Croydon – Wikipedia

Town in South London, England

human settlement in England
Croydon is a large town in South London, England that gives its list to the London Borough of Croydon. It is one of the largest commercial districts in Greater London, with an extensive denounce district and night-time economy. [ 2 ] The entire town [ 3 ] had a population of 192,064 as of 2011, [ 4 ] whilst the wide-eyed borough had a population of 384,837. It is 9.4 miles ( 15.1 kilometer ) south of Charing Cross.

It was primitively character of the Wallington hundred in the historic county of Surrey. At the time of the Norman conquest of England Croydon had a church service, a mill, and around 365 inhabitants, as recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] Croydon expanded in the Middle Ages as a market township and a center for charcoal production, leather tanning and brew. The Surrey Iron Railway from Croydon to Wandsworth opened in 1803 and was the earth ‘s first base populace railroad track. later nineteenth hundred railway build facilitated Croydon ‘s growth as a commuter town for London. By the early twentieth century, Croydon was an significant industrial area, known for car manufacture, alloy working and Croydon Airport. In the mid twentieth century these sectors were replaced by retail and the service economy, brought about by massive renovation which saw the resurrect of office blocks and the Whitgift Centre, the largest shop center in Greater London until 2008. Croydon was amalgamated into Greater London in 1965. Croydon lies on a transport corridor between central London and the south seashore of England, to the north of two high gaps in the North Downs, one taken by the A23 Brighton Road and the independent railroad track line through Purley and Merstham and the other by the A22 from Purley to the M25 Godstone exchange. Road traffic is diverted away from a largely pedestrianised town kernel, by and large consisting of north End. East Croydon is a major hub of the national railway conveyance system, with frequent fast services to central London, Brighton and the confederacy coast. The township is besides at the center of the entirely tramline arrangement in southern England .

history [edit ]

toponymy [edit ]

[7] The early settlement of Old Town, including the The earliest detail map of Croydon, drawn by the 18-year-old Jean-Baptiste Say in 1785.The early on village of Old Town, including the parish church ( marked B ) lies to the west ; while the triangular medieval marketplace, probably associated with Archbishop Kilwardby ‘s market charter of 1276, is intelligibly visible further east, although by this date it has been infilled with buildings. As the huge majority of identify names in the area are of Anglo-Saxon beginning, the theory accepted by most philologists is that the name Croydon derives primitively from the Anglo-Saxon croh, meaning “ crocus “, and denu, “ valley “, indicating that, like Saffron Walden in Essex, it was a center for the cultivation of saffron. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] It has been argued that this polish is probably to have taken place in the Roman menstruation, when the orange yellow crocus would have been grown to supply the London market, most credibly for medicative purposes, and particularly for the treatment of granulation of the eyelids. [ 10 ] There is besides a plausible Brittonic origin for Croydon in the shape “ Crai-din ” meaning “ settlement near bracing water ” ( californium Creuddyn, Ceredigion ), the name Crai ( variously spelled ) being found in Kent at assorted places even arsenic late as the Domesday Book [ citation needed ]. [ 11 ] Alternative, although less probable, theories of the list ‘s origin have been proposed. According to John Corbet Anderson : “ The earliest citation of Croydon is in the joint will of Beorhtric and Aelfswth, dated about the year 962. In this Anglo-Saxon document the mention is spell [ here he uses Old English characters ] Crogdaene. Crog was, and still is, the Norse or Danish word for crooked, which is expressed in Anglo-Saxon by crumb, a wholly different word. From the danish came our crook and crooked. This term accurately describes the vicinity ; it is a crooked or winding valley, in character to the valley that runs in an oblique and serpentine course from Godstone to Croydon. ” [ 12 ] Anderson challenged a title, primitively made by Andrew Coltee Ducarel, that the diagnose came from the Old French for “ chalk hill ”, because it was in use at least a century before the french speech would have been normally used following the Norman seduction. however, there was no long-run danish occupation ( see Danelaw ) in Surrey, which was part of Wessex, and Danish-derived terminology is besides highly improbable. More recently, David Bird has speculated that the name might derive from a personal name, Crocus : he suggests a family connection with the documented Chrocus, king of the Alemanni, who allegedly played a separate in the proclamation of Constantine as emperor at York in AD 306. [ 10 ]

early history [edit ]

