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Maryland – Wikipedia

U.S. state
This article is about the U.S. state. For other uses, see Maryland ( disambiguation )
express in the United States

Maryland ( MERR-il-ənd ) [ a ] is a state in the middle atlantic region of the United States. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] It shares borders with Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west ; Pennsylvania to its north ; and Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. Baltimore [ 11 ] is the largest city in the express, and the capital is Annapolis. Among its casual nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, and the Chesapeake Bay State. It is named after the English Queen Henrietta Maria, then known in England as Mary. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the sixteenth hundred, Maryland was inhabited by several groups of native Americans – largely by the Algonquin, and, to a lesser degree, by the Iroquois and Siouian. [ 14 ] As one of the original Thirteen Colonies of England, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, a Catholic convert [ 15 ] [ 16 ] who sought to provide a religious seaport for Catholics persecuted in England. [ 17 ] In 1632, Charles I of England granted Lord Baltimore a colonial lease, naming the colony after his wife, Henrietta Maria. [ 18 ] Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who rejected Catholicism in their settlements, Lord Baltimore envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. [ 17 ] Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this rationale by penalizing anyone who “ reproached ” a mate Marylander based on religious affiliation. [ 19 ] Nevertheless, religious strife was common in the early years, and Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other english colony. Maryland ‘s early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay. Its economy was heavily plantation-based and centered by and large on the polish of tobacco. Great Britain ‘s indigence for cheap department of labor led to a rapid expansion of apprenticed servants, penal labor, and african slaves. In 1760, Maryland ‘s stream boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running edge dispute with Pennsylvania. Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the american Revolution, and by 1776, its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key political and military roles in the war. In 1790, the country ceded land for the administration of the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C. Although then a slave state of matter, Maryland remained in the Union during the American Civil War, its strategic localization giving it a significant function in the conflict. After the Civil War, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, dragoon networks, and mass immigration from Europe. Since the 1940s, the state ‘s population has grown quickly, to approximately six million residents, and it is among the most densely populated U.S. states. As of 2015, Maryland had the highest median family income of any department of state, owing in large contribution to its proximity to Washington, D.C., and a highly diversify economy spanning manufacture, retail services, public administration, real estate, higher education, information technology, defense compress, health care, and biotechnology. [ 20 ] The express ‘s cardinal role in U.S. history is reflected by its host of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per head. Sixteen of Maryland ‘s twenty-three counties, equally well as the city of Baltimore, border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, [ 21 ] [ 11 ] which combined sum more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U.S., it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the nickname of America in Miniature. [ 22 ] In a similar vein, Maryland ‘s geography, culture, and history combine elements of the middle atlantic, Northeastern, and Southern regions of the nation .

history [edit ]

seventeenth hundred [edit ]

Maryland ‘s first colonial settlement [edit ]

George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore ( 1579–1632 ), sought a lease from King Charles I for the district between Massachusetts to the north and Virginia to the immediate south. [ 23 ] After Baltimore died in April 1632, the lease was granted to his son, Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore ( 1605–1675 ), on June 20, 1632. formally, the new “ Maryland Colony ” was named in honor of Henrietta Maria of France, wife of Charles I of England. Lord Baltimore initially proposed the name “ Crescentia ”, the state of emergence or increase, but “ the King proposed Terra Mariae [ Mary Land ], which was concluded on and Inserted in the bill. ” [ 17 ] The original capital of Maryland was St. Mary ‘s City, on the north shore of the Potomac River, and the county surrounding it, the first erected/created in the province, [ 25 ] was first called Augusta Carolina, after the King, and late named St. Mary ‘s County. [ 26 ] Lord Baltimore ‘s first base settlers arrived in the modern colony in March 1634, with his younger buddy the Honorable Leonard Calvert ( 1606–1647 ), as first gear peasant Governor of Maryland. They made their first permanent wave liquidation at St. Mary ‘s City in what is now St. Mary ‘s County. They purchased the site from the overriding foreman of the region, who was eager to establish trade wind. St. Mary ‘s became the first capital of Maryland, and remained so for 60 years until 1695. More settlers soon followed. Their tobacco crops were successful and quickly made the modern colony profitable. however, given the incidence of malaria, yellow fever, and typhoid, life anticipation in Maryland was about 10 years less than in New England. [ 27 ]

persecution of Catholics [edit ]

Maryland was founded to provide a seaport for England ‘s Roman Catholic minority. [ 28 ] Although Maryland was the most heavily Catholic of the English mainland colonies, the religion was silent in the minority, consisting of less than 10 % of the total population. [ 29 ] In 1642, a phone number of Puritans left Virginia for Maryland and founded Providence ( now called Annapolis ) on the western prop up of the amphetamine Chesapeake Bay. [ 30 ] A dispute with traders from Virginia over Kent Island in the Chesapeake led to armed conflict. In 1644, William Claiborne, a Puritan, seized Kent Island while his associate, the pro-Parliament Puritan Richard Ingle, took over St. Mary ‘s. [ 31 ] Both use religion as a joyride to gain democratic support. The two years from 1644 to 1646 when Claiborne and his Puritan associates held swing were known as “ The Plundering Time ”. They captured Jesuit priests, imprisoned them, then sent them back to England. In 1646 Leonard Calvert returned with troops, recaptured St. Mary ‘s City, and restored regulate. The House of Delegates passed the “ Act concerning Religion ” in 1649 granting religious liberty to all trinitarian Christians. [ 27 ] In 1650, the Puritans revolted against the proprietary politics. “ Protestants swept the Catholics out of the legislature … and religious strife returned. ” [ 27 ] The Puritans set up a raw government prohibiting both Roman Catholicism and Anglicanism. The Puritan rotatory government persecuted Maryland Catholics during its reign, known as the “ sack time ”. Mobs burned down all the original Catholic churches of southern Maryland. The Puritan govern lasted until 1658 when the Calvert family and Lord Baltimore regained proprietary control and re-enacted the Toleration Act. After England ‘s “ Glorious Revolution “ of 1688, Maryland outlawed Catholicism. In 1704, the Maryland General Assembly prohibited Catholics from function schools, limited the corporate ownership of property to hamper religious orders from expanding or supporting themselves, and encouraged the conversion of Catholic children. [ 29 ] The celebration of the Catholic sacraments was besides formally restricted. This state of affairs lasted until after the american Revolutionary War ( 1775–1783 ). affluent catholic planters built chapels on their land to exercise their religion in relative secrecy. Into the eighteenth hundred, individual priests and lie leaders claimed Maryland farms belonging to the Jesuits as personal property and bequeathed them in order to evade the legal restrictions on religious organizations ‘ owning place. [ 29 ]

surround disputes ( 1681–1760 ) [edit ]

The imperial charter granted Maryland the country north of the Potomac River up to the fortieth latitude. A problem arise when Charles II granted a charter for Pennsylvania. The award defined Pennsylvania ‘s southerly edge as identical to Maryland ‘s northerly boundary line, the fortieth parallel. But the grant indicated that Charles II and William Penn assumed the fortieth parallel would pass close to New Castle, Delaware when it falls north of Philadelphia, the site of which Penn had already selected for his colony ‘s capital city. Negotiations ensued after the trouble was discovered in 1681. A compromise proposed by Charles II in 1682 was undermined by Penn ‘s receiving the extra allow of what is immediately Delaware. [ 32 ] Penn successfully argued that the Maryland rent entitled Lord Baltimore only to changeable lands, and Dutch colony in Delaware predated his charter. The challenge remained unresolved for closely a hundred, carried on by the descendants of William Penn and Lord Baltimore—the Calvert syndicate, which controlled Maryland, and the Penn family, which controlled Pennsylvania. [ 32 ]
[33] 1732 map of Maryland The edge quarrel with Pennsylvania led to Cresap ‘s War in the 1730s. Hostilities erupted in 1730 and escalated through the first half of the decade, culminating in the deployment of military forces by Maryland in 1736 and by Pennsylvania in 1737. The arm phase of the conflict ended in May 1738 with the interposition of King George II, who compelled the negotiation of a armistice. A probationary agreement had been established in 1732. [ 32 ] Negotiations continued until a final examination agreement was signed in 1760. The agreement defined the frame between Maryland and Pennsylvania as the line of latitude now known as the Mason–Dixon channel. Maryland ‘s border with Delaware was based on a Transpeninsular Line and the Twelve-Mile Circle around New Castle. [ 32 ]

eighteenth century [edit ]

