CompTIA® A+® complete study guide : Exam Core 220-1001 and Exam Core 220-1002 [Fourth ed.] 9781119515951, 1119515955, 9781119516002, 1119516005, 9781119553588, 111955358X – DOKUMEN.PUB

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®

®

CompTIA A+

Complete Study Guide Fourth Edition

®

®

CompTIA A+

Complete Study Guide

Exam 220-1001 and Exam 220-1002 Fourth Edition

Quentin Docter Jon Buhagiar

Senior Acquisitions Editor : Kenyon Brown Development editor program : Tom Cirtin Technical Editor : Chris Crayton Senior Production Editor : Christine O ’ Connor Copy Editor : John Sleeva Editorial Manager : Pete Gaughan Production Manager : Kathleen Wisor Associate publisher : Jim Minatel Book Designers : Judy Fung and Bill Gibson Proofreader : Nancy Carrasco Indexer : Ted Laux Project Coordinator, Cover : brant Savage Cover Designer : Wiley Cover effigy : Jeremy Woodhouse, Getty Images Copyright © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN : 978-1-119-51593-7 ISBN : 978-1-119-51595-1 ( ebk. ) ISBN : 978-1-119-51600-2 ( ebk. ) Manufactured in the United States of America No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a recovery system or transmitted in any class or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permit under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authority through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, ( 978 ) 750-8400, facsimile ( 978 ) 646-8600. Requests to the publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, ( 201 ) 748-6011, fax ( 201 ) 748-6008, or on-line at hypertext transfer protocol : //www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty : The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this make and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without restriction warranties of fitness for a detail determination. No guarantee may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be desirable for every situation. This work is sold with the understand that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or early master services. If professional aid is required, the services of a competent master person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the generator shall be apt for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Web site is referred to in this work as a quotation and/or a likely source of foster data does not mean that the writer or the publisher endorses the data the administration or Web site may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be mindful that Internet Web sites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this employment was written and when it is read. For general information on our early products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at ( 877 ) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at ( 317 ) 572-3993 or facsimile ( 317 ) 572-4002. Wiley publishes in a kind of print and electronic formats and by print-on-demand. Some material included with standard print versions of this koran may not be included in e-books or in print-on-demand. If this book refers to media such as a cadmium or DVD that is not included in the version you purchased, you may download this material at hypertext transfer protocol : //booksupport.wiley.com. For more information about Wiley products, travel to www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Control Number : 2019936841 trademark : Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and early countries, and may not be used without written license. CompTIA and A+ are registered trademarks of CompTIA, Inc. All other trademarks are the place of their respective owners. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. is not associated with any product or seller mentioned in this book. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

For my girls. —Quentin Docter For my wife and son. —Jon Buhagiar

Acknowledgments As we were putting together this book, I was reminded of the proverb that begins “ It takes a belittled village…. ” That beginning decidedly holds true to create a book of this telescope and size. From beginning to end, scores of dedicated professionals have focused on delivering the best book possible to you, the readers. First, I need to thank my coauthor Jon Buhagiar. I appreciate him diving in and dedicating himself to helping to produce an excellent book. I besides need to give extra thanks to our technical editor program, Chris Crayton. He was meticulous and exhaustive, and challenged me to constantly find new and better ways to communicate complex concepts. His entire focus was on providing the best discipline material possible, and I doubt there ’ second better in the business. nowadays, on to the pillow of the team. Kenyon Brown and Tom Cirtin kept us on chase and moving forward, which was a challenge at times. Christine O ’ Connor had the fun job of keeping us organized, which is akin to herding cats. Copyeditor John Sleeva reminded me however again that I am no master of the English language and saved me from butchering it ( excessively badly ). many thanks besides go out to proofreader, Nancy Carrasco and our indexer, Ted Laux. Without their great contributions, this book would not have made it into your hands. On a personal note, I need to thank my syndicate. My girls are all incredibly supportive. unfortunately, writing a book as my slash while holding down a full-time speculate takes up a draw of time. I end up hide in my agency a set, but they ’ rhenium constantly there for me, and I couldn ’ t do it without them. Another huge thanks goes to my late grandfather, Joe, who got me into computers and taught me therefore many lessons I will never be able to repay. finally, thanks to my friends who keep me relatively sane—Sean, Kurtis, Tim, John, and others—and laugh at me when I tell them I spent my weekend writing about the laser printer imaging process. —Quentin Docter I would like to first gear thank my coauthor Quentin Docter. Throughout the writing of this book, he helped me with his insight and his expertness in writing technical books. Without his words of wisdom and steering, this book would not be the product it stands to be. I would besides like to give limited thanks to our technical editor, Chris Crayton. His exhaustive review of the material helped to identify many areas to elaborate on and polish. I would besides like to take the time to thank the many people who made this book possible : Kenyon Brown, at Wiley Publishing, for giving me the opportunity to write this koran and work with this fantastic team ; Tom Cirtin, for keeping us on track during the write serve ; Christine O ’ Connor, who besides kept us on track and organized during the publish work ; and our copyeditor, John Sleeva, for helping me realize my use of IT slang at times and proper English. I ’ d besides like to thank the many other people I ’ ve never met but who worked behind the scenes to make this reserve a success. During the writing of this book, many others in my life supported me, and I ’ d like to take this opportunity to thank them, equally well. First and first, thanks to my wife and son for their subscribe during the many evenings and weekends spent in my agency at the calculator. finally, thanks to my supporter and colleague, Bill, for encouraging me daily with his insight and jokes, angstrom well as to all of my early co-workers and friends. Thank you. —Jon Buhagiar

About the Authors Quentin Docter ( A+, Network+, IT Fundamentals+, MCSE, CCNA, SCSA ) is an IT adviser who started in the diligence in 1994. Since then, he ’ s worked as a technical school and network support specialist, trainer, adviser, and webmaster. He has written respective books for Sybex, including books on A+, IT Fundamentals+, Server+, Windows, and Solaris 9 certifications, adenine well as personal computer hardware and sustenance. Jon Buhagiar ( Network+, A+, CCNA, MCSA, MCSE, BS/ITM ) is an information engineering professional with two decades of experience in higher education. During the past 19 years he has been responsible for Network Operations at Pittsburgh Technical College and leave several projects, such as virtualization ( waiter and desktop ), VoIP, Office 365, and many other projects supporting the quality of education at the college. He has achieved several certifications from Cisco, CompTIA, and Microsoft, and has taught many of the certificate paths. He is the generator of several books, including Sybex ’ s CompTIA Network+ Review Guide 2018 and Network+ Exam Review Course 2018.