The town lies on the line of the Roman road from London to Portslade, and there is some archaeological evidence for minor Roman liquidation in the area : there may have been a mansio ( staging-post ) here. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] Later, in the 5th to 7th centuries, a large heathen Saxon cemetery was situated on what is now Park Lane, although the extent of any associate settlement is unknown. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] By the late Saxon period Croydon was the hub of an estate belong to to the Archbishops of Canterbury. The church service and the archbishops ‘ manor firm occupied the area however known as “ Old Town ”. The archbishops used the manor house as an occasional stead of residency : as lords of the manor they dominated the biography of the township well into the early modern period, and as local patrons they continue to have an influence. [ 19 ] Croydon appears in Domesday Book ( 1086 ) as Croindene, held by Archbishop Lanfranc. Its Domesday assets included 16 hides and 1 virgate of land ; a church ; a mill worth 5s ; 38 plough -teams ; 8 acres ( 3.2 hour angle ) of hayfield ; and woodland for 200 hogs. It had a record population of 73 households ( representing roughly 365 individuals ) ; and its value in terms of taxes rendered was £37 10s 0d. [ 5 ] [ 6 ]
The Surrey Street Market has had a presence on this site for centuries The church service had been established in the middle Saxon time period, and was probably a minster church, a base for a group of clergy living a communal life. A charter issued by King Coenwulf of Mercia refers to a council that had taken stead close to the monasterium ( meaning minster ) of Croydon. [ 20 ] An Anglo-Saxon will made in about 960 is witnessed by Elfsies, priest of Croydon ; and the church is besides mentioned in Domesday Book. The will of John de Croydon, fishmonger, dated 6 December 1347, includes a bequest to “ the church service of S John de Croydon ”, the earliest clear commemorate of its dedication. The church still bears the arms of Archbishop Courtenay and Archbishop Chichele, believed to have been its benefactors .
In 1276 Archbishop Robert Kilwardby acquired a charter for a weekly commercialize, and this credibly marks the foundation of Croydon as an urban concentrate. [ 21 ] Croydon developed into one of the chief market towns of north east Surrey. The marketplace set was laid out on the higher ground to the east of the manor firm in the triangle now bounded by High Street, Surrey Street and Crown Hill. By the sixteenth hundred the manor house had become a significant palace, used as the main summer home plate of the archbishops and visited by monarchs and other dignitaries. however, the palace gradually became bedraggled and surrounded by slums and stagnant ponds, and in 1781 the archbishops sold it, and in its place purchased a raw residency at nearby Addington. Nevertheless, many of the buildings of the original Croydon Palace outlive, and are in use today as Old Palace School .
The parish Church ( now Croydon Minster ) is a perpendicular -style church, which was remodelled in 1849 but destroyed in a great fire in 1867, after which alone the column, south porch, and outer walls remained. A fresh church was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, one of the greatest architects of the victorian historic period, and opened in 1870. His purpose loosely followed the former layout, with knapped flint front and many of the original features, including several tombs. Croydon parish Church is the burying place of six Archbishops of Canterbury : John Whitgift, Edmund Grindal, Gilbert Sheldon, William Wake, John Potter and Thomas Herring. Historically function of the Diocese of Canterbury, Croydon is immediately in the Diocese of Southwark. In addition to the suffragan Bishop of Croydon, the Vicar of Croydon is a preferment. [ citation needed ]
The Grade I listed “ Whitgift Hospital “ almshouses in the center of Croydon The Grade II listed West Croydon Baptist Church The Grade I listed parish Church of St Michael and All Angels, West Croydon Addington Palace is a Palladian-style mansion between Addington Village and Shirley, in the London Borough of Croydon. Six archbishops lived there between 1807 and 1898, when it was sold. between 1953 and 1996 it was the home of the Royal School of Church Music. It is now a conference and feasting venue. Croydon was a leisure finish in the mid nineteenth hundred. In 1831, one of England ‘s most outstanding architects, Decimus Burton, designed a watering place and pleasure gardens below Beulah Hill and off what is nowadays Spa Hill in a bowl of land on the south-facing side of the hill around a jump of chalybeate water. Burton was creditworthy for the Beulah Spa Hotel ( demolished around 1935 ) and the layout of the grounds. [ 22 ] Its official title was The Royal Beulah Spa and Gardens. It became a popular club venue attracting crowd to its fêtes. One wide publicize event was a “ Grand Scottish Fete ” on 16 September 1834 “ with a tightrope performance by Pablo Fanque, the black circus performer who would later dominate the victorian circus and achieve immortality in The Beatles song, Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite! “ [ 23 ] The watering place closed in 1856 soon after the opening nearby of the Crystal Palace [ 24 ] which had been rebuilt on Sydenham Hill in 1854, following its success at the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park. It was destroyed in a spectacular fire in 1936. horse rush in the area took place occasionally, notably during visits of Queen Elizabeth I to the archbishop. regular meetings became established first on a run at Park Hill in 1860 and from 1866 at Woodside, where particularly beneficial prizes were offered for the races run under National Hunt rules. In that sphere its prestige was second entirely to Aintree, home plate of the Grand National. Increasing local enemy to the presence of allegedly disobedient racegoers coupled with the want to obtain a license from the local authority led to it being closed down in 1890. [ 25 ] The Elizabethan Whitgift Almshouses, the “ Hospital of the Holy Trinity ”, in the center of Croydon at the corner of north end and George Street, were erected by Archbishop John Whitgift. He petitioned for and received permission from Queen Elizabeth I to establish a hospital and school in Croydon for the “ poor, needy and impotent people ” from the parishes of Croydon and Lambeth. The initiation stone was laid in 1596 and the build was completed in 1599. The premises included the Hospital or Almshouses, providing accommodation for between 28 and 40 people, and a nearby school and schoolmaster ‘s family. There was a Warden in charge of the wellbeing of the almoners. The build up takes the imprint of a court surrounded by the chambers of the almoners and versatile offices. Threatened by respective reconstruction plans and road-widening schemes, the Almshouses were saved in 1923 by intervention of the House of Lords. On 21 June 1983 Queen Elizabeth II visited the Almshouses and unveiled a plaque celebrating the recently completed reconstruction of the build up. On 22 March each year the laying of the foundation stone is commemorated as Founder ‘s Day. The Grade II listed West Croydon Baptist Church was built in 1873 by J. Theodore Barker. It is a red brick build with stone dressings. Its three bays are divided by opposite Doric pilasters supporting a triglyph frieze and panelled parapet. [ 26 ] The parish Church of St Michael and All Angels by John Loughborough Pearson in West Croydon was built between 1880 and 1885, and is Grade I listed. [ 27 ]

Industrial Revolution and the railway [edit ]

The Grade II listed Surrey Street Pumping Station, Croydon The development of Brighton as a fashionable haunt in the 1780s increased Croydon ‘s importance as a stop for stage coaches on the road south of London. At the begin of the nineteenth hundred, Croydon became the terminus of two pioneering commercial enchant links with London. The first, opened in 1803, was the horse-drawn Surrey Iron Railway from Wandsworth, which in 1805 was extended to Merstham, as the Croydon, Merstham and Godstone Railway. The irregular, opened in 1809, was the Croydon Canal, which branched off the Grand Surrey Canal at Deptford. The London and Croydon Railway ( an atmospheric and steam-powered railroad track ) opened between London Bridge and West Croydon in 1839, using much of the route of the canal ( which had closed in 1836 ). other connections to London and the south followed. The arrival of the railways and early communications advances in the nineteenth hundred led to a 23-fold increase in Croydon ‘s population between 1801 and 1901. [ 8 ] This rapid expansion of the town led to considerable health problems, specially in the dampen and overcrowded working class zone of Old Town. In reception to this, in 1849 Croydon became one of the first towns in the nation to acquire a local anesthetic board of health. The Board constructed public health infrastructure including a reservoir, water provision net, sewers, a pump station and sewage disposal works. The Surrey Street Pumping Station is Grade II listed ; it was built in four phases. starting with the engine family in 1851, with a promote engine house in 1862, a far extension in 1876–7 to house a colonial horizontal engine and a far extension in 1912. [ 28 ]