Most of the english colonists arrived in Maryland as indenture servants, and had to serve a respective years ‘ term as laborers to pay for their passage. [ 34 ] In the early years, the line between apprenticed servants and african slaves or laborers was fluid, and white and black laborers normally lived and worked together, and formed unions. Mixed-race children born to white mothers were considered free by the rationale of partus sequitur ventrem, by which children took the social condition of their mothers, a principle of slave law that was adopted throughout the colonies, following Virginia in 1662. During the colonial era, families of dislodge people of color were formed most often by unions of white women and african men. [ 35 ] many of the free black families migrated to Delaware, where land was cheaper. [ 35 ] As the flow of indenture laborers to the colony decreased with improving economic conditions in England, planters in Maryland imported thousands more slaves and racial caste lines hardened. The economy ‘s emergence and prosperity were based on slave tug, devoted first to the product of tobacco as the commodity snip. Maryland was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against british rule in the american Revolution. Near the end of the American Revolutionary War ( 1775–1783 ), on February 2, 1781, Maryland became the last and 13th state to approve the ratification of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, beginning proposed in 1776 and adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1778, which brought into being the United States as a unite, sovereign and national state. It besides became the seventh state admitted to the Union after ratifying the new federal united states constitution in 1788. In December 1790, Maryland donated estate selected by first President George Washington to the union government for the creation of the newly national capital of Washington, D.C. The estate was provided along the north shore of the Potomac River from Montgomery and Prince George ‘s counties, equally well as from Fairfax County and Alexandria on the south shore of the Potomac in Virginia ; however, the estate donated by the Commonwealth of Virginia was former returned to that state of matter by the District of Columbia retrocession in 1846 .

nineteenth hundred [edit ]

Influenced by a changing economy, revolutionary ideals, and preaching by ministers, numerous planters in Maryland freed their slaves in the 20 years after the Revolutionary War. Across the Upper South the release black population increased from less than 1 % before the war to 14 % by 1810. [ 36 ] Abolitionist Harriet Tubman was born a slave during this time in Dorchester County, Maryland. [ 37 ] During the War of 1812, the british military attempted to capture Baltimore, which was protected by Fort McHenry. During this barrage the song “ Star Spangled Banner “ was written by Francis Scott Key ; it was late adopted as the national hymn. The National Road ( U.S. Hwy 40 today ) was authorized in 1817 and ran from Baltimore to St. Louis—the first federal highway. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ( B & O ) was the first lease railroad in the United States. It opened its first section of track for regular process in 1830 between Baltimore and Ellicott City, [ 38 ] and in 1852 it became the first rail line to reach the Ohio River from the eastern seaside. [ 39 ]

Civil War [edit ]

The submit remained with the Union during the Civil War, [ 40 ] due in significant partially to demographics and Federal intervention. The 1860 census, held shortly before the outbreak of the civil war, showed that 49 % of Maryland ‘s african Americans were free blacks. [ 36 ]
Governor Thomas Holliday Hicks suspended the state legislature, and to help ensure the election of a new pro-union governor and legislature, President Abraham Lincoln had a number of its pro-slavery politicians arrested, including the Mayor of Baltimore, George William Brown ; suspended respective civil liberties, including habeas corpus ; and ordered artillery placed on Federal Hill overlooking Baltimore. Historians debate the constitutionality of these wartime actions, and the suspension of civil liberties was late deemed illegal by the U.S. Supreme Court. [ citation needed ] In April 1861 Federal units and state of matter regiments were attacked as they marched through Baltimore, sparking the Baltimore orgy of 1861, the beginning bloodshed in the Civil War. [ 41 ] Of the 115,000 men from Maryland who joined the military during the Civil War, 85,000, or 77 %, joined the Union army, while the end joined the Confederate Army. [ citation needed ] The largest and most significant struggle in the state was the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg. Although a tactical draw, the conflict was considered a strategic Union victory and a turn distributor point of the war .

After the war [edit ]

A new state constitution in 1864 abolish slavery and Maryland was inaugural recognized as a “ free state ” in that context. [ 42 ] Following passage of constitutional amendments that granted voting rights to freedmen, in 1867 the department of state extended right to vote to colored males. The democratic Party quickly regained ability in the state from Republicans. Democrats replaced the Constitution of 1864 with the fundamental law of 1867. Following the end of Reconstruction in 1877, Democrats devised means of disenfranchising blacks, initially by physical intimidation and voter fraud, former by constituent amendments and laws. Blacks and immigrants, however, resisted Democratic Party disfranchisement efforts in the state. Maryland blacks were part of a biracial Republican coalition elected to state government in 1896–1904 and comprised 20 % of the electorate. [ 43 ] Compared to some other states, blacks were estimable established both before and after the civil war. about half the black population was spare before the war, and some had accumulated place. Half the population lived in cities. Literacy was high among blacks and, as Democrats crafted means to exclude them, right to vote campaigns helped reach blacks and teach them how to resist. [ 43 ] Whites did impose racial segregation in populace facilities and Jim Crow laws, which efficaciously lasted until the passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s. Baltimore grew significantly during the Industrial Revolution, due in large part to its seaport and good railroad connections, attracting european immigrant department of labor. many manufacture businesses were established in the Baltimore area after the Civil War. Baltimore businessmen, including Johns Hopkins, Enoch Pratt, George Peabody, and Henry Walters, founded luminary city institutions that bear their names, including respectively a university, library arrangement, music and dance conservatory, and art museum. Cumberland was Maryland ‘s second-largest city in the nineteenth hundred. nearby supplies of natural resources along with railroads fostered its emergence into a major manufacture focus on. [ 44 ]

20th and 21st centuries [edit ]

early twentieth century [edit ]

The Progressive earned run average of the late 19th and early twentieth centuries brought political reforms. In a series of laws passed between 1892 and 1908, reformers worked for standard state-issued ballots ( preferably than those distributed and marked by the parties ) ; obtained closed voting booths to prevent party workers from “ assisting ” voters ; initiated primary elections to keep party bosses from selecting candidates ; and had candidates listed without party symbols, which discouraged the ignorant from participating. These measures worked against ill-educated whites and blacks. Blacks resisted such efforts, with right to vote groups conducting voter education. Blacks defeated three efforts to disenfranchise them, making alliances with immigrants to resist versatile democratic campaigns. [ 43 ] Disenfranchisement bills in 1905, 1907, and 1911 were rebuffed, in large part because of black opposition. Blacks comprised 20 % of the electorate and immigrants comprised 15 %, and the legislature had difficulty devising requirements against blacks that did not besides disadvantage immigrants. [ 43 ] The Progressive Era besides brought reforms in working conditions for Maryland ‘s labor force. In 1902, the state regulated conditions in mines ; outlawed child laborers under the senesce of 12 ; mandated compulsory school attendance ; and enacted the nation ‘s first workers ‘ compensation police. The workers ‘ compensation law was overturned in the courts, but was redrafted and finally enacted in 1910. The Great Baltimore Fire of 1904 burned for more than 30 hours, destroying 1,526 buildings and spanning 70 city blocks. More than 1,231 firefighters worked to bring the blaze under control .
With the nation ‘s submission into World War I in 1917, new military bases such as Camp Meade, the Aberdeen Proving Ground, and the Edgewood Arsenal were established. Existing facilities, including Fort McHenry, were greatly expanded. After Georgia congressman William D. Upshaw criticized Maryland openly in 1923 for not passing Prohibition laws, Baltimore Sun editor program Hamilton Owens coined the “ release department of state ” nickname for Maryland in that context, which was popularized by H. L. Mencken in a series of newspaper editorials. [ 42 ] [ 45 ] Maryland ‘s urban and rural communities had different experiences during the Great Depression. The “ Bonus Army “ marched through the submit in 1932 on its way to Washington, D.C. Maryland instituted its first gear income tax in 1937 to generate tax income for schools and social welfare. [ 46 ] passenger and freight steamboat service, once authoritative throughout Chesapeake Bay and its many tributary rivers, ended in 1962. [ 47 ] Baltimore was a major war production center during World War II. The biggest operations were Bethlehem Steel ‘s Fairfield Yard, which built Liberty ships ; and Glenn Martin, an aircraft manufacturer .
Maryland experienced population growth following World War II. Beginning in the 1960s, as suburban growth took hold around Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, the express began to take on a more middle atlantic culture as opposed to the traditionally Southern and Tidewater culture that previously dominated most of the state. agrarian tracts gave manner to residential communities, some of them carefully planned such as Columbia, St. Charles, and Montgomery Village. concurrently the Interstate Highway System was built throughout the country, most notably I-95, I-695, and the Capital Beltway, altering travel patterns. In 1952, the easterly and westerly halves of Maryland were linked for the first gear time by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge, which replaced a nearby ferry service. [ 48 ] Maryland ‘s regions experienced economic changes following WWII. Heavy fabrication declined in Baltimore. In Maryland ‘s four westernmost counties, industrial, railroad, and coal mining jobs declined. On the lower Eastern Shore, family farms were bought up by major concerns and large-scale poultry farms and vegetable farming became prevailing. In southern Maryland, tobacco farming closely vanished due to suburban development and a department of state tobacco buy-out broadcast in the 1990s. In an attempt to reverse depopulation due to the personnel casualty of propertyless industries, Baltimore initiated urban reclamation projects in the 1960s with Charles Center and the Baltimore World Trade Center. Some resulted in the break-up of intact residential neighborhoods, producing social excitability, and some older residential areas around the harbor have had units renovated and have become popular with new populations .