Contents at a Glance Introduction xxxiii Assessment Test for Exam 220-1001

lxxvi

Assessment Test for Exam 220-1002

lxxxvii

Part I 220-1001

1

Chapter 1

Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

Chapter 2

Internal Expansion, Storage Devices, and Power Supplies

Chapter 3

Peripherals and Connectors

131

Chapter 4

Custom PC Configurations

203

Chapter 5

Installing and Configuring Printers

235

Chapter 6

Networking Fundamentals

309

Chapter 7

Introduction to TCP/IP

363

Chapter 8

Installing Wireless and SOHO Networks

403

Chapter 9

Network Services, Virtualization, and Cloud Computing

485

Chapter 10

Understanding Laptops

541

Chapter 11

Understanding Mobile Devices

601

Chapter 12

Mobile Device Connectivity and Synchronization

641

Chapter 13

Troubleshooting Methodology and Resolving Core Hardware Problems

707

Hardware and Network Troubleshooting

743

Chapter 14

PART II 220-1002

3 75

827

Chapter 15

Operating System Basics

829

Chapter 16

Operating System Administration

875

Chapter 17

Working with Windows 10

951

Chapter 18

Working with Windows 8/8.1

1017

Chapter 19

Working with Windows 7

1041

Chapter 20

Working with macOS and Linux

1095

Chapter 21

Scripting and Remote Access

1127

Chapter 22

Security Concepts

1157

xiv

Contents at a Glance

Chapter 23

Securing Operating Systems

1231

Chapter 24

Troubleshooting Operating Systems and Security

1281

Chapter 25

Documentation and Professionalism

1367

Chapter 26

Safety and Environmental Concerns

1413

Appendix A

Answers to Review Questions

1471

Appendix B

Answers to Performance-Based Questions

1525

Index 1553

Contents Introduction xxxiii Assessment Test for Exam 220-1001

lxxvi

Assessment Test for Exam 220-1002

lxxxvii

Part I 220-1001

1

Chapter

3

1

Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

Understanding Motherboards 5 System Board Form Factors 6 System Board Components 9 Understanding Processors 38 Understanding Memory 44 Important memory Terms 45 Types of memory 48 Memory Packaging 55 Understanding Cooling Systems 59 Fans 59 Memory Cooling 62 Hard Drive Cooling 63 Chipset Cooling 63 CPU Cooling 63 Summary 68 Exam Essentials 68 Review Questions 70 Performance-Based Question 1 74 Performance-Based Question 2 74 chapter

2

Internal Expansion, Storage Devices, and Power Supplies 75 Installing and Configuring Expansion Cards 77 Video 78 Multimedia 79 Communications 80 Input/Output 82 Adapter Configuration 83 Understanding Storage Devices 84 Hard Disk Drive Systems 84 solid-state Drives 92 ocular Storage Drives 97 RAID 103 Removable memory and Media 105 Installing, Removing, and Configuring Storage Devices 110

xvi

Contents

Understanding Power Supplies 113 Dual-Rail Architecture 115 Power and Voltage Ratings 115 Power Connectors 116 Replacing Power Supplies 122 AC Adapters as Power Supplies 123 Summary 124 Exam Essentials 124 Review Questions 126 Performance-Based Question 130 Chapter

3

Peripherals and Connectors

131

Understanding Cables and Connectors 133 Video Cables and Connectors 133 Hard Drive Cables and Connectors 141 Multipurpose Cables and Connectors 148 other Peripheral Cables and Connectors 156 Understanding Uses of Peripheral Devices 161 Video Devices 162 Audio Devices 179 Input and Output Devices 181 Storage Devices 193 compendious 194 Exam Essentials 195 Review Questions 197 Performance-Based Question 201 Chapter

4

Custom PC Configurations

203

Exploring Custom Configurations 205 Standard Thick Clients 206 Graphic and CAD/CAM Design Workstations 207 Audio/Video Editing Workstations 210 Virtualization Workstations 214 Gaming PCs 217 Thin Clients 221 Network-Attached Storage Devices 221 drumhead 228 Exam Essentials 229 Review Questions 230 Performance-Based Question 234 Chapter

5

Installing and Configuring Printers Understanding Print Technologies and Imaging Processes Impact Printers Inkjet Printers

235 237 238 240

Contents

xvii

Laser Printers 249 Thermal Printers 260 virtual Printers 261 3D Printers 263 Installing and Maintaining Printers 267 Printer Interface Components 267 Installing and Sharing Local Printers 272 Installing and Sharing Networked Printers 283 Performing Printer Maintenance 292 Installing Printer Upgrades 298 Summary 303 Exam Essentials 303 Review Questions 305 Performance-Based Question 308 Chapter

6

Networking Fundamentals

309

Understanding Networking Principles 311 Understanding Networking Fundamentals 312 Identifying Common Network Hardware 333 Network Interface Cards 333 Cables and Connectors 337 Networking Components 350 summary 357 Exam Essentials 357 Review Questions 359 Performance-Based Question 362 Chapter

7

Introduction to TCP/IP

363

Understanding TCP/IP 365 TCP/IP Structure 366 Understanding IP Addressing 376 Understanding Virtual Networks 392 Summary 395 Exam Essentials 396 Review Questions 398 Performance-Based Question 402 Chapter

8

Installing Wireless and SOHO Networks

403

Understanding Wireless Networking Technologies 802.11 Networking Standards Bluetooth Networking Cellular Networking Standards Home Automation Standards Radio Frequency Networking Standards

406 407 415 418 421 423

xviii

Contents

Installing and Configuring SOHO Networks 426 Choosing an Internet connection 427 Choosing Internal Network Connections 441 Keys to Planning a Network 445 Network Installation 446 Configuring Wireless Routers and Access Points 457 Configuring End-User Devices 473 drumhead 478 Exam Essentials 478 Review Questions 480 Performance-Based Question 484 Chapter

9

Network Services, Virtualization, and Cloud Computing 485 Understanding Network Services 487 Server Roles 488 Internet Appliances 506 Legacy and Embedded Systems 509 Understanding Virtualization and Cloud Computing 511 Concepts of Cloud Computing 511 Concepts of Virtualization 521 Summary 533 Exam Essentials 534 Review Questions 536 Performance-Based question 539