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A growing township [edit ]

The Allders build in 1983 Shopping parade in north end, Croydon In 1883 Croydon was incorporated as a borough. In 1889 it became a county borough, with a greater degree of autonomy. The new county borough council implemented the Croydon Improvement scheme in the early 1890s, which widened the High Street and cleared much of the “ Middle Row ” slum area. The remaining slums were cleared shortly after second World War, with much of the population relocated to the apart new liquidation of New Addington. New stores opened and expanded in central Croydon, including Allders, Kennards and Grade II listed Grants, ampere well as the first base Sainsbury ‘s self-service shop class in the state. [ 8 ] There was a market on Surrey Street. [ 29 ] Croydon was the placement of London ‘s main airport until the second World War. During the war, much of cardinal Croydon was devastated by german V-1 flying bombs and V-2 rockets, and for many years the township bore the scars of the destruction. After the war, Heathrow Airport superseded Croydon Airport as London ‘s chief airport, and Croydon Airport promptly went into a worsen, finally closing in 1959. By the 1950s, with its continuing growth, the town was becoming congested, and the Council decided on another major renovation schema. The Croydon Corporation Act was passed in 1956. This, coupled with national government incentives for office resettlement out of Central London, led to the building of new offices and accompanying road schemes through the late 1950s and 1960s, and the town boomed as a business center in the 1960s, with many multi-storey office blocks, an underpass, a overpass and multi-storey car parks. The redevelop township center has since been identified as an “ boundary city “ – a significant urban and commercial center in its own right, located on the outskirts of a larger metropolitan area ( in this subject, London ). [ 30 ] [ 31 ] In 1960 Croydon celebrated its millennium with a pageant deem at Lloyd Park and an exhibition held at the honest-to-god Croydon Aerodrome .

modern Croydon [edit ]

The growing town attracted many new buildings. The Fairfield Halls arts center and event venue opened in 1962. Croydon developed as an important center for denounce, with the construction of the Whitgift Centre in 1969. No. 1 Croydon ( once the NLA Tower ) [ 32 ] designed by Richard Seifert & Partners was completed in 1970. The Warehouse Theatre opened in 1977. The 1990s saw far changes intended to give the township a more attractive image. These included the blockage of north end to vehicles in 1989 and the open of the Croydon Clocktower arts center in 1994. An early success of the center was the “ Picasso ‘s Croydon Period ” exhibition of March–May 1995. The Croydon Tramlink began operation in May 2000 ( see Transport section below ). The Prospect West office development was built in 1991 to 1992, and its remodelling planned in 2012 [ 33 ] has now been completed. Renamed Interchange Croydon when it was reopened in 2014, the 180,000 square foot office development was the beginning fresh degree A office development of its size to open in Croydon for more than 20 years. [ 34 ] Another big patronize center, Centrale, opened in 2004 opposite the Whitgift Centre, and adjoining the smaller Drummond Centre. House of Fraser and Debenhams are the anchor stores in the compound center. In addition, there are plans for a big, new one billion ram shopping concentrate, in the form of a new Westfield shop plaza to add to the two which the company presently has in Greater London ; Westfield plans to work jointly with Hammersons and to incorporate the best aspects of the two companies ‘ designs. [ 35 ] In November 2017, Croydon Council gave permission for the newfangled Westfield shopping concentrate to be built [ 36 ] and in January 2018, the Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan, approved the regeneration scheme. [ 37 ] work to demolish the existing Whitgift Centre was due to begin in 2018 and Westfield Croydon was initially to open by 2022. The Westfield plans were delayed and the planning license elapsed : however, in 2021, Croydon Council confirmed they were committed to see the Westfield Centre proceed. [ 38 ] There are several other major plans for the township including the renovation of the Croydon Gateway web site ; and extensions of Tramlink to Purley Way, Streatham, Lewisham and Crystal Palace .
[39] luxury apartment development Saffron Squareluxury apartment development Croydon has many tall buildings such as the early Nestlé Tower ( St George ‘s House ). The London Borough of Croydon ‘s strategic planning committee in February 2013 gave the enterprise to place fund director Legal and General Property ‘s plans to convert the evacuate 24-storey St George ‘s House function build, occupied by Nestlé until September 2012, into 288 flats. [ 40 ] On 22 November 2011, then Mayor of London Boris Johnson announced £23m of extra support to help redevelop the town at the Develop Croydon Conference. [ 41 ] several apartment developments, for exemplify Altitude 25 ( completed 2010 ), have been built in late years, and respective more are being built or planned. The construction of Saffron Square, [ 39 ] which includes a 43-storey column, began on Wellesley Road in 2011 and was completed in 2016. other developments with towers over 50 floors high have been given planning blessing. These include the 54-storey “ Menta Tower ” in Cherry Orchard Road near East Croydon place, and a 55-storey tower at One Lansdowne Road, on which construction was set to begin in early 2013. The latter is set to be Britain ‘s tallest blockage of flats, including office space, a four-star hotel and a health club. [ 42 ] In May 2012 it was announced that Croydon had been successful in its command to become one of twelve “ Portas Pilot “ towns, and would receive a share of £1.2m fund to help rejuvenate its cardinal shop areas. [ 43 ]
Boxpark, Croydon In November 2013, Central Croydon MP Gavin Barwell gave a presentation at a populace meet on the Croydon positive feedback project, detailing versatile developments afoot due to be completed in come years. [ 44 ] On 26 November 2013, Croydon Council approved a renovation of the Town Centre by The Croydon Partnership, a joint venture by The Westfield Group and Hammerson. [ 45 ] [ 46 ] London Mayor Boris Johnson approved the plan the follow day. [ 47 ] The Croydon Advertiser listed the approval as an “ Historic Night for Croydon ”. [ 48 ] At Ruskin Square, a Boxpark form of sea containers opened in 2016 as a impermanent measurement until new buildings are constructed for shops, offices and house. [ 49 ] [ 50 ] The London Evening Standard said that this and other developments were reviving the town which was in the action of gentrification. [ 51 ]