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geography [edit ]

physical regions of Maryland Maryland has an area of 12,406.68 square miles ( 32,133.2 km2 ) and is comparable in overall area with Belgium [ 11,787 square miles ( 30,530 km2 ) ]. [ 49 ] It is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the submit of Hawaii [ 10,930.98 square miles ( 28,311.1 km2 ) ], the following small state of matter. The future larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is about doubly the size of Maryland [ 24,229.76 square miles ( 62,754.8 km2 ) ] .

description [edit ]

Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature. It ranges from flaxen dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to gently rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, and ache groves in the Maryland mountains to the west .
Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its north and east by Delaware, on its east by the Atlantic Ocean, and on its south and west, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia. The mid-portion of this latter molding is interrupted by the District of Columbia, which sits on land that was primitively contribution of Montgomery and Prince George ‘s counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland. This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia. ( The Commonwealth of Virginia gave bring confederacy of the Potomac, including the town of Alexandria, Virginia ; however, Virginia retroceded its fortune in 1846 ). The Chesapeake Bay about bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known jointly as the Eastern Shore .
typical brackish tidal river. Sunset over a marsh at Cardinal Cove on the Patuxent River Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States and the largest water feature of speech in Maryland Most of the submit ‘s waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a bantam part of extreme western Garrett County ( drained by the Youghiogheny River as contribution of the river basin of the Mississippi River ), the easterly half of Worcester County ( which drains into Maryland ‘s Atlantic coastal bays ), and a little part of the submit ‘s northeast corner ( which drains into the Delaware River watershed ). So big is the Chesapeake in Maryland ‘s geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the department of state ‘s official nickname to the “ Bay State ”, a nickname that has been used by Massachusetts for decades. The highest point in Maryland, with an acme of 3,360 feet ( 1,020 meter ), is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the boundary line with West Virginia, and near the headwaters of the North Branch of the Potomac River. Close to the small township of Hancock, in western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state, less than 2 miles ( 3.2 kilometer ) separates its borders, [ 50 ] the Mason–Dixon line to the north, and the northwards-arching Potomac River to the south. Portions of Maryland are included in diverse official and unofficial geographic regions. For exercise, the Delmarva Peninsula is composed of the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland, the stallion country of Delaware, and the two counties that make up the Eastern Shore of Virginia, whereas the westernmost counties of Maryland are considered region of Appalachia. Much of the Baltimore–Washington corridor lies precisely south of the Piedmont in the Coastal Plain, [ 51 ] though it straddles the margin between the two regions .

geology [edit ]

Earthquakes in Maryland are infrequent and humble ascribable to the state ‘s distance from seismic/earthquake zones. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] The M 5.8 Virginia earthquake in 2011 was felt reasonably throughout Maryland. Buildings in the state are not well-designed for earthquakes and can suffer damage easily. [ 54 ] Maryland has no natural lakes, by and large due to the miss of glacial history in the sphere. [ 55 ] All lakes in the state nowadays were constructed, largely via dams. [ 56 ] Buckel ‘s Bog is believed by geologists to have been a end of a former natural lake. [ 57 ] Maryland has shale formations containing natural gas, where fracking is theoretically potential. [ 58 ]

Flora [edit ]

As is distinctive of states on the East Coast, Maryland ‘s plant life is abundant and healthy. A modest volume of annual precipitation helps to support many types of plants, including seagrass and respective reeds at the smaller end of the spectrum to the gigantic Wye Oak, a huge case of white oak, the state tree, which can grow over 70 feet ( 21 meter ) improbable. Middle Atlantic coastal forests, typical of the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, grow around Chesapeake Bay and on the Delmarva Peninsula. Moving west, a concoction of Northeastern coastal forests and Southeastern mix forests cover the central part of the state. The appalachian Mountains of western Maryland are home to Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests. These give way to Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests near the West Virginia edge. [ 60 ]
many foreign species are cultivated in the state, some as ornamentals, others as knickknack species. Included among these are the crape myrtle, italian cypress, southern magnolia, survive oak in the quick parts of the department of state, [ 61 ] and even hardy palm trees in the warm cardinal and eastern parts of the state. [ 62 ] USDA plant boldness zones in the department of state range from Zones 5 and 6 in the extreme western partially of the country to Zone 7 in the cardinal part, and Zone 8 around the southerly separate of the slide, the bay area, and parts of metropolitan Baltimore. [ 63 ] Invasive establish species, such as kudzu, tree of heaven, multiflora rose, and japanese stiltgrass, smother growth of autochthonal plant biography. [ 64 ] Maryland ‘s country flower, the black-eyed susan, grows in abundance in wilderness flower groups throughout the express .

Fauna [edit ]

The state harbors a considerable act of white-tailed deer, particularly in the woody and mountainous west of the express, and overpopulation can become a trouble. Mammals can be found ranging from the mountains in the west to the cardinal areas and include black bears, [ 65 ] bobcats, [ 66 ] foxes, coyotes, [ 67 ] raccoons, and otters. [ 65 ]
There is a population of rare violent ( feral ) horses found on Assateague Island. [ 68 ] They are believed to be descended from horses who escaped from spanish galleon shipwrecks. [ 68 ] Every year during the last workweek of July, they are captured and swim across a shallow bay for sale at Chincoteague, Virginia, a conservation proficiency which ensures the bantam island is not overrun by the horses. [ 68 ] The ponies and their sale were popularized by the children ‘s book, Misty of Chincoteague. The purebred Chesapeake Bay Retriever chase was bred specifically for water sports, hunting and search and rescue in the Chesapeake sphere. [ 69 ] In 1878, the Chesapeake Bay Retriever was the beginning individual retriever engender recognized by the american Kennel Club. [ 69 ] and was late adopted by the University of Maryland, Baltimore County as their mascot. Maryland ‘s reptile and amphibian population includes the diamondback terrapin capsize, which was adopted as the mascot of University of Maryland, College Park, ampere well as the endanger Eastern box capsize. [ 70 ] The state is separate of the territory of the Baltimore new world oriole, which is the official department of state bird and mascot of the MLB team the Baltimore Orioles. [ 71 ] aside from the new world oriole, 435 other species of birds have been reported from Maryland. [ 72 ] The express worm is the Baltimore checkerspot chat up, although it is not as coarse in Maryland as it is in the southern edge of its stove. [ 73 ]

environment [edit ]

Maryland joined with neighbor states during the end of the twentieth century to improve the health of the Chesapeake Bay. The bay ‘s aquatic biography and seafood industry have been threatened by exploitation and by fertilizer and livestock godforsaken entering the bay. [ 74 ] [ 75 ] In 2007, Forbes.com rated Maryland as the one-fifth “ Greenest ” state in the area, behind three of the Pacific States and Vermont. Maryland ranks 40th in sum energy pulmonary tuberculosis nationally, and it managed less toxic neutralize per caput than all but six states in 2005. [ 76 ] In April 2007, Maryland joined the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative ( RGGI ) — a regional enterprise, formed by all the Northeastern states, Washington, D.C., and three canadian provinces, to reduce greenhouse flatulence emissions. [ 77 ] In March 2017, Maryland became the first state with raise accelerator reserves to ban fracking by passing a police against it. Vermont has such a law, but no shale accelerator, and New York has such a ban, though it was made by executive order. [ 58 ]

climate [edit ]

winter in Baltimore, Lancaster Street, Fells Point Maryland has a broad array of climates, due to local variances in natural elevation, proximity to water, and protection from cold weather due to downslope winds. The eastern half of Maryland — which includes the cities of Ocean City, Salisbury, Annapolis, and the southern and eastern suburbs of Washington, D.C., and Baltimore — lies on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, with categoric topography and arenaceous or cloudy soil. This region has a humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa ), with hot, humid summers and a cool to cold winter ; it falls under USDA Hardiness partition 8a. [ 63 ] The Piedmont region — which includes northern and westerly greater Baltimore, Westminster, Gaithersburg, Frederick, and Hagerstown — has average seasonal snow totals generally exceeding 20 inches ( 51 curium ), and, as part of USDA Hardiness zones 7b and 7a, [ 63 ] temperatures below 10 °F ( −12 °C ) are less rare. From the Cumberland Valley on westbound, the climate begins to transition to a humid continental climate ( Köppen Dfa ). In western Maryland, the higher elevations of Allegany and Garrett counties—including the cities of Cumberland, Frostburg, and Oakland —display more characteristics of the humid continental zone, ascribable in character to aggrandizement. They fall under USDA Hardiness zones 6b and below. [ 63 ] precipitation in the state is characteristic of the East Coast. Annual rain ranges from 35 to 45 inches ( 890 to 1,140 mm ) with more in higher elevations. closely every function of Maryland receives 3.5–4.5 inches ( 89–114 millimeter ) per month of rain. average annual snow varies from 9 inches ( 23 curium ) in the coastal areas to over 100 inches ( 250 centimeter ) in the western mountains of the submit. [ 78 ] Because of its location near the Atlantic Coast, Maryland is slightly vulnerable to tropical cyclones, although the Delmarva Peninsula and the outer banks of North Carolina provide a boastfully buff, such that strikes from major hurricanes ( class 3 or above ) occur infrequently. More often, Maryland gets the remnants of a tropical system that has already come ashore and released most of its energy. Maryland averages approximately 30–40 days of thunderstorms a class, and averages around six tornado strikes annually. [ 79 ]