Chapter

10

Understanding Laptops

541

Working with Laptops 543 Laptops five. Desktops 544 Disassembling and Reassembling Laptops 545 Laptop Case 549 Motherboards and Processors 553 Memory 558 Storage 561 Input Devices 566 Keyboards 566 Pointing Devices 570 Internal Expansion 575 Mini PCIe 575 M.2 575 Power Systems 576 Batteries 576 Power Adapters 578

Contents

xix

Laptop Displays 580 Video Card 580 Backlight 581 Inverter 581 Screen 582 Digitizer 583 Webcam and Microphone 583 Wi-Fi Antenna 584 Replacing Components Within a Laptop Display 584 other Internal Components 586 External Peripherals 591 cable television Locks 591 Docking Stations and Port Replicators 592 USB Ports 593 Summary 595 Exam Essentials 595 Review Questions 597 Performance-Based Question 600 Chapter

11

Understanding Mobile Devices

601

Understanding Mobile Devices 603 Characteristics of Mobile Devices 604 Tablets 607 Smartphones 610 E-readers 616 GPS 617 Wearable Technology Devices 622 Connection Types 626 Mobile Device Accessories 632 Summary 635 Exam Essentials 635 Review Questions 637 Performance-Based Question 640 Chapter

12

Mobile Device Connectivity and Synchronization

641

Understanding Network Connectivity and Email Using Cellular Data Connections Establishing Wi-Fi Connectivity Establishing Bluetooth Connectivity Configuring Email Accounts Configuring Mobile Device Synchronization Syncing Apple io Devices Syncing Android Devices Syncing to an Automobile Software Installation Requirements

643 645 654 666 675 687 688 694 696 696

xx

Contents

Summary 699 Exam Essentials 700 Review Questions 702 Performance-Based Question 706 Chapter

13

Troubleshooting Methodology and Resolving Core Hardware Problems

707

Using the Troubleshooting Best Practice Methodology 710 Identify the Problem 710 Establish a Theory 715 Test the Theory 716 Establish a plan of Action 718 Verify Functionality 720 Document Findings 720 Troubleshooting Core Hardware Issues 721 Troubleshooting Motherboards, CPUs, RAM, and Power Problems 722 POST Routines 727 Identifying BIOS/UEFI Issues 728 Identifying Motherboard and CPU Problems 729 Identifying Memory Issues 731 Identifying Power Supply Problems 732 Identifying Cooling Issues 733 Summary 735 Exam Essentials 736 Review Questions 737 Performance-Based Question 741 Chapter

14

Hardware and Network Troubleshooting

743

Troubleshooting Storage and Video Problems Troubleshooting Storage Device Problems Troubleshooting Video Issues Troubleshooting Common Mobile Device Issues Power Issues Video Difficulties Input Problems Networking Troubles Responsiveness Issues Troubleshooting Printer Problems Impact Printer Problems Inkjet Printer Problems Laser Printer Problems Managing Print Jobs

748 749 756 758 759 761 762 764 768 772 773 776 779 793

Contents

xxi

Troubleshooting Networking Problems 797 Resolving Connectivity Issues 798 Using Network Troubleshooting Tools 803 Summary 819 Exam Essentials 820 Review Questions 823 Performance-Based question 826

PART II 220-1002

827

Chapter

829

15

Operating System Basics

Understanding Operating Systems 831 Operating system Terms and Concepts 833 Operating Systems 835 Minimum System Requirements 838 The Windows Interface 842 What ’ south in a Window ? 856 Updating Windows 859 Creating Restore Points 860 File Management 861 Preparing for the Exam 866 Summary 869 Exam Essentials 869 Review Questions 871 Performance-Based Question 874 Chapter

16

Operating System Administration

875

Interacting with Operating Systems Control Panel Command-Line Tools The Windows Registry Virtual Memory Administrative Tools Task Manager Microsoft Management Console Windows Memory Diagnostics Tool Local Security Policy User Account Management Windows System Configuration Tools Power Management Disk Management Getting Disks Ready to Store Files and Programs Checking the Health of Hard Disks and Optimizing Their Performance

877 877 901 912 915 917 917 921 929 929 930 931 937 938 938 944

xxii

Contents

Summary 945 Exam Essentials 945 Review Questions 947 Performance-Based Question 950 Chapter

17

Working with Windows 10

951

Introduction to Windows 10 953 Windows 10 Features 956 Windows Updates 965 Windows 10 Versions 966 Installing Windows 10 968 Windows Installation Options 970 The Installation Process 971 Upgrading to Windows 10 987 Repair Installation 993 Side-by-Side Upgrading Windows 10 993 upgrade Editions of Windows 10 994 Installation/Upgrade Boot Options 994 Booting the Windows 10 Operating System 995 Multiboot Installations 995 Windows 10 Boot Process 997 Windows Applications 999 Application Requirements 999 Application Installation 1001 Security Considerations 1003 Networking in Windows 10 1003 Networking Models 1003 User Authentication 1007 Accessing Resources 1009 drumhead 1011 Exam Essentials 1012 Review Questions 1013 Performance-Based question 1016 chapter

18

Working with Windows 8/8.1 Windows Editions Installing Windows 8 DVD Installation Unattended Installation/Image Deployment Remote Network Installation Multiboot Installation Repair Installation/Refresh/Restore Recovery Partition

1017 1018 1025 1028 1028 1029 1029 1030 1031

Contents

xxiii

Windows 8 Boot Methods 1032 Internal Hard Drive ( Partition ) 1032 External/Hot-Swappable Drive 1033 Flash Drives 1033 solid-state Drives 1034 Netboot 1034 Summary 1035 Exam Essentials 1035 Review Questions 1036 Performance-Based doubt 1040 chapter