future [edit ]

far developments are planned as separate of the Croydon Vision 2020 design, which was drawn up by the borough after a 1999 learn by town design consultants EDAW. [ 52 ] The plan includes modern office blocks, apartment buildings, shopping centres and other developments, some of which have already been built. More than 2,000 newly homes are planned. [ 53 ] [ 54 ] Public transport is set to improve, with Tramlink getting more tracks, platforms and trams. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] The East Croydon caravan station is to have more tracks and tag barriers, with nearby busbar stops getting better lights and paving. [ citation needed ] however, a footbridge built at the post in 2013 had fewer openings than planned, leading it to be dubbed the “ bridge to nowhere ” by some locals. [ 57 ] In West Croydon, track extensions in 2010 met the London Overground fulminate network. Fairfield Halls is to become the linchpin of a cultural quarter encompassing nearby College Green. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] Plans include an artwork veranda, a new college, shops and offices, with a multi-storey cable car park set for demolition to make space for 218 homes. [ 60 ] The John Laing Group is involved in the College Green development with the Croydon Council as part of a joint project called the Croydon Urban Regeneration Vehicle. [ 61 ] [ 62 ] [ 63 ] In 2007, events were held under the label of Croydon Exp07 to promote billions of pounds of promise projects, including liquid pools and a library. [ 64 ] however, plans for a raw shop center, to be called Park Place, had already been abandoned amid a scandal about cash for peerages. [ 65 ] [ 66 ] besides abandoned were plans for an arena near the East Croydon station, after a compulsory purchase holy order was rejected in 2008 at Cabinet horizontal surface. [ 67 ] [ 68 ]

economy [edit ]

As of 2011, Croydon ‘s annual retail dollar volume from comparison goods was £353 million, the fifth-highest in Greater London behind the West end, Shepherd ‘s Bush, Stratford and Kingston upon Thames. Croydon had as of 2012 320,991 square metres ( 3,455,120 sq foot ) of sum township concentrate floorspace, the 2nd highest in Greater London merely behind the West goal. [ 69 ] apart from its very large central denounce district, Croydon has a number of smaller denounce areas, specially towards the southerly end of the township in which are many restaurants. Two of Croydon ‘s restaurants are listed in The good Food Guide. [ 70 ] In a 2015 report by CACI, Croydon was ranked 12th in the “ Hot 100 UK retail locations ” with a score of 90 %. [ 71 ] The Zotefoams ship’s company is headquartered in Croydon .

government [edit ]

condition [edit ]

For centuries the sphere lay within the Wallington hundred, an ancient Anglo-Saxon administrative division of the county of Surrey. [ 72 ] In the late Middle Ages – probably from the late thirteenth century onwards – residents of the township of Croydon, as defined by limit markers known as the “ four crosses ”, enjoyed a degree of self-government through a township court or portmote, and a form of free tenure of property. [ 73 ] These privileges set the area of the town apart from its rural backwoods, where the more usual and more restrictive rules of manorial tenure applied. however, Croydon did not hold any kind of formal borough status. In 1690, the leading inhabitants petitioned William III and Mary for Croydon to be incorporated as a borough. The application was initially approved, the king authorising the blueprint of a charter, but the action was then abruptly halted, obviously through the intervention of Archbishop John Tillotson, who credibly feared a menace to his own authority over the town. The application was revived the follow year, when Queen Mary again authorised a rent, but once again it was abandoned. A second petition in 1707 was efficaciously ignored. [ 74 ] [ 75 ] Croydon ‘s growth in the nineteenth century brought the return of incorporation back on to the political agenda, and in 1883 the ancient parish of Croydon, aside from its exclave of Croydon Crook or Selsdon, was created a municipal borough within Surrey. In 1889, because the population was high adequate, it was made a county borough, nontaxable from county administration. In 1965 ( under the terms of the London Government Act 1963 ) the County Borough of Croydon was abolished and the area was transferred to Greater London and combined with the Coulsdon and Purley Urban District to form the London Borough of Croydon. In holocene decades, the borough has on several occasions sought city condition. ( This would be a strictly honorific deepen of deed, making no virtual difference to the borough ‘s government. ) A draft petition was submitted by the County Borough to the Home Office in 1951, a more formal request in 1954, and two more applications in 1955 and 1958. When the London Borough was created in 1965, the Council endeavoured to have it styled a City, as was the City of Westminster. Further bids for city condition were made in 1977, 1992, 2000, 2002, and 2012. All have failed. The borough ‘s prevailing argument has constantly been its size : in 2000 it pointed out that it was “ the largest township which does not have the title of City in the unharmed of Western Europe ”. The grounds on which it has been turned down have constantly been that it is ( as was stated in 1992 ) merely “ part of the London conurbation, preferably than a put with a character and identity of its own ”. Undeterred, council representatives have more than once described Croydon as “ a city in all but name ”. [ 76 ] [ 77 ] In 2008, Boris Johnson, then Mayor of London, said he would support Croydon being awarded city status. [ 78 ]