Monthly average high and low temperatures for various Maryland cities and landmarks (covering breadth and width of the state)
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Oakland 34 °F (1 °C)
16 °F (−9 °C)
38 °F (3 °C)
17 °F (−8 °C)
48 °F (9 °C)
25 °F (−4 °C)
59 °F (15 °C)
34 °F (1 °C)
68 °F (20 °C)
45 °F (7 °C)
75 °F (24 °C)
53 °F (12 °C)
79 °F (26 °C)
58 °F (14 °C)
78 °F (26 °C)
56 °F (13 °C)
71 °F (22 °C)
49 °F (9 °C)
62 °F (17 °C)
37 °F (3 °C)
50 °F (10 °C)
28 °F (−2 °C)
39 °F (4 °C)
21 °F (−6 °C)
Cumberland 41 °F (5 °C)
22 °F (−6 °C)
46 °F (8 °C)
24 °F (−4 °C)
56 °F (13 °C)
32 °F (0 °C)
68 °F (20 °C)
41 °F (5 °C)
77 °F (25 °C)
51 °F (11 °C)
85 °F (29 °C)
60 °F (16 °C)
89 °F (32 °C)
65 °F (18 °C)
87 °F (31 °C)
63 °F (17 °C)
80 °F (27 °C)
55 °F (13 °C)
69 °F (21 °C)
43 °F (6 °C)
57 °F (14 °C)
34 °F (1 °C)
45 °F (7 °C)
26 °F (−3 °C)
Hagerstown 39 °F (4 °C)
22 °F (−6 °C)
42 °F (6 °C)
23 °F (−5 °C)
52 °F (11 °C)
30 °F (−1 °C)
63 °F (17 °C)
39 °F (4 °C)
72 °F (22 °C)
50 °F (10 °C)
81 °F (27 °C)
59 °F (15 °C)
85 °F (29 °C)
64 °F (18 °C)
83 °F (28 °C)
62 °F (17 °C)
76 °F (24 °C)
54 °F (12 °C)
65 °F (18 °C)
43 °F (6 °C)
54 °F (12 °C)
34 °F (1 °C)
43 °F (6 °C)
26 °F (−3 °C)
Frederick 42 °F (6 °C)
26 °F (−3 °C)
47 °F (8 °C)
28 °F (−2 °C)
56 °F (13 °C)
35 °F (2 °C)
68 °F (20 °C)
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56 °F (13 °C)
38 °F (3 °C)
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Baltimore 42 °F (6 °C)
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Elkton 42 °F (6 °C)
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58 °F (14 °C)
36 °F (2 °C)
46 °F (8 °C)
28 °F (−2 °C)
Ocean City 45 °F (7 °C)
28 °F (−2 °C)
46 °F (8 °C)
29 °F (−2 °C)
53 °F (12 °C)
35 °F (2 °C)
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58 °F (14 °C)
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Waldorf 44 °F (7 °C)
26 °F (−3 °C)
49 °F (9 °C)
28 °F (−2 °C)
58 °F (14 °C)
35 °F (2 °C)
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43 °F (6 °C)
75 °F (24 °C)
53 °F (12 °C)
81 °F (27 °C)
62 °F (17 °C)
85 °F (29 °C)
67 °F (19 °C)
83 °F (28 °C)
65 °F (18 °C)
78 °F (26 °C)
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Point Lookout State Park 47 °F (8 °C)
29 °F (−2 °C)
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60 °F (16 °C)
38 °F (3 °C)
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46 °F (8 °C)
78 °F (26 °C)
55 °F (13 °C)
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89 °F (32 °C)
69 °F (21 °C)
87 °F (31 °C)
67 °F (19 °C)
81 °F (27 °C)
60 °F (16 °C)
71 °F (22 °C)
49 °F (9 °C)
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41 °F (5 °C)
50 °F (10 °C)
32 °F (0 °C)
[80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89]

Demographics [edit ]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 319,728
1800 341,548 6.8%
1810 380,546 11.4%
1820 407,350 7.0%
1830 447,040 9.7%
1840 470,019 5.1%
1850 583,034 24.0%
1860 687,049 17.8%
1870 780,894 13.7%
1880 934,943 19.7%
1890 1,042,390 11.5%
1900 1,188,044 14.0%
1910 1,295,346 9.0%
1920 1,449,661 11.9%
1930 1,631,526 12.5%
1940 1,821,244 11.6%
1950 2,343,001 28.6%
1960 3,100,689 32.3%
1970 3,922,399 26.5%
1980 4,216,975 7.5%
1990 4,781,468 13.4%
2000 5,296,486 10.8%
2010 5,773,552 9.0%
2020 6,177,224 7.0%
Source: 1910–2020[90]

In the 2020 United States census, the United States Census Bureau found that population of Maryland was 6,185,278 people, a 7.1 % increase from the 2010 United States census. [ 90 ] The United States Census Bureau estimated that the population of Maryland was 6,045,680 on July 1, 2019, a 4.71 % increase from the 2010 United States census and an increase of 2,962, from the anterior class. This includes a natural increase since the concluding census of 269,166 ( 464,251 births minus 275,093 deaths ) and an increase due to net migration of 116,713 people into the state. immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 129,730 people, and migration within the state produced a net loss of 13,017 people. [ 91 ] The center of population of Maryland is located on the county line between Anne Arundel County and Howard County, in the unincorporated residential district of Jessup. [ 92 ] Maryland ‘s history as a border state has led it to exhibit characteristics of both the Northern and the southern regions of the United States. Generally, rural western Maryland between the West Virginian Panhandle and Pennsylvania has an appalachian culture ; the Southern and Eastern Shore regions of Maryland embody a southerly culture, [ 93 ] while dumbly populate Central Maryland – radiating outward from Baltimore and Washington, D.C. – has more in coarse with that of the Northeast. [ 94 ] The U.S. Census Bureau designates Maryland as one of the South Atlantic States, but it is normally associated with the middle atlantic States and Northeastern United States by other federal agencies, the media, and some residents. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] [ 97 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ]

Birth data [edit ]

As of 2011, 58.0 percentage of Maryland ‘s population younger than historic period 1 were minority background. [ 100 ] Note: Births in the table do not add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live births by single race/ethnicity of mother
Race 2013[101] 2014[102] 2015[103] 2016[104] 2017[105] 2018[106] 2019[107] 2020[108]
White: 41,474 (57.6%) 42,525 (57.5%) 42,471 (57.7%)
> non-Hispanic 32,568 (45.2%) 33,178 (44.9%) 32,412 (44.0%) 31,278 (42.8%) 29,809 (41.6%) 29,585 (41.6%) 28,846 (41.1%) 28,060 (40.9%)
Black 24,764 (34.4%) 25,339 (34.3%) 25,017 (34.0%) 22,829 (31.2%) 22,327 (31.1%) 21,893 (30.8%) 21,494 (30.6%) 20,869 (30.4%)
Asian 5,415 (7.5%) 5,797 (7.8%) 5,849 (7.9%) 5,282 (7.2%) 5,276 (7.3%) 4,928 (6.9%) 4,928 (7.0%) 4,595 (6.7%)
American Indian 300 (0.4%) 260 (0.3%) 279 (0.4%) 104 (0.1%) 127 (0.2%) 114 (0.2%) 113 (0.2%) 79 (0.1%)
Hispanic (of any race) 10,515 (14.6%) 10,974 (14.8%) 11,750 (16.0%) 11,872 (16.2%) 12,223 (17.1%) 12,470 (17.5%) 12,872 (18.3%) 13,034 (19.0%)
Total Maryland 71,953 (100%) 73,921 (100%) 73,616 (100%) 73,136 (100%) 71,641 (100%) 71,080 (100%) 70,178 (100%) 68,554 (100%)

Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic lineage are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group ; persons of Hispanic beginning may be of any race .

language [edit ]

spanish ( including spanish Creole ) is the second most talk language in Maryland, after English. The third and fourth most talk languages are french ( including Patois and Cajun ) and chinese. early normally speak languages include respective african languages, Korean, German, Tagalog, Russian, Vietnamese, Italian, respective asian languages, Persian, Hindi, and other Indic languages, Greek, and Arabic. [ 109 ]

Cities and metro areas [edit ]

Maryland population distribution function. Maryland ‘s population is concentrated by and large in the Baltimore and Washington metropolitan areas. Most of the population of Maryland lives in the central region of the state, in the Baltimore metropolitan sphere and Washington metropolitan area, both of which are partially of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan sphere. The majority of Maryland ‘s population is concentrated in the cities and suburbs surrounding Washington, D.C., deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as in and around Maryland ‘s most populous city, Baltimore. Historically, these and many other Maryland cities developed along the Fall Line, the trace along which rivers, brooks, and streams are interrupted by rapids and waterfalls. Maryland ‘s capital city, Annapolis, is one exception to this pattern since it lies along the banks of the Severn River, close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. The Eastern Shore is less populous and more rural, as are the counties of western Maryland. The two westernmost counties of Maryland, Allegany and Garrett, are mountainous and sparsely populate, resembling West Virginia and Appalachia more than they do the rest of the submit. Both eastern and western Maryland are, however, dotted with cities of regional importance, such as Ocean City, Princess Anne, and Salisbury on the Eastern Shore and Cumberland, Frostburg, and Hancock in westerly Maryland. Southern Maryland is still slightly rural, but suburbanization from Washington, D.C., has encroached importantly since the 1960s ; important local population centers include Lexington Park, Prince Frederick, California, and Waldorf. [ 110 ] [ 111 ]