19

Working with Windows 7

1041

Windows 7 Editions 1043 Installing Windows 7 1050 Upgrading to Windows 7 1051 Upgrading Editions of Windows 7 1055 Installation/Upgrade Boot Options 1055 Booting the Windows 7 Operating system 1056 Multiboot Installations 1057 Key Boot Files 1058 Windows 7 Features 1059 System Restore 1059 Windows Defender 1060 Windows Firewall 1060 Action Center 1064 Windows 7 Administrative Tools 1066 Local Users and Groups 1066 Local Security Policy 1067 System Configuration 1069 Component Services 1070 Data Sources 1071 Print Management 1071 Windows Memory Diagnostic 1072 Windows 7 Control Panel Utilities 1073 HomeGroup 1073 RemoteApp and Desktop Connections 1075 Troubleshooting 1076 Windows 7 User Account Control 1078 Networking and Windows 7 1081 Proxy Settings 1083 Configuring an option IP Address in Windows 1084 Network Card Properties 1086 Summary 1090

xxiv

Contents

Exam Essentials Review Questions Performance-Based Question Chapter

20

Working with macOS and Linux

1090 1091 1094 1095

Best Practices 1096 Scheduled Backups 1096 Scheduled Disk Maintenance 1099 System Updates/App Store 1099 Patch Management 1100 Driver/Firmware Updates 1101 Antivirus/Anti-Malware Updates 1102 Tools 1102 Features 1104 Basic Linux Commands 1109 Understanding the Syntax of Shell Commands 1110 Discovering and Using Linux Commands 1112 Becoming ancestor ( Superuser ) 1113 Managing Processes 1114 Directory Navigation 1115 Directory Listings 1116 Changing Permissions and Ownership 1117 Working with Files 1118 Working with Directories 1119 Networking Utilities 1120 summary 1120 Exam Essentials 1121 Review Questions 1122 Performance-Based question 1126 chapter

21

Scripting and Remote Access

1127

Scripting 1128 Scripting Basics 1130 Scripting Languages 1134 Remote Access 1146 Remote Desktop Protocol 1146 Virtual Network Computing 1147 Telnet 1147 Secure Shell 1148 Remote Access Tools 1149 Security Considerations 1151 Summary 1151 Exam Essentials 1151 Review Questions 1152 Performance-Based question 1155

Contents

Chapter

22

Security Concepts

xxv

1157

Physical Security Concepts 1161 Authentication Factors 1161 Multifactor Authentication 1162 Layered Approach to Physical Security 1162 Security Guards 1163 Door Locks 1164 Tailgating 1164 Mantraps 1165 Biometrics 1165 Badges 1166 Key Fobs 1167 Hardware Tokens 1167 Smart Cards and RFID Badges 1168 Information Security 1169 Logical Security 1171 Antivirus and Anti-Malware Software 1171 Firewalls 1172 Email Filtering 1176 Data Loss Prevention 1176 Virtual Private Networks 1177 User Authentication/Strong Passwords 1177 Certificates 1178 Directory Permissions 1179 Active Directory 1180 Network Policies 1185 acceptable Use Policies 1185 Trusted/Untrusted Software Sources 1186 Mobile Device Management 1186 Principle of Least Privilege 1186 Common Security Threats 1187 Social Engineering Attacks 1187 Denial-of-Service Attacks 1190 Exploits vs. Vulnerabilities 1192 Zero-Day Attacks 1193 Man-in-the-Middle Attacks 1193 Password Attacks 1194 Spoofing Attacks 1195 Non-Complaint Systems 1196 Zombie 1196 Common Software Threats 1196 Ransomware 1197 Trojans 1197 Keyloggers 1198

xxvi

Contents

Rootkits 1198 Viruses 1198 Botnets 1203 Worms 1203 Spyware 1203 Mitigating Software Threats 1203 Antivirus 1203 Anti-Malware 1204 Recovery Console 1205 Backup/Restore 1207 End-User Education 1208 Software Firewalls 1209 FilteredDNS 1211 Destruction and Disposal Methods 1212 Recycling or Repurposing Best Practices 1212 Physical Destruction 1214 Securing a SOHO Network ( Wireless ) 1216 Changing Default Usernames and Passwords 1216 Changing the SSID 1217 Setting Encryption 1217 Disabling SSID Broadcast 1218 Wireless MAC Filtering 1218 Antenna and Access Point Placement 1218 Radio Power Levels 1219 Assign Static IP Addresses 1219 WPS 1219 Authentication 1220 Securing a SOHO Network ( Wired ) 1221 Changing Default Usernames and Passwords 1221 Assigning Static IP Addresses 1222 Disabling Ports 1222 Physical Security 1222 Wired and Wireless Security 1223 Summary 1225 Exam Essentials 1225 Review Questions 1227 Performance-Based interview 1230 chapter

23

Securing Operating Systems

1231

Workstation Security Best Practices Setting Strong Passwords Requiring Passwords Password Expiration Account Management

1233 1233 1234 1235 1236

Contents

xxvii

Active Directory 1241 Disable Autorun 1245 Data Encryption 1245 Patch/Update Management 1246 Working with Windows OS Security Settings 1247 Users and Groups 1247 NTFS vs. Share Permissions 1248 Shared Files and Folders 1256 System Files and Folders 1259 User Authentication 1260 BitLocker 1263 EFS 1264 Mobile Device Security 1265 Screen Locks 1266 Remote Wipes and Locator Applications 1267 Remote Backup 1270 Failed Login Attempts Restrictions 1270 Viruses and Malware on Mobile Devices 1271 Operating System Updates 1271 Full Device Encryption 1272 Multifactor Authentication 1272 Authenticator Applications 1272 Firewalls 1273 Policies and Procedures 1273 Summary 1274 Exam Essentials 1275 Review Questions 1276 Performance-Based question 1280 chapter

24

Troubleshooting Operating Systems and Security

1281

Troubleshooting Microsoft Windows OS Problems 1283 Common Symptoms 1284 Common Solutions 1308 Troubleshooting Security Issues 1329 Pop-Ups 1331 Browser Redirection 1331 Security Alerts 1332 Slow Performance 1333 Internet Connectivity Issues 1333 PC/OS Lock Up 1333 Application Crash 1334 OS Update Failures 1335 Rogue Antivirus 1335 Spam 1336

xxviii

Contents

Renamed System Files/Disappearing Files/Permission Changes/Access Denied 1336 Hijacked Email 1337 Invalid Certificate 1337 Event Viewer Log Errors 1338 Best Practices for Malware Removal 1339 1. Identify and Research Malware Symptoms. 1340 2. Quarantine Infected Systems. 1341 3. disable system Restore ( in Windows ). 1341 4. Remediate the Infected Systems. 1342 5. schedule Scans and Run Updates. 1345 6. enable system Restore and Create a Restore Point ( in Windows ). 1346 7. Educate the End User. 1346 Troubleshooting Mobile Issues 1346 Dim Display 1347 Intermittent Wireless 1347 No Wireless Connectivity 1347 No Bluetooth Connectivity 1348 Can not Broadcast to an External Monitor 1349 Touch Screen Non-Responsive 1349 Apps not Loading 1350 Slow operation 1350 ineffective to Decrypt Email 1351 Extremely Short Battery Life 1351 Overheating 1352 Frozen System 1352 No Sound from Speakers 1353 Inaccurate Touch Screen Response 1354 System Lockout 1354 Troubleshooting Mobile Security Issues 1355 Signal Drop/Weak Signal 1356 Power Drain 1356 Slow Data Speeds 1356 Unintended Wi-Fi Connection 1357 Unintended Bluetooth Pairing 1358 Leaked Personal Files/Data 1358 Data Transmission Over Limit 1358 Unauthorized Account Access 1359 Unauthorized Location Tracking 1359 Unauthorized Camera/Microphone Activation 1359 High Resource Utilization 1360 Summary 1360 Exam Essentials 1360