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advanced government [edit ]

The London Borough of Croydon has a Labour-controlled council with 41 labor councillors and 29 conservative councillors elected on 3 May 2018. [ Corrected Aug 2020 ] Most of the town center lies within the Addiscombe and Fairfield wards, which form part of the Croydon Central constituency. [ 79 ] The rest of the town kernel is in the Croham ward, which is part of the Croydon South constituency. These wards are all in the London Borough of Croydon, which is responsible for services along with other agencies such as education, refuse collection, road care, local design and social care. The Addiscombe ward is presently represented by Labour Councillors. The Fairfield and Croham wards have, by contrast, habitually elected conservative members. The sitting Member of Parliament for Croydon Central is Sarah Jones, a member of the Labour Party. The sitting Member of Parliament for Croydon South is Chris Philp, a penis of the Conservatives. The Member of Parliament for Croydon North is Steve Reed, for the Labour Party .

Public services [edit ]

The territorial patrol violence is the Metropolitan Police. Their Croydon Police Station is on Park Lane opposite the Croydon Flyover. [ 80 ] The statutory fuel and rescue service in Croydon is the London Fire Brigade ( LFB ) who have a fire station in Old Town, with two pumping appliances. [ 81 ] The nearest hospital is Croydon University Hospital ( known from 1923 to 2010 as Mayday Hospital ) in nearby Thornton Heath, which is separate of Croydon Health Services NHS Trust. [ 82 ] The London Ambulance Service provides the ambulance overhaul. [ 83 ]

Demography and population [edit ]

The town of Croydon includes its neighbourhoods Addiscombe, Addington, Broad Green, Coombe, Forestdale, New Addington, Sanderstead, Selsdon, Shirley, and Waddon. The 13 electoral wards that make it up together counted a population of 192,064 in the 2011 census, [ 4 ] forming the majority of the borough overall ( crop up. 384,837 ). Croydon is ethnically diverse. [ 84 ] Those who are from BAME minority background range from 19.5 % in Sanderstead ward to 68.6 % in Broad Green. West Thornton cellblock ( contribution of Thornton Heath ) is one of the most ethnically diverse areas of England. [ 85 ] Fairfield ward, which is the major ward covering the central town, was ethnically 40 % White British, 16 % indian, and 10 % early White in the 2011 UK Census. [ 86 ] Religiously, 46 % was Christian, 21 % irreligious, 13 % Hindu and 8 % Muslim. The most common family tenure type was either owned or privately rented. The medial senesce was 33. In addition, the Broad Green ward was ethnically 23 % White British, 13 % indian, 13 % other asian, and 11 % Black African. About 41 % of family tenures were owned, while privately and socially rented each made up 29 % each. The median age was 31. [ 87 ] The Addiscombe ward was ethnically 45 % White British and 10 % other White. religiously, 52 % of the population was Christian, 24 % irreligious, 7 % Muslim and 6 % Hindu. 52 % of house tenures were owned. [ 88 ] There are 10 early wards that cover Croydon ‘s neighbourhoods. The median house price as of 2014 was £212,998 in Selhurst ward, one of London ‘s lowest. The highest in the town was in Sanderstead ward, £392,500. The average age in 2013 ranged from 32 years in Broad Green and Fieldway wards, to 43.2 years in Selsdon and Ballards ward. [ 89 ]

2011 Census homes %
Ward Detached Semi-detached Terraced Flats and apartments[90][91]
Addiscombe 3.4% 13.6% 35.7% 47.2%
Ashburton 10.8% 36.8% 34.4% 18.0%
Broad Green 4.8% 18.1% 34.1% 42.9%
Croham 18.9% 15.8% 16.2% 49.1%
Fairfield 9.1% 7.0% 14.5% 69.4%
Fieldway 2.8% 25.7% 37.1% 34.4%
Heathfield 13.3% 30.8% 29.2% 26.8%
New Addington 2.6% 50.2% 21.8% 25.2%
Sanderstead 37.8% 44.7% 5.2% 12.2%
Selhurst 4.4% 16.3% 26.7% 52.7%
Selsdon and Ballards 24.4% 57.6% 11.7% 6.3%
Shirley 15.5% 42.3% 16.9% 25.3%
Waddon 5.9% 24.5% 23.5% 46.1%

geography [edit ]

The Grade II listed Wrencote House, High Street, Croydon A view of Wellesley Road 15 nautical mile spoke map from Croydon priggish architecture in Croydon High Street Croydon town concentrate is near the centre of the borough of Croydon, to the north of the North Downs and the Pilgrims ‘ Way path. To the north of Croydon are typical London districts, whereas a abruptly distance southeast ( such as Coombe and Selsdon ) is green, cragged and rural land. To the west are industrial areas, part of which are in the London Borough of Sutton. The southerly suburbs are chiefly affluent and besides cragged. The town center is bordered by Waddon immediately southwest of cardinal Croydon. To the west, inside the London Borough of Sutton lies Beddington. To the north are Broad Green, Thornton Heath and Selhurst. To the south lies South Croydon, and going far south are Purley and Sanderstead. To the east lie Addiscombe and Shirley. Croydon High Street runs from South Croydon up to the point where it meets the street called north End. north end is the independent denounce street, while Croydon High Street is the main restaurant quarter. The High Street is besides home plate to Wrencote House, a Grade II* listed construct. Dating from the late 17th or early 18th centuries, and probably built as a merchant ‘s house, it has a distinctive “ H ” plan form over its four floors ( including basement and attic floor ). external features include a rich red brick facade with black headers, and a heavily carved and enriched wooden eaves cornice. [ 92 ] [ 93 ] Wellesley Road on the A212 road forms a north–south axis through the town center. In line with London design policy, there have been a number of proposals to create greater consolidation between East Croydon station, which lies on one side of the A212, and the township kernel of Croydon, which lies on the early side of it. Croydon Vision 2020 aims to tackle this though such solutions as making the road easier for pedestrians to cross by creating a center island pathway. topographically, central Croydon by and large lies between 50 metres ( 160 foot ) ( in the union ) and 70 metres ( 230 foot ) ( in the south ) above sea horizontal surface. Elevation importantly climbs towards the east of the town – Coombe Park peaks at about 95 metres ( 312 foot ) above sea floor, whereas the Addington Hills, Coombe Wood and Addington Golf Course are american samoa high as 145 metres ( 476 foot ), with the southerly end of New Addington having an elevation of over 160 metres ( 520 foot ). To the south, Croham Hurst has a mound of 145 metres ( 476 foot ), and the highest area of Croydon is the Sanderstead plantation at 175 metres ( 574 foot ). The lowest elevation is around Broad Green, about 35 metres ( 115 foot ) above sea level .