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ancestry [edit ]

racial Makeup of Maryland excluding Hispanics from racial categories ( 2019 ) [ 112 ]
NH = Non-Hispanic

 

White NH ( 49.82 % )

 

Black NH ( 29.75 % )

 

asian NH ( 6.35 % )

 

native american NH ( 0.25 % )

 

Pacific Islander NH ( 0.04 % )

 

Two or more races NH ( 2.85 % )

 

early NH ( 0.31 % )

 

Hispanic Any Race ( 10.64 % )
In 1970, the U.S. Census Bureau reported Maryland ‘s population as 17.8 percentage african-american and 80.4 percentage non-Hispanic White. [ 117 ] african Americans form a ample dowry of the express ‘s population, 31.1 % as of 2020. [ 116 ] Most are descendants of people transported to the area as slaves from West Africa, and many are of mix raceway, including european and native american english ancestry. Concentrations of african Americans live in Baltimore City, Prince George ‘s County, a suburb of Washington, D.C., where many ferment ; Charles County, western parts of Baltimore County, and the southerly Eastern Shore. New residents of african origin include 20th-century and belated immigrants from Nigeria, peculiarly of the Igbo and Yoruba tribes. [ 118 ] Maryland besides hosts populations from other african and caribbean nations. many immigrants from the Horn of Africa have settled in Maryland, with big communities existing in the suburb of Washington, D.C. ( peculiarly Montgomery County and Prince George ‘s County ), and the city of Baltimore. The Greater Washington sphere has the largest population of Ethiopians outside of Africa. [ 119 ] The Ethiopian community of Greater D.C. was historically based in Washington, D.C. ‘s Adams Morgan and Shaw neighborhoods, but as the community has grown, many Ethiopians have settled in Silver Spring. [ 120 ] The Washington, D.C., metropolitan area is besides base to boastfully Eritrean and Somali communities. The top reported ancestries by Maryland residents are : german ( 15 % ), Irish ( 11 % ), English ( 8 % ), American ( 7 % ), italian ( 6 % ), and Polish ( 3 % ). [ 121 ] irish american english populations can be found throughout the Baltimore area, [ 122 ] and the Northern and Eastern suburb of Washington, D.C., in Maryland ( descendants of those who moved knocked out to the suburbs [ 123 ] of Washington ‘s once predominantly irish neighborhoods [ 123 ] [ 124 ] ), vitamin a well as western Maryland, where irish immigrant laborers helped to build the B & O Railroad. [ 122 ] Smaller but much older irish populations can be found in Southern Maryland, with some roots dating as far second as the early Maryland colony. [ 125 ] This population, however, still remains culturally identical active agent and annual festivals are held. [ 126 ] A large share of the population of the Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland are descendants of british american ancestry. The eastern Shore was settled by Protestants, chiefly Methodist and the southern counties were initially settled by English Catholics. western and northern Maryland have large german-american populations. More late european immigrants of the late 19th and early twentieth hundred settled first in Baltimore, attracted to its industrial jobs. Many of their heathen italian, Polish, Czech, Lithuanian, and greek descendants still live in the area. boastfully ethnic minorities include easterly Europeans such as Croatians, Belarusians, Russians and Ukrainians. The shares of european immigrants born in Eastern Europe increased significantly between 1990 and 2010. Following the adjournment of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia, many immigrants from Eastern Europe came to the United States—12 percentage of whom presently reside in Maryland. [ 127 ] [ 128 ] hispanic immigrants of the late twentieth century have settled in Aspen Hill, Hyattsville / Langley Park, Glenmont / Wheaton, Bladensburg, Riverdale Park, Gaithersburg, adenine well as Highlandtown and Greektown in East Baltimore. Salvadorans are the largest hispanic group in Maryland. other spanish american groups with meaning populations in the state of matter include Mexicans and Puerto Ricans and Hondurans. Though the Salvadoran population is more concentrate in the area around Washington, D.C., and the Puerto Rican population is more centralize in the Baltimore area, all other major spanish american groups in the state are evenly dispersed between these two areas. Maryland has one of the most diverse hispanic populations in the state, with significant populations from versatile Caribbean and cardinal american nations. [ 129 ] asian Americans are concentrated in the suburban counties surrounding Washington, D.C., and in Howard County, with korean american and taiwanese american communities in Rockville, Gaithersburg, and Germantown and a filipino American community in Fort Washington. Numerous indian Americans live across the country, particularly in central Maryland. Attracting educated Asians and Africans to the professional jobs in the region, Maryland has the fifth-largest proportions of racial minorities in the area. [ 130 ] In 2006, 645,744 were counted as foreign bear, which represents chiefly people from Latin America and Asia. About four percentage are undocumented immigrants. [ 131 ] Maryland besides has a boastfully korean american english population. [ 132 ] In fact, 1.7 percentage are Korean, while as a unharmed, 6.7 percentage are asian. [ 133 ] According to The Williams Institute ‘s analysis of the 2010 U.S. census, 12,538 same-sex couples are living in Maryland, representing 5.8 same-sex couples per 1,000 households. [ 134 ] In 2019, non-Hispanic white Americans were 49.8 % of Maryland ‘s population ( White Americans, including White Hispanics, were 57.3 % ), which made Maryland a majority minority department of state. [ 135 ] 50.2 % of Maryland ‘s population is colored, or is hispanic or Latino, the highest percentage of any country on the East Coast, and the highest share after the majority-minority states of Hawaii, New Mexico, Texas, California, and Nevada. [ 136 ] By 2031, minorities are projected to become the majority of voting eligible residents of Maryland. [ 137 ]

religion [edit ]

Maryland has been historically outstanding to American Catholic custom because the English colony of Maryland was intended by George Calvert as a seaport for english Catholics. Baltimore was the buttocks of the first Catholic bishop in the U.S. ( 1789 ), and Emmitsburg was the dwelling and burial plaza of the first American-born citizen to be canonized, St. Elizabeth Ann Seton. Georgetown University, the first Catholic University, was founded in 1789 in what was then function of Maryland ( it became a separate of the District of Columbia when it was created in the 1790s ). The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Baltimore was the first Roman Catholic cathedral built in the United States, and the Archbishop of Baltimore is, albeit without formal primacy, the United States ‘ quasi- archpriest, [ citation needed ] and much a cardinal. Among the immigrants of the 19th and twentieth centuries from eastern and southern Europe were many Catholics. Despite its historic relevance to the Catholic Church in the United States, the percentage of Catholics in the state of Maryland is below the home average of 20 %. Demographically, both Protestants and those identifying with no religion are more numerous than Catholics. According to the Pew Research Center, 69 percentage of Maryland ‘s population identifies themselves as Christian. about 52 % of the adult population are Protestants. [ boron ] Following Protestantism, Catholicism is the second largest religious affiliation, comprising 15 % percentage of the population. [ 138 ] [ 139 ] Amish / Mennonite communities are found in St. Mary ‘s, Garrett, and Cecil counties. [ 140 ] Judaism is the largest non-Christian religion in Maryland, with 241,000 adherents, or four percentage of the full population. [ 141 ] Jews are numerous throughout Montgomery County and in Pikesville and Owings Mills northwest of Baltimore. An calculate 81,500 jewish Americans live in Montgomery County, constituting approximately 10 % of the total population. [ 142 ] The Seventh-day Adventist Church ‘s global headquarters and Ahmadiyya Muslims ‘ national headquarters are located in Silver Spring, just outside the District of Columbia .

economy [edit ]