Contents

Review Questions Performance-Based Question Chapter

25

Documentation and Professionalism

xxix

1362 1366 1367

Documentation and Change Management 1370 Network Topology Diagrams 1371 Knowledge Base/Articles 1374 Incident Documentation 1375 Regulatory and conformity policy 1376 acceptable manipulation policy 1378 Password Policy 1378 Inventory Management 1379 Change Management Documentation 1379 Disaster Prevention and Recovery 1384 Data Backups 1384 Battery Backup/UPS 1390 Power Generators 1391 Surge Protection 1392 Account Recovery Options 1393 Demonstrating Professionalism 1395 Communicating with Customers 1396 Using Appropriate Behavior 1400 Putting It All in Perspective 1406 Summary 1408 Exam Essentials 1408 Review Questions 1409 Performance-Based question 1412 chapter

26

Safety and Environmental Concerns

1413

Understanding Safety Procedures 1416 Identifying Potential Safety Hazards 1416 Creating a safe workplace 1427 Understanding Environmental Controls 1437 Managing the Physical Environment 1438 Handling and Disposing of Computer Equipment 1444 Understanding Policies, Licensing, and Privacy 1453 Dealing with Prohibited Content/Activity 1453 Incident Response 1454 Managing Software Licenses 1458 Managing Sensitive Information 1461 Policies and Security Best Practices 1463 compendious 1464 Exam Essentials 1464 Review Questions 1466 Performance-Based motion 1470

xxx

Contents

Appendix

A

Answers to Review Questions

1471

Chapter 1 : Motherboards, Processors, and Memory 1472 chapter 2 : inner expansion, Storage Devices, and Power Supplies 1474 chapter 3 : Peripherals and Connectors 1476 chapter 4 : custom-made personal computer Configurations 1478 chapter 5 : install and Configuring Printers 1480 chapter 6 : network Fundamentals 1481 chapter 7 : introduction to TCP/IP 1483 chapter 8 : installation Wireless and SOHO Networks 1484 chapter 9 : network Services, Virtualization, and Cloud Computing 1486 chapter 10 : understand Laptops 1488 chapter 11 : understanding Mobile Devices 1490 chapter 12 : mobile Device Connectivity and Synchronization 1492 chapter 13 : trouble-shoot Methodology and Resolving Core Hardware Problems 1494 Chapter 14 : hardware and Network Troubleshooting 1496 chapter 15 : operate system Basics 1498 chapter 16 : manoeuver System Administration 1499 Chapter 17 : Working with Windows 10 1501 chapter 18 : Working with Windows 8/8.1 1503 chapter 19 : Working with Windows 7 1505 chapter 20 : Working with macOS and Linux 1507 chapter 21 : script and Remote Access 1509 Chapter 22 : security Concepts 1511 chapter 23 : Securing Operating Systems 1514 Chapter 24 : trouble-shoot Operating Systems and Security 1516 chapter 25 : documentation and professionalism 1518 chapter 26 : guard and Environmental Concerns 1521 Appendix

B

Answers to Performance-Based Questions

1525

Chapter 1 : Motherboards, Processors, and Memory Answer to Performance-Based Question 1 Answer to Performance-Based Question 2 chapter 2 : internal expansion, Storage Devices, and Power Supplies Chapter 3 : Peripherals and Connectors Chapter 4 : custom personal computer Configurations Chapter 5 : install and Configuring Printers Chapter 6 : network Fundamentals Chapter 7 : introduction to TCP/IP Chapter 8 : install Wireless and SOHO Networks

1526 1526 1526 1527 1527 1528 1529 1529 1531 1532

Contents

xxxi

Chapter 9 : network Services, Virtualization, and Cloud Computing 1532 chapter 10 : sympathize Laptops 1533 chapter 11 : understanding Mobile Devices 1533 chapter 12 : mobile Device Connectivity and Synchronization 1534 chapter 13 : trouble-shoot Methodology and Resolving Core Hardware Problems 1534 Chapter 14 : hardware and Network Troubleshooting 1535 chapter 15 : manoeuver system Basics 1535 chapter 16 : operate System Administration 1537 Chapter 17 : Working with Windows 10 1538 chapter 18 : Working with Windows 8/8.1 1541 chapter 19 : Working with Windows 7 1543 chapter 20 : Working with macOS and Linux 1546 chapter 21 : script and Remote Access 1548 Chapter 22 : security Concepts 1548 chapter 23 : Securing Operating Systems 1549 Chapter 24 : trouble-shoot Operating Systems and Security 1549 chapter 25 : documentation and professionalism 1550 chapter 26 : safety and Environmental Concerns 1551 Index 1553

Introduction Welcome to the CompTIA A+ Complete Study Guide. This is the fourth edition of our best-selling study guide for the A+ certificate sponsored by CompTIA ( Computing Technology Industry Association ). This book is written at an intermediate technical level ; we assume that you already know how to use a personal calculator and its basic peripherals, such as USB devices and printers, but we besides recognize that you may be learning how to service some of that computer equipment for the first time. The examination cover basic computer service topics deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as some more advanced issues, and they cover some topics that anyone already working as a technician, whether with computers or not, should be familiar with. The exams are designed to test you on these topics in order to certify that you have adequate cognition to fix and upgrade some of the most wide use types of personal computers. We ’ ve included review questions at the end of each chapter to give you a smack of what it ’ s like to take the exams. If you ’ re already working as a technical servicing or support technician, we recommend that you check out these questions first to gauge your level of cognition. ( You can besides take the assessment test at the end of this introduction, which is designed to see how much you already know. ) Don ’ thymine good study the questions and answers—the questions on the actual examination will be different from the practice ones included with this script. The exams are designed to test your cognition of a concept or objective, then use this book to learn the aim behind the question. This book covers more than precisely the exams, however. We believe in providing our students with a initiation of IT cognition that will prepare them for real jobs, not equitable to pass a quiz. After all, life is not a multiple-choice examination with the answers clearly laid out in movement of you ! You can chiefly use the ledger to fill in the gaps in your current calculator overhaul cognition. You may find, as many personal computer technicians have, that being well versed in all the technical aspects of the equipment is not enough to provide a satisfactory level of support—you must besides have customer-relations skills. We include helpful hints to get the customers to help you help them.