River Wandle [edit ]

The River Wandle is a tributary of the River Thames, flowing some 9 miles ( 14 kilometer ) to Wandsworth and Putney from its source in Croydon. It roughly forms the borough ‘s western limit with the London Borough of Sutton, and for part of its length besides forms the boundary between the London Boroughs of Croydon and Lambeth. One of its tributaries rises in Selhurst .

culture [edit ]

Arts [edit ]

The Fairfield Halls, Croydon ‘s entertainment complex The Spreadeagle, cardinal Croydon, which besides houses the dramaturgy of the lapp name that opened in 2013 There are several arts venues. Foremost is the Fairfield Halls, opened in 1962, which consists of a boastfully concert hall frequently used for BBC recordings, the Ashcroft Theatre and the Arnhem Gallery. Fairfield is the home of the London Mozart Players. Many celebrated faces have appeared at the Fairfield Halls, including The Beatles, Bucks Fizz, Omid Djalili, Robert Cray, JLS, Chuck Berry, BB King, Don McLean, The Monkees, Johnny Cash, Dionne Warwick, Gladys Knight, Morecambe and Wise, Tom Jones, The Stylistics, Status Quo, Level 42, A-HA, John Mayall, Jools Holland, Kenny Rogers, James final, and Coolio. The main concert hall was used for the conference scene in the Ron Howard film The Da Vinci Code ( 2006 ). The Fairfield Halls reopened in 2019, following a program of modernization and renovation .
Croydon Clocktower Arts Centre Croydon Clocktower, built by the London Borough of Croydon in the mid-1990s, houses a state-of-the-art library, a performance venue in the old reference library, the David Lean Cinema – which is a minor, freelancer, art-house film and the Museum of Croydon, which details Croydon ‘s history. The construction links into Croydon Town Hall and some areas of the construction, most notably the Braithwaite Hall, are contribution of the original town hall and library complex, built in 1892–1896 to a blueprint by Charles Henman. [ 94 ] A tan statue of Queen Victoria was erected outside the buildings in 1903. [ 95 ] The Warehouse Theatre ( which closed in 2012 ), was a studio dramaturgy known for promoting fresh write, drollery and youth field. It had to close because of the major Ruskin Square renovation, but will re-open in the future in a new larger dramaturgy building within the raw development. [ citation needed ] The Pembroke Theatre had many productions with long-familiar actors before its closure in about 1962. There are several local and belittled venues for comedy and community events dotted around Croydon and its districts. Croydon Youth Theatre Organisation celebrated its fortieth birthday in 2005. There are several community arts groups, particularly in the large Asian community. The Spread Eagle Theatre is a newly 50-seat studio dramaturgy. Opened in October 2013, it is situated in the town center, 10 minutes ‘ walk from East Croydon Station. The Spread Eagle works close with its baby venue, the Old Joint Stock Theatre in Birmingham. Both venues champion ‘big plays for humble spaces ‘ with an emphasis on new writing, supporting emerging artists and theater companies. A calendar titled “ Rare Roundabouts of Croydon ”, with a visualize of a unlike Croydon devious each month, has enjoyed some success. [ 96 ]

Public art [edit ]

One of respective fresh murals to have appeared in Croydon township center in holocene years About 60 murals were added to Croydon town centre in 2018, as share of the Rise street art festival coordinated by the Rise art veranda in Croydon. [ 97 ] [ 98 ]

literature [edit ]

Croydon is the typeset of two poems by british Poet Laureate Sir John Betjeman, “ Croydon ” and “ Love in a Valley ”. The borough has been the residency of many celebrated authors and novelists, including Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, who set up house in Norwood, D.H. Lawrence, and french novelist Émile Zola, who lived for a time in the Queen ‘s Hotel, Upper Norwood. Cicely mary Barker, author and illustrator of the Flower Fairies serial of books, was born in Croydon. Croydon is the fix of novels. The now defunct airport lent itself to the mysteries The 12.30 from Croydon and Death in the Clouds, [ 99 ] and the town is mentioned in some Sherlock Holmes mysteries. Croydon is referred to in a rhyme dating back to the eighteenth hundred, revised in the victorian earned run average to :

Sutton for dear mouton ;
Cheam for juicy beef ;
Croydon for a pretty female child
And Mitcham for a thief. [ 100 ]

music [edit ]

The composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor ( 1875–1912 ) lived at 30 Dagnall Park, Selhurst, until his death. He grew up in Croydon and whistle in the church choir at St George ‘s and teach at the Crystal Palace School of Music and many other schools of music. He died from pneumonia after collapsing at West Croydon station. There is an impressive dangerous with a poem at Bandon Hill Cemetery, and exhibits about him in the Museum of Croydon. In addition to the Fairfield Halls, respective venues in Croydon have hosted rock candy acts. Established in 1976, the Cartoon was a democratic know music venue that closed in 2006. The Greyhound in Park Lane played host to acts such as Led Zeppelin, Jimi Hendrix, The Who, David Bowie, Queen, Siouxsie and the Banshees, The Damned, The Boomtown Rats, A-ha in ( 1987 ) and others during the 1960s and ’70s. Mott The Hoople paid protection to the town ‘s music view in the song Saturday Gigs. [ 101 ] The Greyhound besides saw the debut of the Electric Light Orchestra in 1972. [ 102 ] Captain Sensible released the song “ Croydon ” in 1982 in tribute to his home township. The township center was for 30 years home to Europe ‘s largest second-hand read store, Beano ‘s, offering rare vinyl, CDs and books. In November 2008, it was announced that Beano ‘s would close. The premises, off Church Street near the Grant ‘s film complex, became a “ grocery store place ” with stalls for economic rent by small business and individuals. [ 103 ] Croydon has a rock view producing such local talent as Frankmusik and Noisettes and the bands Saint Etienne and 7 time Grammy considered alternate dirt rock ‘n’ roll band Caine all formed in Croydon. Croydon has been at the center of the exploitation of the dubstep genre, a relatively late musical development that traces its roots from jamaican knight music, UK Garage and drum and bass. Artists such as Benga and Skream, who honed their production and DJing skills whilst working at the now defunct Big Apple Records on Surrey Street, along with Norwood ‘s Digital Mystikz, DJ Chef, Timi Korus and Thornton Heath ‘s Plastician, form the core roll of dubstep DJs and producers. furthermore, UK rappers and dirt artists Stormzy, Krept and Konan, Nadia Rose and Section Boyz all hail from or can trace their roots to the London Borough of Croydon. The oldest presently surviving shop class in Croydon is 46 south end. Dating back to the sixteenth hundred, this Grade II listed construction calm retains all its master Tudor features. Records show that the premises has been a shop for at least 163 years, where street directories from 1851 give the names of E. C. Johnson & Thorpe. The build is presently in function as a music shop. [ 104 ] Croydon is home to the BRIT School for performing arts and engineering, based in Selhurst, which has produced stars such as Adele, Jessie J, Amy Winehouse, Leona Lewis, Katie Melua, Katy B, Kate Nash, Imogen Heap, Rizzle Kicks, Dane Bowers and members of the Feeling & the Kooks. Independent of such institutions, Croydon is besides the base of artists like Nosferatu D2, [ 105 ] Magic Brother, Bad Sign, Cassettes and Grimecore band Caine .

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Media [edit ]

Croydon plays host to the popular Channel 4 show Peep Show. The ITV police play The Bill, although set in East London, was filmed in Croydon and many of the township center locations were filmed around Surrey Street and St George ‘s House ( the Nestle construction ). Sun Hill Police Station is in nearby Mitcham. The opening credit sequence for the situation comedy Terry and June featured the eponymous stars walking around the Whitgift Centre and the Fairfield Halls. In 2007, the music television for popular headliner Mika ‘s single “ boastfully Girl ( You Are beautiful ) “ was shot in versatile locations around the town, including High Street and Surrey Street Market. The Delta Point build, close to West Croydon station appeared in the film The Dark Knight Rises as Gotham General Hospital. [ 106 ] The 2018 synergistic film, Black Mirror : Bandersnatch featured respective scenes shot in Croydon, such as St George ‘s Walk and No.1 Croydon. [ 107 ] [ 108 ] Croydon has its own in full independent television station : it does not receive any government or local assurance grant or fund and is supported by donations, sponsorship and by commercial advertise. [ 109 ] In 2012, Croydon Radio, an internet radio station, began in the area. [ 110 ]

Sport and leisure [edit ]

Parks and receptive spaces [edit ]

Queens Gardens in the town concentrate The borough has many woods for walking in, which together account for 8.5 % of Greater London ‘s forest resource ( 626.46 hectares ). [ 111 ] These include Lloyd Park and Croham Hurst. Among several early parks and open spaces around Croydon, there is an area of landscape green space in the township center called Queens Gardens ; it is adjacent to the town hall and Clocktower art center .

Clubs and teams [edit ]

The most big sports club in the borough is quartz glass Palace Football Club, based in the north of the borough since 1918. Palace play at the purpose-built stadium of Selhurst Park, which the golf club moved to in 1924 from the Nest, its first Croydon-based stadium. The Nest had previously been the home of the defunct Croydon Common Football Club and sat future to Selhurst station. Palace won forwarding to the Premier League ( the top grade of football in England ) at the end of the 2012–13 season. Croydon has a Non-League football club, Croydon F.C. who play at Croydon Sports Arena. Sunday League team Purley Saint Germain besides play at Croydon Sports Arena. Streatham-Croydon RFC, founded in 1871, is one of Greater London ‘s oldest extant rugby union clubs, playing barely north of the town concentrate at Frant Road in Thornton Heath. Croydon Amphibians SC plays in Division 2 British Waterpolo League. In 2008, the team won the National League Division 3. [ 112 ] The borough besides has a women ‘s curler bowler hat team called Croydon Roller Derby, which trains in Carshalton. The team was established in the early part of this ten and has played both national and international teams including Roller Derby Madrid, Stuttgart Valley Rollergirlz and Oxford Roller Derby. The fun is full-contact and played on quad skates with players skating attack an elliptic track .

transportation [edit ]

The multitude of East Croydon station East Croydon mainline post Tram no. 2544 in Church Street, 2008

rail [edit ]

Croydon is served by East Croydon, South Croydon and West Croydon. East Croydon and South Croydon are served by Govia Thameslink Railway, operating under the Southern and Thameslink brands via the Brighton Main Line. [ 113 ] West Croydon is served by London Overground and Southern services. [ 114 ] The largest and busy of the three stations is East Croydon, although West Croydon is located closer to Croydon ‘s independent shopping district .