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Maryland ‘s arrant submit product in 2016 was $ 382.4 billion. [ 143 ] however, Maryland has been using Genuine Progress Indicator, an indicator of wellbeing, to guide the state ‘s development, quite than relying alone on growth indicators like GDP. [ 144 ] [ 145 ] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Maryland households are presently the wealthiest in the country, with a 2013 median family income of $ 72,483, [ 146 ] which puts it ahead of New Jersey and Connecticut, which are second and third respectively. Two of Maryland ‘s counties, Howard and Montgomery, are the second and eleventh wealthiest counties in the nation respectively. Maryland has the most millionaires per caput in 2013, with a ratio of 7.7 percentage. [ 147 ] besides, the state ‘s poverty rate of 7.8 percentage is the lowest in the area. [ 148 ] [ 149 ] [ 150 ] Per capita personal income in 2006 was $ 43,500, fifth in the nation. As of March 2022, the state ‘s unemployment rate was 4.6 percentage. [ 151 ] Maryland ‘s economy benefits from the state ‘s proximity to the federal government in Washington, D.C., with an emphasis on technical and administrative tasks for the defense/aerospace diligence and bio-research laboratories, vitamin a well as staff of satellite government headquarters in the suburban or exurban Baltimore/Washington area. Ft. Meade serves as the headquarter of the Defense Information Systems Agency, United States Cyber Command, and the National Security Agency / Central Security Service. In addition, a number of educational and aesculapian research institutions are located in the state of matter. In fact, the versatile components of The Johns Hopkins University and its medical research facilities are immediately the largest single employer in the Baltimore area. Altogether, white collar technical and administrative workers comprise 25 percentage of Maryland ‘s parturiency force, [ citation needed ] attributable in part to nearby Maryland being a separate of the Washington Metro Area where the federal government function employment is relatively high. fabricate, while bombastic in dollar value, is highly diversified with no sub-sector contributing over 20 percentage of the sum. typical forms of manufacturing admit electronics, calculator equipment, and chemicals. The once-mighty primary metals sub-sector, which once included what was then the largest steel factory in the earth at Sparrows Point, hush exists, but is pressed with foreign contest, bankruptcies, and mergers. During World War II the Glenn Martin Company ( now separate of Lockheed Martin ) airplane factory employed some 40,000 people. Mining early than construction materials is about limited to char, which is located in the mountainous western contribution of the country. The brownstone quarries in the east, which gave Baltimore and Washington much of their characteristic computer architecture in the mid-19th century, were once a prevailing natural resource. historically, there used to be small gold-mining operations in Maryland, some near Washington, but these no longer exist .

port of Baltimore [edit ]

One major service bodily process is transportation, centered on the Port of Baltimore and its related vilify and truck access. The port ranked 17th in the U.S. by tonnage in 2008. [ 152 ] Although the larboard handles a wide variety of products, the most distinctive imports are sensitive materials and bulk commodities, such as iron ore, petroleum, sugar, and fertilizers, frequently distributed to the relatively stopping point manufacture centers of the inland Midwest via good overland fare. The port besides receives respective brands of imported motor vehicles and is the number one car larboard in the U.S. [ 153 ] Baltimore City is among the top 15 largest ports in the state, [ 154 ] and was one of six major U.S. ports that were depart of the February 2006 controversy over the Dubai Ports World batch. [ 155 ] The state as a whole is heavily industrialized, with a booming economy and influential technology centers. Its calculator industries are some of the most sophisticated in the United States, and the federal government has invested heavily in the area. Maryland is home to several large military bases and scores of high-level government jobs. The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is a 14 miles ( 23 kilometer ) canal on the Eastern Shore that connects the waters of the Delaware River with those of the Chesapeake Bay, and in particular with the Port of Baltimore, carrying 40 percentage of the interface ‘s transport traffic. [ 156 ]

Fishing [edit ]

Maryland has a large food-production sector. A large component of this is commercial fishing, centered in the Chesapeake Bay, but besides including action off the shortstop Atlantic seashore. The largest catches by species are the amobarbital sodium crab, oysters, striped sea bass, and menhaden. The Bay besides has overwintering waterfowl in its wildlife refuges. The waterfowl confirm a tourism sector of sportsmen .

farming [edit ]

agribusiness is an significant part of the state ‘s economy Maryland has large areas of fertile agricultural land in its coastal and Piedmont zones, though this kingdom use is being encroached upon by urbanization. department of agriculture is oriented to dairy grow ( specially in foothill and piedmont areas ) for nearby large city milksheads, plus forte perishable gardening crops, such as cucumbers, watermelons, gratifying corn, tomatoes, muskmelons, squash, and peas ( reference : USDA Crop Profiles ). The southerly counties of the western shoreline of Chesapeake Bay are warm adequate to support a tobacco cash crop zone, which has existed since early Colonial times, but declined greatly after a department of state politics buy-out in the 1990s. There is besides a large automated chicken -farming sector in the department of state ‘s southeast function ; Salisbury is home to Perdue Farms. Maryland ‘s food-processing plants are the most significant type of fabrication by value in the state. Farming suffers from weeds as anywhere else, including an unusual breed insubordinate ragwort ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia ) found by Rousonelos et al., 2012 with both ALS- and PPO -resistances [ 157 ] and which by 2016 had developed a third gear, EPSP resistance. [ 158 ] This ragwort population is a drag on soy cultivation and, as of May 7, 2022, is the worst multiresistant pot problem in the state of matter. [ 158 ]

biotechnology [edit ]

Maryland is a major center for life sciences research and development. With more than 400 biotechnology companies located there, Maryland is the fourth largest nexus in this battlefield in the United States. [ 159 ] Institutions and government agencies with an matter to in inquiry and development located in Maryland include the Johns Hopkins University, the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, more than one campus of the University System of Maryland, Goddard Space Flight Center, the United States Census Bureau, the National Institutes of Health ( NIH ), the National Institute of Standards and Technology ( NIST ), the National Institute of Mental Health ( NIMH ), the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, the federal Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ), the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Celera Genomics company, the J. Craig Venter Institute ( JCVI ), and AstraZeneca ( once MedImmune ). Maryland is home to defense contractor Emergent BioSolutions, which manufactures and provides an anthrax vaccine to U.S. government military personnel. [ 160 ]

tourism [edit ]

The beach repair town of Ocean City along the Atlantic Ocean is a popular tourist finish in Maryland. tourism is democratic in Maryland. many tourists visit Baltimore, the beaches of the Eastern Shore, and the nature of western Maryland. Attractions in Baltimore include the Harborplace, the Baltimore Aquarium, Fort McHenry, vitamin a well as the Camden Yards baseball stadium. Ocean City on the Atlantic Coast has been a popular beach finish in summer, peculiarly since the Chesapeake Bay Bridge was built in 1952 connecting the Eastern Shore to the more populated Maryland cities. [ 48 ] The express capital of Annapolis offers sites such as the state capitol building, the historic district, and the waterfront. Maryland besides has respective sites of interest to military history, given Maryland ‘s role in the American Civil War and in the War of 1812. early attractions include the historic and picturesque towns along the Chesapeake Bay, such as Saint Mary ‘s, Maryland ‘s first colonial settlement and master capital. [ 161 ]

healthcare [edit ]

As of 2017, the top two health insurers including all types of policy were CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield with 47 % market share followed by UnitedHealth Group at 15 %. [ 162 ] Maryland has experimented with healthcare payment reforms, notably beginning in the 1970s with an all-payer rate setting broadcast regulated by the Health Services Cost Review Commission. [ 163 ] In 2014, it switched to a ball-shaped budget tax income system, whereby hospitals receive a capitated payment to care for their population. [ 163 ]

fare [edit ]

The Maryland Department of Transportation oversees most fare in the submit through its diverse administration-level agencies. [ 164 ] The mugwump Maryland Transportation Authority maintains and operates the state ‘s eight toll facilities .

Roads [edit ]

Maryland ‘s Interstate highways include 110 miles ( 180 kilometer ) of Interstate 95 ( I-95 ), which enters the northeasterly helping of the submit, travels through Baltimore, and becomes part of the eastern section of the Capital Beltway to the Woodrow Wilson Bridge. I-68 travels 81 miles ( 130 kilometer ), connecting the western portions of the state to I-70 at the little town of Hancock. I-70 enters from Pennsylvania north of Hancock and continues east for 93 miles ( 150 kilometer ) to Baltimore, connecting Hagerstown and Frederick along the way. I-83 has 34 miles ( 55 kilometer ) in Maryland and connects Baltimore to southern cardinal Pennsylvania ( Harrisburg and York, Pennsylvania ). Maryland besides has an 11-mile ( 18 kilometer ) part of I-81 that travels through the state near Hagerstown. I-97, in full contained within Anne Arundel County and the short ( 17.6 miles ( 28.3 kilometer ) ) one- or two-digit interstate highway in the contiguous US, connects the Baltimore area to the Annapolis area. There are besides several aide Interstate highways in Maryland. Among them are two beltways encircling the major cities of the area : I-695, the McKeldin ( Baltimore ) Beltway, which encircles Baltimore ; and a assign of I-495, the Capital Beltway, which encircles Washington, D.C. I-270, which connects the Frederick area with Northern Virginia and the District of Columbia through major suburbs to the northwest of Washington, is a major commuter route and is adenine broad as fourteen lanes at points. I-895, besides known as the Harbor Tunnel Thruway, provides an alternate road to I-95 across the Baltimore Harbor. Both I-270 and the Capital Beltway were extremely congested ; however, the Intercounty Connector ( ICC ; MD 200 ) has alleviated some congestion over time. construction of the ICC was a major depart of the campaign platform of former Governor Robert Ehrlich, who was in position from 2003 until 2007, and of Governor Martin O’Malley, who succeeded him. I-595, which is an unsigned highway coincident with US 50 / US 301, is the longest unsigned interstate in the country and connects Prince George ‘s County and Washington, D.C. with Annapolis and the Eastern Shore via the Chesapeake Bay Bridge .
Maryland besides has a state highway arrangement that contains routes numbered from 2 through 999, however most of the higher-numbered routes are either unsigned or are relatively short. major state highways include Routes 2 ( Governor Ritchie Highway/Solomons Island Road/Southern Maryland Blvd. ), 4 ( Pennsylvania Avenue /Southern Maryland Blvd./Patuxent Beach Road/St. Andrew ‘s Church Road ), 5 ( Branch Avenue/Leonardtown Road/Point Lookout Road ), 32, 45 ( York Road ), 97 ( Georgia Avenue ), 100 ( Paul T. Pitcher Memorial Highway ), 210 ( indian Head Highway ), 235 ( Three Notch Road ), 295 ( Baltimore-Washington Parkway ), 355 ( Wisconsin Avenue/Rockville Pike/Frederick Road ), 404 ( Queen Anne Highway/ Shore Highway ), and 650 ( New Hampshire Avenue ) .