What Is A+ Certification ? The A+ documentation program was developed by the Computing Technology Industry Association ( CompTIA ) to provide an industry-wide means of certifying the competence of calculator serve technicians. The A+ documentation is granted to those who have attained the flat of cognition and troubleshooting skills that are needed to provide capable support in the field of personal computers. It is alike to other certifications in the computer industry, such as the Cisco Certified Entry Network Technician ( CCENT ) program and the Microsoft Technology Associate ( MTA ) certificate platform. The hypothesis behind these certifications is that if you need to have service performed on any of their products, you

xxxiv

Introduction

would sooner call a technician who has been certified in one of the appropriate certification programs than just call the first “ adept ” in the phone book. The A+ documentation program was created to offer a wide-ranging certificate, in the sense that it is intended to certify competence with personal computers and mobile devices from many different makers/vendors. You must pass two tests to become A+ certifiable : ■■

■■

The A+ 220-1001 examination, which covers basic computer concepts, personal computer hardware, basic network, fluid devices, and hardware troubleshooting The A+ 220-1002 examination, which covers operating systems, security, software trouble-shoot, and functional procedures

You don ’ t have to take the 220-1001 and the 220-1002 examination at the lapp time. however, the A+ certificate is not awarded until you ’ ve passed both tests.

Why Become A+ Certified ? There are respective good reasons to get your A+ certificate. The CompTIA Candidate ’ s Information packet lists five major benefits : ■■

It demonstrates validation of master accomplishment.

■■

It increases your marketability.

■■

It provides greater opportunity for promotion in your field.

■■

It is increasingly a requirement for some types of advanced coach.

■■

It raises customer confidence in you and your company ’ s services.

Provides Proof of Professional Achievement The A+ documentation is a condition symbol in the calculator service industry. Organizations that include members of the calculator service diligence recognize the benefits of A+ certification and push for their members to become certify. And more people every day are putting the “ A+ Certified Technician ” emblem on their business cards.

Increases Your Marketability A+ certification makes individuals more marketable to potential employers. A+ certified employees besides may receive a higher basis wage because employers won ’ t have to spend ampere much money on vendor-specific training.

Provides Opportunity for Advancement Most raises and advancements are based on performance. A+ certified employees work fast and more efficiently and are thus more productive. The more generative employees are, the more money they make for their company. And, of course, the more money they make for the ship’s company, the more valuable they are to the ship’s company. then, if an employee is A+ certified, their chances of being promoted are greater.

Introduction

xxxv

Fulfills Training Requirements Most major computer hardware vendors recognize A+ authentication. Some of these vendors apply A+ certificate toward prerequisites in their own respective documentation programs, which has the side benefit of reducing education costs for employers.

Raises Customer Confidence As the A+ Certified Technician nickname becomes better known among calculator owners, more of them will realize that the A+ technician is more qualify to work on their calculator equipment than a noncertified technician.

How to Become A+ Certified A+ certificate is available to anyone who passes the tests. You don ’ t have to work for any particular party. It ’ s not a mysterious society. It is, however, an elite group. To become A+ certifiable, you must do two things : ■

Pass the A+ 220-1001 examination

Pass the A+ 220-1002 examination

The exams can be taken at any Pearson VUE testing center. If you pass both exams, you will get a certificate in the mail from CompTIA saying that you have passed, and you will besides receive a lapel personal identification number and commercial enterprise poster. To register for the tests, call Pearson VUE at ( 877 ) 551-PLUS ( 7587 ) or go to www.pearsonvue.com/comptia. You ’ ll be asked for your appoint, Social Security act ( an optional number may be assigned if you don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate wish to provide your Social Security phone number ), mailing address, telephone act, employer, when and where you want to take the test, and your citation calling card number. ( payment arrangements must be made at the time of adjustment. ) Although you can save money by arranging to take more than one test at the like seat, there are no early discounts. If you have to repeat a test to get a pass class, you must pay for each recapture.

Tips for Taking the A+ Exam here are some general tips for taking your examination successfully : ■

Bring two forms of ID with you. One must be a photograph ID, such as a driver ’ s license. The early can be a major credit rating card or a recommendation. Both forms must include a signature. arrive early on at the examination center so that you can relax and review your study materials, particularly tables and lists of exam-related data. When you enter the screen

xxxvi

Introduction

room, you will need to leave everything outside ; you won ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate be able to bring any materials into the testing sphere. ■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

Read the questions carefully. Don ’ triiodothyronine be tempted to jump to an early conclusion. Make sure that you know precisely what each question is asking. Don ’ t leave any unanswered questions. unanswered questions are scored against you. Some questions will have multiple compensate responses. When a question has more than one correct answer, a message at the bed of the screen will prompt you to, for exemplar, choose two. Be certain to read the messages displayed to know how many correct answers you must choose. When answering multiple-choice questions that you ’ rhenium not sure about, use a procedure of elimination to get rid of the obviously incorrect answers first. Doing so will improve your odds if you need to make an educate think. On form-based tests ( dysfunctional ), because the hard questions will take the most time, save them for last. You can move forward and backward through the examination. For the latest price on the exams and updates to the registration procedures, visit CompTIA ’ s web site at www.comptia.org.

Who Should Read This Book ? If you are one of the many people who want to pass the A+ examination, and pass them confidently, then you should buy this book and use it to study for the examination. This book was written to prepare you for the challenges of the real IT populace, not just to pass the A+ examination. This study usher will do that by describing in detail the concepts on which you ’ ll be tested.

What Does This Book Cover ? This book covers everything you need to know to pass the CompTIA A+ exams. Part I of the book starts at chapter 1 and concludes after chapter 14. It covers all the topics on which you will be tested for Exam 220-1001 : chapter 1 : Motherboards, Processors, and Memory Chapter 1 details the characteristics of motherboards and their built-in components. The CPU, RAM, and BIOS, which are attached to the motherboard, are besides presented in chapter 1. chapter 2 : internal expansion, Storage Devices, and Power Supplies Chapter 2 presents internal expansion options and popular forms of storehouse devices in consumption today, including traditional hard drives, solid-state drives, ostentation drives, and memory cards. Capacities, imprint factors, and the makeup of these components are besides discussed. finally, this chapter looks at providing power to calculator components.