Tramlink [edit ]

The Tramlink tramway arrangement opened in 2000 ; Croydon is its hub. [ 115 ] Its network consists of two chief lines, from Elmers End or Beckenham to Wimbledon, and from New Addington to West Croydon, with all trams running via a loop in cardinal Croydon. [ 116 ] It is the only tramcar system in Greater London. It serves Mitcham, Woodside, Addiscombe and the Purley Way retail and industrial sphere. The organization was previously known as the “ Croydon Tramlink ”, having been established under the Croydon Tramlink Act 1994 .

road [edit ]

A few miles to the south of Croydon is a belittled gap in the North Downs, a route for transmit from London to the south slide. The London to Brighton road used to pass through the town on north end before the A23 Purley Way was built to the west. Transport for London operates many bus routes in and around Croydon. Most buses serve West Croydon bus post, adjacent to the railroad track place and tram barricade .
The horse-drawn Surrey Iron Railway was the universe ‘s beginning public railway. It was opened in 1803, had double track, was some 8.5 miles ( 13.7 km ) farseeing and ran from Wandsworth to Croydon, at what is now Reeves Corner. In 1805 it was extended to Merstham as the Croydon, Merstham, and Godstone Railway. The railroad track boom of the 1840s brought superior and faster steam lines and it closed in 1846. The road is followed in part by the advanced Tramlink. The last leftover sections of rail can be seen behind railings in a corner of traffic circle Field in Purley. With the unfold of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway line to London Victoria in 1860 supernumerary platforms were provided at East Croydon, which the LBSCR treated as a separate station named New Croydon. The south eastern Railway ( SER ) was excluded from this station, which ran entirely LBSCR services to London at fares cheaper than those the SER offered from the original station. [ 117 ] In 1864, the LBSCR obtained authorization to construct a 1⁄2-mile long branch line into the heart of the town center near Katharine Street, where Croydon Central station was built. The line opened in 1868 but enjoyed little success and closed in 1871, only to reopen in 1886 under imperativeness from the Town Council before last closing in 1890. The place was subsequently demolished and replaced by the Town Hall. [ 118 ] In 1897–98, East Croydon and New Croydon were merged into a single place with three island platforms, which remain today, but the two stations kept discriminate book accounts until 1924. [ 117 ] The Croydon Canal ran for 9.5 miles ( 15.3 kilometer ) from what is now West Croydon station. It travelled north largely along the course of the present railway argumentation to New Cross Gate, where it joined the Grand Surrey Canal and went on into the River Thames. It opened in 1809 and had 28 locks. It had a firm rival in the Surrey Iron Railway and was never a fiscal success. It sold out to the London & Croydon Railway in 1836. The lake at South Norwood is the former reservoir for the canal. Croydon Airport on Purley Way was the main airport for London until it was superseded by Heathrow Airport and Gatwick Airport. It opened on 29 March 1920 by combining two smaller airfields used for defense in World War I. It developed into one of the capital airports of the universe during the 1920s and 1930s. It welcomed the earth ‘s pioneer aviators in its flower. As aviation engineering progressed and aircraft became larger and more numerous, it was recognised in 1952 that the airport would be excessively small to cope with increasing air traffic and its character was decreased.. The final scheduled flight departed on 30 September 1959. The air terminal, immediately known as Airport House adjoining Purley Way to the west of the town, has been restored and has a museum open one day a month. The name “ Croydon Airport ” is still used as a landmark and as a bus blockage appellation .

celebrated people [edit ]

Amy Winehouse attended the BRIT School, Croydon

education [edit ]

The town is home to Croydon College, with its main site on Park Lane and College Road near East Croydon station. It has over 13,000 students attending one of its three sub-colleges. [ 122 ] The sub-colleges were created in 2007. The three sub-colleges are the Croydon Sixth Form College, Croydon Skills and Enterprise College and the Croydon Higher Education College. The Higher Education College offers university-level education in a compass of subjects from Law through to Fine Art. Croydon Skills and Enterprise College delivers education and education opportunities. The town has five fee-paying schools, three of which are partially of the Whitgift Foundation. Two are boys ‘ schools ( though Trinity School has a co-educational sixth kind ) : Whitgift School was situated near the Almshouses until 1931 when it moved to its current web site in Haling Park in South Croydon, the Middle School ( renamed Trinity School of John Whitgift in 1954 ) remained on the web site until 1965 when it moved to Shirley Park. A calculate grant grammar school until 1968, it is immediately a penis of the Headmasters ‘ Conference. Old Palace School, an autonomous girls ‘ school situated in the old Summer Palace of the Archbishops of Canterbury, joined the Whitgift Foundation group of schools in 1993. Croham Hurst School, an freelancer girls ‘ school in South Croydon, became separate of Old Palace in 2007 and its erstwhile buildings are now used as the Old Palace junior school. The locate of the old Whitgift grammar educate is now the Whitgift shop center whose freehold is owned by the Whitgift Foundation. Croydon is besides home plate to three single-sex Catholic country schools. The once autonomous John Fisher School in Purley has not charged fees since the late 1970s, but during the 1990s was selective, choosing boys via exams, interviews, tests, previous school reports and written statements. [ citation needed ] The school ended its survival policy in 1999, and nowadays accepts pupils under a points system, which favours those who have high mass attendance and whose families are most involved in the Catholic Church. [ citation needed ] Coloma Convent Girls ‘ School is one of England ‘s Catholic girls ‘ schools : once a grammar school, it has now, like John Fisher, adopted points-based entrance fee criteria. St. Joseph ‘s College, on Beulah Hill in Upper Norwood, is a male child ‘ school with a shuffle sixth imprint. Croydon High School for Girls is an mugwump girls ‘ school in Selsdon, and a extremity of the Girls ‘ Day School Trust. The japanese Saturday School of London, a weekend japanese program, uses Croydon High School as its Croydon Campus ( クロイドン校舎 Kuroidon Kōsha ). [ 123 ] Royal Russell School is a co-educational freelancer board and sidereal day educate in South Croydon and is a member of the Headmasters ‘ conference .

References [edit ]

further reading [edit ]

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