Summer – Wikipedia

not to be confused with Sumer Hottest of the four temperate seasons

Summer is the hot of the four moderate seasons, occurring after jump and before fall. At or centred on the summer solstice, the earliest sunrise and latest sunset occur, day hours are longest and dark hours are shortest, with day length decreasing as the temper progresses after the solstice. The date of the beginning of summer varies according to climate, tradition, and culture. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere, and vice versa .


From an astronomic view, the equinoxes and solstices would be the middle of the respective seasons, [ 1 ] [ 2 ] but sometimes astronomic summer is defined as starting at the solstice, the time of maximal sunstroke, often identified with the 21st day of June or December. By solar reckoning, summer rather starts on May Day and the summer solstice is Midsummer. A variable seasonal lag means that the meteorologic concentrate of the temper, which is based on average temperature patterns, occurs several weeks after the prison term of maximal insolation. [ 3 ] The meteorologic convention is to define summer as comprising the months of June, July, and August in the northern hemisphere and the months of December, January, and February in the southerly hemisphere. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Under meteorologic definitions, all seasons are randomly set to start at the beginning of a calendar month and end at the end of a calendar month. [ 4 ] This meteorologic definition of summer besides aligns with the normally see notion of summer as the season with the longest ( and warmest ) days of the class, in which day predominates. The meteorologic reckon of seasons is used in countries including Australia, New Zealand, Austria, Denmark, Russia and Japan. It is besides used by many people in the United Kingdom and Canada. In Ireland, the summer months according to the national meteorologic serve, Met Éireann, are June, July and August. By the Irish Calendar, summer begins on 1 May and ends on 1 August. School textbooks in Ireland follow the cultural average of summer commencing on 1 May preferably than the meteorologic definition of 1 June .
Days continue to lengthen from equinoctial point to solstice and summer days increasingly shorten after the solstice, so meteorologic summer encompasses the build-up to the longest day and a diminish thereafter, with summer having many more hours of daylight than bounce. Reckoning by hours of daylight alone, summer solstice marks the center, not the beginning, of the seasons. Midsummer takes position over the shortest nox of the year, which is the summer solstice, or on a nearby date that varies with custom. Where a seasonal lag of half a season or more is common, reckoning based on astronomic markers is shifted half a season. [ 6 ] By this method acting, in North America, summer is the period from the summer solstice ( normally 20 or 21 June in the Northern Hemisphere ) to the fall equinox. [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] Reckoning by cultural festivals, the summer season in the United States is traditionally regard as beginning on Memorial Day weekend ( the stopping point weekend in May ) and ending on Labor Day ( the first Monday in September ), more close in channel with the meteorologic definition for the parts of the nation that have four-season weather. The alike canadian tradition starts summer on Victoria Day one workweek prior ( although summer conditions vary wide across Canada ‘s expansive district ) and ends, as in the United States, on Labour Day. In some Southern Hemisphere countries such as Brazil, Argentina, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, summer is associated with the Christmas and New Year holidays. many families take extended holidays for two or three weeks or longer during summer. In chinese astronomy, summer starts on or around 5 May, with the jiéqì ( solar term ) known as lìxià ( 立夏 ), i.e. “ administration of summer ”, and it ends on or around 6 August. In southern and southeast Asia, where the monsoon occurs, summer is more broadly defined as durable from March, April, May and June, the warmest meter of the year, ending with the onset of the monsoon rains. [ citation needed ] Because the temperature interim is shorter in the oceanic temperate southerly hemisphere, [ 10 ] most countries in this region use the meteorologic definition with summer starting on 1 December and ending on the last day of February. [ 11 ] [ 12 ]

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summer is traditionally associated with hot or warm upwind. In Mediterranean climates, it is besides associated with dry upwind, while in early places ( particularly in Eastern Asia because of the monsoon ) it is associated with showery weather. The besotted season is the main period of vegetation increase within the savanna climate regimen. [ 13 ] Where the besotted season is associated with a seasonal shift in the prevailing winds, it is known as a monsoon. [ 14 ]
In the northerly Atlantic Ocean, a distinct tropical cyclone season occurs from 1 June to 30 November. [ 15 ] The statistical vertex of the Atlantic hurricane season is 10 September. The Northeast Pacific Ocean has a broader period of natural process, but in a alike timeframe to the Atlantic. [ 16 ] The Northwest Pacific sees tropical cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and March and a bill in early September. In the North Indian river basin, storms are most common from April to December, with peaks in May and November. [ 15 ] In the Southern Hemisphere, the tropical cyclone temper runs from the begin of November until the conclusion of April with peaks in mid-february to early March. [ 15 ] [ 17 ]

Thunderstorm season in the United States and Canada runs in the spring through summer but sometimes can run american samoa late as October or even November in the fall. These storms can produce hail, strong winds and tornadoes, normally during the good afternoon and even .

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School breaks

Schools and universities typically have a summer break to take advantage of the warm weather and longer days. In about all countries, children are out of school during this time of year for summer demote, although dates vary. many families will take holidays for a week or two over summer, particularly in Southern Hemisphere western countries with statutory Christmas and New Year holidays. In the United States, populace schools normally end in late May in Memorial Day weekend, while colleges finish in early on May. Public school traditionally resume cheeseparing Labor Day, while higher institutions much resume in mid-august. In England and Wales, school ends in mid-july and resumes again in early September. In Scotland, the summer holiday begins in late June and ends in mid-to late-August. similarly, in Canada the summer vacation starts on the last or second-last Friday in June and ends in late August or on the first Tuesday of September, with the exception of when that go steady falls before Labour Day, in which lawsuit, ends on the second gear Tuesday of the calendar month. In Russia the summer vacation begins at the end of May and ends on 31 August. In the Southern Hemisphere, school summer vacation dates include the major holidays of Christmas and New Year ‘s Day. School summer holidays in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa begin in early December and end in early February, with dates varying between states. In South Africa, the modern school class normally starts during the second week of January, thus aligning the academic class with the Calendar year. In India, school ends in late April and resumes in early on or mid-june. In Cameroon and Nigeria, schools normally finish for summer vacation in mid-july and resume in the belated weeks of September or the first workweek of October .

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Public holidays

A wide compass of public holidays fall during summer, including :


People by and large take advantage of the gamey temperatures by spending more time outdoors during summer. Activities such as travelling to the beach and picnics occur during the summer months. Sports including cricket, association football ( soccer ), horse race, basketball, American football, volleyball, skateboarding, baseball, softball, tennis and golf are played. Water sports besides occur. These include body of water skiing, wakeboarding, swim, surfing, tubing and water polo. The modern Olympics have been held during the summer months every four years since 1896. The 2000 Summer Olympics, in Sydney, were held in spring and the 2016 Summer Olympics, in Rio de Janeiro, were held in winter. In the United States, many television shows made for children are released during the summer, as children are off school. conversely, the music and film industries by and large experience higher returns during the summer than other times of the year and market their summer hits consequently. Summer is popular for animize movies to be released theatrically in movie theaters. [ citation needed ] With many schools closed, particularly in western countries, change of location and vacationing tend to peak during the summer. Teenagers and university students often take summer jobs, and business activity for the diversion, tourism, restaurant, and retail industries reach their extremum .

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