Introduction

xxxvii

Chapter 3 : Peripherals and Connectors Chapter 3 covers initiation and characteristics of external peripheral devices, the ports they use, and the connectors used to attach them. Required cable and its characteristics are besides included. chapter 4 : custom personal computer Configurations Chapter 4 presents data based on outlining the specialize systems that we see more and more of in the airfield nowadays. Examples include gaming PCs, graphic design and audio/video editing workstations, virtualization workstations, and network-attached storage devices. chapter 5 : installation and Configuring Printers Chapter 5 starts by discussing different impression technologies, such as impact, inkjet, laser, virtual, and 3D printers. It then moves on to cover installing printers and performing printer maintenance. chapter 6 : network Fundamentals Chapter 6 covers characteristics of cable types and connectors, net devices, network tools, and network topologies. chapter 7 : presentation to TCP/IP Chapter 7 details the most park network protocol in practice today. It covers TCP/IP structure, addressing ( including IPv6 ), and common protocols in the suite. chapter 8 : installation Wireless and SOHO Networks Chapter 8 contains two main sections. The first is on wireless network standards and security, and the moment discusses setting up a belittled function, home office ( SOHO ) network and choosing an Internet connection type. Within setting up a SOHO wireless network, we besides look at configuring Internet of Things ( IoT ) devices. chapter 9 : net Services, Virtualization, and Cloud Computing Chapter 9 focuses on the newest technologies related to network, with an emphasis on virtualization and obscure computer science. chapter 10 : reason Laptops Chapter 10 covers topics such as laptop-specific hardware, components within a laptop expose, and laptop features. chapter 11 : understand Mobile Devices Chapter 11 covers topics related to mobile devices, such as tablets, smartphones, e-readers, and wearable engineering. chapter 12 : mobile Device Connectivity and Synchronization Chapter 12 details the specific features of mobile devices that are unique to their formats. This chapter provides extensive hands-on steps for configuring a variety of connectivity options and synchronism on these devices. chapter 13 : trouble-shoot Methodology and Resolving Core Hardware Problems Chapter 13 introduces the best practice framework for resolving calculator problems, which every technician should know. It besides covers troubleshooting core hardware issues related to the motherboard, CPU, RAM, and baron. chapter 14 : hardware and Network Troubleshooting chapter 14 finishes the trouble-shoot side of hardware, including repositing devices, video recording issues, mobile device issues, printers, and network, including network trouble-shoot tools.

xxxviii

Introduction

Part II of the book, Chapters 15–26, covers all the topics on which you will be tested for Exam 220-1002 : chapter 15 : operate system Basics Chapter 15 starts the examen of Microsoft Windows operating systems. CompTIA expects you to know how to administer three of them—Windows 10, Windows 8/8.1, and Windows 7. In addition, you will need to know about many of the respective editions of each version. chapter 16 : operate System Administration Chapter 16 continues the discussion begun in chapter 15, looking at utilities and features that exist in each of the three versions of Windows operating systems that you need to know for the examination. chapter 17 : Working with Windows 10 chapter 17 covers singular features and capabilities of Windows 10, the newest of the three versions of Windows operating systems tested on the 220-1002 examination. chapter 18 : Working with Windows 8/8.1 Chapter 18 focuses only on Windows 8/8.1. It represents a reasonably major step-change from Windows 7, and its features are covered here. chapter 19 : Working with Windows 7 Chapter 19 focuses only on Windows 7. This chapter looks at features unique to the Windows 7 Starter, Windows 7 Home Premium, Windows 7 Professional, Windows 7 Ultimate, and Windows 7 Enterprise. chapter 20 : Working with macOS and Linux Chapter 20 focuses on popular end-user background and laptop function systems other than Microsoft Windows. It looks at macOS and Linux. chapter 21 : script and Remote Access Network administrators and technicians need to know how to access systems remotely in holy order to use or troubleshoot them. chapter 21 shows you technologies used to do equitable that. script is besides included. chapter 22 : security Concepts Just when you think this book couldn ’ triiodothyronine get any better, we toss in a chapter devoted to security. This chapter introduces key security concepts you need to know for the examination, including data on physical security system, sociable engineering, radio networks, best practices, and data destruction methods. chapter 23 : Securing Operating Systems This chapter follows up on chapter 22, which introduced security concepts, by providing specifics on how to secure Microsoft and mobile operating systems, prevent and remove malware, and configure network security on cable and radio receiver networks. chapter 24 : trouble-shoot Operating Systems and Security Troubleshooting is a major region of about every technician ’ south subcontract. In chapter 24, we talk about troubleshooting coarse operating system issues a well as security challenges you may encounter. chapter 25 : documentation and Professionalism This chapter covers the “ piano ” side of working with computers. specifically, you learn to commit proper communication, show professionalism, and implement best practices associated with documentation and change management.

Introduction

xxxix

Chapter 26 : condom and Environmental Concerns The final chapter discusses the impacts computers can have on people a well as the environment. You learn how to avoid damaging a calculator vitamin a well as having it damage you, how to perform backups and calamity convalescence, and how to by rights dispose of calculator components that are no longer needed.

What ’ south Included in the Book We ’ ve included several learning tools throughout the book : assessment Tests At the end of this insertion are two judgment tests—one for each exam—that you can use to check your set for the examination. Take these tests before you start reading the book ; they will help you determine the areas on which you might need to brush up. The answers to the appraisal test questions appear on a offprint page after the last question of the test. Each answer includes an explanation and the chapter the material appears in. objective Map and Opening List of Objectives At the begin of the bible, we have included a detail examination aim map that shows you where each examination objective is covered. In addition, each chapter opens with a list of the examination objectives it covers. Use these resources to see precisely where each examination topic is covered. examination Essentials Each chapter, precisely before the drumhead, includes a number of “ exam essentials. ” These are the key topics that you should focus on when preparing for the examination. Chapter Review Questions To test your cognition as you progress through the book, each chapter ends with recapitulation questions. As you finish each chapter, answer the review questions and then check your answers—the right answers and explanations are in Appendix A. You can go back to reread the section that deals with each question you got improper to ensure that you answer correctly the future time that you ’ rhenium tested on the material. Performance-Based Questions The A+ examination may ask you to perform tasks to correctly answer a question. This may mean dragging and dropping items into the correct rate or clicking the right area of an picture or screenshot. While it ’ second hard to simulate those in a newspaper book, the end of each chapter features a performance-based question. These questions will have you think through a subject presented in the chapter, and then perform a task.