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Airports [edit ]

Maryland ‘s largest airport is Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, more normally referred to as BWI. The airport is named for the Baltimore-born Thurgood Marshall, the beginning african-american Supreme Court justice. The merely other airports with commercial overhaul are at Hagerstown and Salisbury. The Maryland suburb of Washington, D.C. are besides served by the other two airports in the area, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Dulles International Airport, both in Northern Virginia. The College Park Airport is the nation ‘s oldest, founded in 1909, and is still used. Wilbur Wright trained military aviators at this localization. [ 165 ] [ 166 ]

rail [edit ]

Ellicott City Station, on the original B&O Railroad line, is the oldest remaining passenger station in the United States. The rail line is still used by CSX Transportation for freight trains, and the station is now a museum. Amtrak trains, including the high-speed Acela Express serve Baltimore ‘s Penn Station, BWI Airport, New Carrollton, and Aberdeen along the Washington, D.C. to Boston Northeast Corridor. In addition, train serve is provided to Rockville and Cumberland by Amtrak ‘s Washington, D.C., to Chicago Capitol Limited. The WMATA ‘s Metrorail rapid theodolite and Metrobus local bus topology systems ( the 2nd and 6th busy in the nation of their respective modes ) provide servicing in Montgomery and Prince George ‘s counties and connect them to Washington, D.C., with the carry Metrobus Route B30 serving BWI Airport. The Maryland Transit Administration ( often abbreviated as “ MTA Maryland ” ), a express agency part of the Maryland Department of Transportation besides provides transit services within the state. Headquartered in Baltimore, MTA ‘s transportation system services are largely focused on central Maryland, a well as some portions of the Eastern Shore and Southern MD. Baltimore ‘s Light RailLink and Metro SubwayLink systems serve its dumbly populated inner-city and the surrounding suburb. The MTA besides serves the city and its suburb with its local bus topology service ( the 9th largest organization in the nation ). The MTA ‘s Commuter Bus system provides express coach service on longer routes connecting Washington, D.C. and Baltimore to parts of Central and Southern MD vitamin a well as the Eastern Shore. The commuter rail serve, known as MARC, operates three lines which all end at Washington Union Station and provide service to Baltimore ‘s Penn and Camden stations, Perryville, Frederick, and Martinsburg, WV. In accession, many suburban counties operate local bus systems which connect to and complement the larger MTA and WMATA/Metro services. The MTA will besides administer the Purple Line, an under-construction unaccented rail argumentation that will connect the Maryland branches of the Red, Green / Yellow, and Orange lines of the Washington Metro, a well as volunteer transfers to all three lines of the MARC commuter rail system. [ 167 ] [ 168 ] Freight railing transportation is handled chiefly by two classify I railroads, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as several smaller regional and local carriers. CSX Transportation has more extensive trackage throughout the state, with 560 miles ( 900 kilometer ), [ 169 ] followed by Norfolk Southern Railway. Major vilify yards are located in Baltimore and Cumberland, [ 169 ] with an intermodal terminal ( rail, truck and marine ) in Baltimore. [ 170 ]

law and government [edit ]

The government of Maryland is conducted according to the state fundamental law. The politics of Maryland, like the other 49 express governments, has single authority over matters that lie wholly within the state ‘s borders, except as circumscribed by the Constitution of the United States. exponent in Maryland is divided among three branches of government : executive, legislative, and discriminative. The Maryland General Assembly is composed of the Maryland House of Delegates and the Maryland Senate. Maryland ‘s governor is alone in the United States as the office is vested with significant authority in budget. The legislature may not increase the governor ‘s propose budget expenditures. Unlike many other states, significant autonomy is granted to many of Maryland ‘s counties. Most of the business of government is conducted in Annapolis, the state capital. Elections for governor and most statewide offices, ampere well as most county elections, are held in midterm-election years ( even-numbered years not divisible by four ). The judicial branch of state government consists of one unify District Court of Maryland that sits in every county and Baltimore City, ampere well as 24 Circuit Courts sitting in each County and Baltimore City, the latter being courts of general jurisdiction for all civil disputes over $ 30,000, all equitable jurisdiction and major condemnable proceedings. The intercede appellate court is known as the Court of special Appeals and the state supreme court is the Court of Appeals. The appearance of the judges of the Maryland Court of Appeals is unique ; Maryland is the lone state of matter whose judges wear crimson robes. [ 171 ]

tax income [edit ]

Maryland imposes five income tax brackets, ranging from 2 to 6.25 percentage of personal income. [ 172 ] The city of Baltimore and Maryland ‘s 23 counties levy local “ piggyback ” income taxes at rates between 1.25 and 3.2 percentage of Maryland taxable income. local anesthetic officials set the rates and the tax income is returned to the local governments quarterly. The top income tax bracket of 9.45 percentage is the fifth highest combined state and local income tax rates in the state, behind New York City ‘s 11.35 percentage, California ‘s 10.3 percentage, Rhode Island ‘s 9.9 percentage, and Vermont ‘s 9.5 percentage. [ 173 ] Maryland ‘s state sales tax is six percentage. [ 174 ] All real property in Maryland is subject to the property tax. [ 175 ] Generally, properties that are owned and used by religious, charitable, or educational organizations or place owned by the federal, submit or local governments are exempt. [ 175 ] Property tax rates vary widely. [ 175 ] No restrictions or limitations on place taxes are imposed by the state, meaning cities and counties can set tax rates at the tied they deem necessary to fund governmental services. [ 175 ]

Elections [edit ]

Since before the Civil War, Maryland ‘s elections have been largely controlled by the Democrats, which account for 54.9 % of all register voters as of May 2017. [ 176 ] state elections are dominated by Baltimore and the populous suburban counties bordering Washington, D.C., and Baltimore : montgomery, Prince George ‘s, Anne Arundel, and Baltimore counties. As of July 2017, [ 177 ] 66 percentage of the state of matter ‘s population resides in these six jurisdictions, most of which contain large, traditionally democratic vote bloc : african Americans in Baltimore City and Prince George ‘s ; federal employees in Prince George ‘s, Anne Arundel, and Montgomery ; and post-graduates in Montgomery. The end of the department of state, particularly western Maryland and the Eastern Shore, is more supportive of Republicans. [ citation needed ] One of Maryland ‘s best known political figures is a republican – former governor Spiro Agnew, who pled no contest to tax evasion and resigned in 1973. [ 178 ] In 1980, Maryland was one of six states to vote for Jimmy Carter. In 1992, Bill Clinton fared better in Maryland than any early state, except his dwelling country of Arkansas. In 1996, Maryland was Clinton ‘s one-sixth best ; in 2000, Maryland ranked fourthly for Gore ; and in 2004, John Kerry showed his fifth-best operation in Maryland. In 2008, Barack Obama won the state ‘s 10 electoral votes with 61.9 percentage of the vote, to John McCain ‘s 36.5 percentage. In 2002, former Governor Robert Ehrlich was the first Republican to be elected to that office in four decades, and after one term, he lost his seat to Baltimore Mayor and Democrat Martin O’Malley. Ehrlich ran again for governor in 2010, losing again to O’Malley .

