price Control in the mid-1960s. He went to Tanzania in the late sixties and worked as an economic adviser to the government of President Julius Nyerere until the early 1970s. U-M athletes have starred in Major League Baseball, the National Football League and National Basketball Association equally well as early master sports. luminary among late players is Tom Brady of the New England Patriots and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. [ 262 ] Three players have won college football ‘s Heisman Trophy, awarded to the player considered the best in the nation : Tom Harmon ( 1940 ), Desmond Howard ( 1991 ) and Charles Woodson ( 1997 ). [ 243 ] Professional golfer John Schroeder and Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps besides attended the University of Michigan, with the latter studying Sports marketing and Management. Phelps besides swam competitively for Club Wolverine, a swim cabaret associated with the university. [ 283 ] National Hockey League players Marty Turco, Chris Summers, Max Pacioretty, Carl Hagelin, Dylan Larkin, Zach Hyman, Brendan Morrison, [ 262 ] Jack Johnson, and Michael Cammalleri [ 262 ] all played for U-M ‘s ice ice hockey team. Baseball Hall of Famers George Sisler and Barry Larkin besides played baseball at the university. [ 262 ] Several team owners have besides been alumnus, including multiple-team owner Bill Davidson ( NBA Detroit Pistons, NHL Tampa Bay Lightning, WNBA Detroit Shock, among others ) and NFL owners Stephen M. Ross ( Miami Dolphins ), Preston Robert Tisch ( New York Giants ), and Ralph Wilson ( Buffalo Bills ). The university claims the only alumni association with a chapter on the daydream, established in 1971 when the crew of Apollo 15 ( two of whom had engineer degrees from U-M ; the third had attended for a year before transferring [ 266 ] ) placed a rent plaque for a new U-M Alumni Association on the lunar surface. [ 262 ] The plaque states : “ The Alumni Association of The University of Michigan. Charter Number 1. This is to certify that The University of Michigan Club of The Moon is a punctually appoint unit of measurement of the Alumni Association and entitled to all the rights and privileges under the Association ‘s constitution. ” several modest U-M flags were besides brought on the deputation ; a persistent campus legend claims at least one ease up was left on the lunar month. [ 266 ]

Honorary alumni [edit ]

References [edit ]

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