Voter registration and party enrollment in Maryland[179]
Party Total Percentage
Democratic 2,249,296 54.39%
Republican 991,944 23.98%
Independents and unaffiliated 824,969 19.95%
Other parties 69,571 1.68%
Total 4,135,780 100.00%

The 2006 election brought no change in the convention of democratic dominance. After democratic Senator Paul Sarbanes announced that he was retiring, democratic Congressman Benjamin Cardin defeated Republican Lieutenant Governor Michael S. Steele, with 55 percentage of the right to vote, against Steele ‘s 44 percentage. While Republicans normally win more counties, by piling up large margins in the west and east, they are besides normally swamped by the more densely populate and heavily democratic Baltimore–Washington axis. In 2008, for example, McCain won 17 counties to Obama ‘s six ; Obama besides carried Baltimore City. While McCain won most of the westerly and easterly counties by margins of 2-to-1 or more, he was about completely shut out in the larger counties surrounding Baltimore and Washington ; every bombastic county, except Anne Arundel, went for Obama. [ 180 ] From 2007 to 2011, U.S. Congressman Steny Hoyer ( MD-5 ), a Democrat, was elected as Majority Leader for the hundred-and-tenth Congress and 111th Congress of the House of Representatives, serving in that post again starting in 2019. In accession, Hoyer served as House Minority Whip from 2003 to 2006 and 2012 to 2018. His district covers parts of Anne Arundel and Prince George ‘s counties, in addition to all of Charles, Calvert, and St. Mary ‘s counties in southern Maryland. [ 181 ] In 2010, Republicans won control of most counties. The democratic Party remained in command of eight county governments, including that of Baltimore. [ 182 ] In 2014, Larry Hogan, a moderate Republican, [ 183 ] was elected Governor of Maryland. [ 184 ] Hogan is the second gear Republican to become the Governor of Maryland since Spiro Agnew, who resigned in 1969 to become vice president. In 2018, Hogan was re-elected to a second terminus of office. Per the fundamental law of Maryland, Hogan is term-limited, and may not run for a third gear consecutive term in the 2022 Maryland gubernatorial election. In a 2020 study, Maryland was ranked by the Election Law Journal as the 5th easiest state for citizens to vote in. [ 185 ]

LGBT rights and community [edit ]

The first person known to describe himself as a puff queen was William Dorsey Swann, born enslaved in Hancock, Maryland. Swann was the first american on record who pursued legal and political military action to defend the LGBTQ community ‘s right to assemble. [ 186 ] In February 2010, Attorney General Doug Gansler issued an impression stating that Maryland jurisprudence should honor same-sex marriages from out of country. At the time, the state Supreme Court wrote a decision uphold marriage discrimination. [ 134 ] On March 1, 2012, Maryland Governor Martin O’Malley signed the exemption to marry bill into law after it passed in the state legislature. Opponents of same-sex marriage began collecting signatures to overturn the police. The law faced a referendum, as interview 6, in the November 2012 election. [ 134 ] A big majority ( 57 % ) of Maryland voters said they would vote to uphold the freedom to marry, with 37 % saying they would vote against. This is consistent with a January 2011 Gonzales Research & Marketing Strategies poll showing 51 % back for marriage in the state. [ 187 ] Voters voted 52 % to 48 % for Question 6 on November 6, 2012. Same-sex couples began marrying in Maryland on January 1, 2013. [ 134 ] In May 2012, Maryland ‘s Court of Appeals ruled that the state of matter will recognize marriages of same-sex couples who married out-of-state, no matter the consequence of the November election. [ 134 ]

Media [edit ]

A well-known newspaper is The Baltimore Sun. many residents of the Washington metropolitan area meet The Washington Post. The most populous areas are served by either Baltimore or Washington, D.C. circulate stations. The eastern Shore is served chiefly by broadcast media based around the Delmarva Peninsula ; the northeastern section receives both Baltimore and Philadelphia stations. Garrett County, which is mountainous, is served by stations from Pittsburgh, and requires cable or satellite for reception. Maryland is served by statewide PBS member place Maryland Public Television ( MPT ) .

education [edit ]

Primary and secondary education [edit ]

UMBC Commons and Quad education Week ranked Maryland # 1 in its nationally 2009–2013 quality Counts reports. [ citation needed ] The College Board ‘s 9th Annual AP Report to the Nation besides ranked Maryland first. [ citation needed ] Primary and junior-grade education in Maryland is oversee by the Maryland State Department of Education, which is headquartered in Baltimore. [ 188 ] The highest educational official in the state is the State Superintendent of Schools, who is appointed by the State Board of Education to a four-year term of position. The Maryland General Assembly has given the Superintendent and State Board autonomy to make educationally relate decisions, limiting its influence on the daily functions of public education. Each county and county-equivalent in Maryland has a local Board of Education charged with running the populace schools in that particular legal power. The budget for education was $ 5.5 billion in 2009, representing about 40 percentage of the state ‘s general fund. [ 189 ] Data from the 2017 census shows that, among large school districts, four Maryland districts are in the top six for per-pupil annual spend, exceeded lone by the Boston and New York City districts. [ 190 ] Maryland has a wide range of private primary coil and junior-grade schools. many of these are affiliated with diverse religious sects, including insular schools of the Catholic Church, Quaker schools, Seventh-day Adventist schools, and jewish schools. In 2003, Maryland law was changed to allow for the universe of publicly funded charter schools, although the charter schools must be approved by their local Board of Education and are not exempt from state laws on education, including collective dicker laws. In 2008, the state led the entire country in the share of students passing Advanced Placement examinations. 23.4 percentage of students earned passing grades on the AP tests given in May 2008. This marks the first year that Maryland earned this honor. [ 191 ] Three Maryland high schools ( in Montgomery County ) were ranked among the acme 100 in the country by US News in 2009, based in large region on AP screen scores. [ 192 ]

Colleges and universities [edit ]

Maryland has several historic and celebrated individual colleges and universities, the most big of which is Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876 with a grant from Baltimore entrepreneur Johns Hopkins. The first public university in the state is the University of Maryland, Baltimore, which was founded in 1807 and contains the University of Maryland ‘s merely public academic health, human services, and one of two law centers ( the other being the University of Baltimore School of Law ). Seven professional and graduate schools train the majority of the submit ‘s physicians, nurses, dentists, lawyers, social workers, and pharmacists. [ 193 ] The flagship university and largest undergraduate institution in Maryland is the University of Maryland, College Park which was founded as the Maryland Agricultural College in 1856 and became a populace country grant college in 1864. Towson University, founded in 1866, is the state ‘s second gear largest university. In 1974, Maryland, along with seven other states, chiefly in the South, submitted plans to desegregate its state universities ; Maryland ‘s plans were approved by the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. [ 194 ] Baltimore is home to the University of Maryland, Baltimore County and the Maryland Institute College of Art. The majority of public universities in the state of matter ( Bowie State University, Coppin State University, Frostburg State University, Salisbury University and the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore ) are affiliated with the University System of Maryland. Two state-funded institutions, Morgan State University and St. Mary ‘s College of Maryland, a well as two federally funded institutions, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and the United States Naval Academy, are not affiliated with the University System of Maryland. The University of Maryland Global Campus is the largest populace university in Maryland [ 195 ] and one of the largest distance-learning institutions in the universe. [ 196 ] St. John ‘s College in Annapolis and Washington College in Chestertown, both private institutions, are the oldest colleges in the submit and among the oldest in the area. other private institutions include Mount St. Mary ‘s University, McDaniel College ( once known as western Maryland College ), Hood College, Stevenson University ( once known as Villa Julie College ), Loyola University Maryland, and Goucher College, among others .

Public libraries [edit ]

Maryland ‘s 24 public library systems deliver public education for everyone in the state of Maryland through a course of study that comprises three pillars : autonomous Education ( books and materials in all formats, e-resources ), Research Assistance & Instruction ( individualized research aid, classes for students of all ages ), and Instructive & Enlightening Experiences ( for example, Summer Reading Clubs, author events ). Maryland ‘s library systems include, in separate :
many of the library systems have established formalized partnerships with other educational institutions in their counties and regions. [ 198 ]

Sports [edit ]

With two major metropolitan areas, Maryland has a numeral of major and minor professional sports franchises. Two National Football League teams play in Maryland, the Baltimore Ravens in Baltimore and the Washington Commanders in Landover. The Baltimore Colts represented the NFL in Baltimore from 1953 to 1983 before moving to Indianapolis. The Baltimore Orioles are the state ‘s Major League Baseball franchise. The National Hockey League ‘s Washington Capitals and the National Basketball Association ‘s Washington Wizards once played in Maryland, until the construction of an arena in Washington, D.C. in 1997 ( now known as Capital One Arena ). University of Maryland ‘s team is the Maryland Terrapins. Maryland enjoys considerable historical repute for the talented sports players of its past, including Cal Ripken Jr. and Babe Ruth. In 2012, The Baltimore Sun published a number of Maryland ‘s circus tent ten athletes in the state ‘s history. The list includes Babe Ruth, Cal Ripken Jr, Johnny Unitas, Brooks Robinson, Frank Robinson, Ray Lewis, Michael Phelps, Jimmie Foxx, Jim Parker, and Wes Unseld. [ 199 ] early professional sports franchises in the state include three consort minor league baseball teams, one autonomous league baseball team, the Baltimore Blast indoor soccer team, two indoor football teams, three low-level outdoor soccer teams, and the Chesapeake Bayhawks of Major League Lacrosse. Maryland is besides home plate to one of the three races in horse racing ‘s annual Triple Crown, the Preakness Stakes, which is run every jump at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore. The Baltimore Stallions were a canadian Football team in the CFL that played the 1994–95 season. The congressional area Club has hosted three golf tournaments for the U.S. Open and a PGA Championship. The official state sport of Maryland, since 1962, is jousting ; the official team mutant since 2004 is lacrosse. [ 200 ] The National Lacrosse Hall of Fame is located on the Johns Hopkins University campus in Baltimore. In 2008, intending to promote physical fitness for all ages, walking became the official state exercise. Maryland is the beginning department of state with an official state exert. [ 201 ]

Friendship partners [edit ]

Maryland has relationships with many provinces, states, and early entities worldwide .

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

Coordinates :

source : https://shayski.com
Category : Uncategorized

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