Interactive Online Learning Environment and Test Bank The synergistic on-line learning environment that accompanies CompTIA A+ Complete Study Guide : examination 220-1001 and examination 220-1002 provides a test bank with analyze tools to help you prepare for the certificate examination and increase your chances of passing them the first time ! The test deposit includes the following elements : sample distribution Tests All the questions and answers in this book are provided, including the assessment tests, which you ’ ll find at the end of this initiation, and the review questions at the goal of each chapter. In addition, there are four practice exams. Use these questions to test your cognition of the study steer substantial. The on-line test bank runs on multiple devices.

xl

Introduction

Flashcards Two sets of questions are provided in digital flash card format ( a doubt followed by a individual adjust answer ). You can use the flashcards to reinforce your teach and provide last-minute test homework before the examination. Glossary The key terms from this book and their defi nitions are available as a fully searchable PDF. Go to http : //www.wiley.com/go/sybextestprep to register and gain access to this interactional on-line learning environment and test deposit with analyze tools.

How to Use This Book If you want a solid foundation for preparing for the A+ examination, this is the script for you. We ’ ve exhausted countless hours putting together this book with the intention of helping you prepare for the examination. This book is loaded with valuable information, and you will get the most out of your survey time if you understand how we put the book together. here ’ s a list that describes how to approach studying : 1.

Take the assessment tests immediately following this insertion. It ’ south o if you don ’ t know any of the answers—that ’ s what this book is for. Carefully read over the explanations for any questions you get ill-timed, and make bill of the chapters where that material is covered.

2.

Study each chapter cautiously, making sure you fully understand the information and the examination objectives listed at the beginning of the chapter. Again, pay extra-close attention to any chapter that includes substantial covered in questions you missed on the assessment screen.

3.

Read over the Summary and Exam Essentials. These will highlight the sections from the chapter you need to be familiar with before sitting for the examination.

4.

Answer all the follow-up questions at the end of each chapter. specifically note any questions that confuse you, and study the equate sections of the record again. Don ’ t fair skim these questions. Make certain that you understand each answer wholly.

5.

Go over the electronic flashcards. These help you to prepare for the latest A+ examination, and they ’ re in truth big study tools.

6.

Take the commit examination.

Performance-Based Questions CompTIA includes performance-based questions on the A+ examination. These are not the traditional multiple-choice questions with which you ’ re credibly familiar. These questions require the campaigner to know how to perform a specific task or series of tasks. The candidate will be presented with a scenario and will be asked to complete a tax. They will be

Introduction

xli

taken to a simulated environment where they will have to perform a series of steps and will be graded on how well they complete the task. The Sybex test engine does not include performance-based questions. however, at the end of most chapters, we have included a incision called “ Performance-Based Question, ” which is designed to measure how well you understood the chapter ’ s topics. Some plainly ask you to complete a job for which there is lone one decline reaction. Others are more immanent, with multiple ways to complete the tax. We provide the most legitimate or virtual solution in Appendix B. note that these questions may cover subject areas not covered in the actual A+ performance-based questions. however, we feel that being able to think logically is a great way to learn.

The CompTIA A+ Exam Objectives The A+ examination consist of the 220-1001 examination and the 220-1002 examination. Following are the detail examination objectives for each screen. Exam objectives are subject to change at any clock time without prior notification and at CompTIA ’ s exclusive discretion. Please visit the A+ Certification page of CompTIA ’ s web site ( hypertext transfer protocol : //certification.comptia.org/certifications/a ) for the most current listing of examination objectives.

A+ Certification Exam Objectives : 220-1001 The watch table lists the domains measured by this examination and the extent to which they are represented on the examination : Domain

Percentage of Exam

1.0 Mobile Devices

14 %

2.0 Networking

20 %

3.0 Hardware

27 %

4.0 Virtualization and Cloud Computing

12 %

5.0 Hardware and Network Troubleshooting

27 %

Total

100 %

xlii

Introduction

Objective

Chapter

1.0 Mobile Devices 1.1 Given a scenario, install and configure laptop hardware and components. ■■

Hardware/device substitution ■■

Keyboard

■■

Hard drive ■■

SSD vs. loanblend vs. magnetic magnetic disk

■■

1.8in vs. 2.5in

■■

Memory

■■

Smart tease subscriber

■■

Optical drive

■■

Wireless card/Bluetooth module

■■

Cellular poster

■■

Video card

■■

Mini PCIe

■■

Screen

■■

DC mariner

■■

Battery

■■

Touchpad

■■

Plastics/frames

■■

Speaker

■■

System board

■■

CPU

1.2 Given a scenario, install components within the expose of a laptop. ■■

Types ■■

LCD

■■

OLED

■■

WiFi antenna connector/placement

■■

Webcam

■■

Microphone

■■

Inverter

■■

Digitizer/touchscreen

10 10

10 10

Introduction

1.3 Given a scenario, use allow laptop features. ■■

Special function keys ■■

Dual displays

■■

Wireless ( on/off )

■■

Cellular ( on/off )

■■

bulk settings

■■

Screen brightness

■■

Bluetooth ( on/off )

■■

Keyboard backlight

■■

Touchpad ( on/off )

■■

Screen predilection

■■

Media options ( debauched forward/rewind )

■■

GPS ( on/off )

■■

Airplane mode

■■

Docking place

■■

Port replicator

■■

Physical laptop lock and cable lock

■■

Rotating/removable screens

1.4 Compare and contrast characteristics of diverse types of early mobile devices. ■■

Tablets

■■

Smartphones

■■

Wearable technology devices ■■

Smart watches

■■

Fitness monitors

■■

VR/AR headsets

■■

E-readers

■■

GPS

1.5 Given a scenario, connect and configure accessories and ports of other mobile devices. ■■

Connection types ■■

Wired ■■

Micro-USB/Mini-USB/USB-C

■■

Lightning

■■

Tethering

■■

Proprietary vendor-specific ports ( communication/power )

xliii

10 10

11

11

11

11

xliv

■■

■■

Introduction

Wireless ■■

NFC

■■

Bluetooth

■■

IR

■■

Hotspot

Accessories ■■

Headsets

■■

Speakers

■■

Game pads

■■

Extra battery packs/battery chargers

■■

Protective covers/waterproofing

■■

Credit calling card readers

■■

Memory/MicroSD

1.6 Given a scenario, configure basic mobile device net connectivity and application support. ■■

■■

■■

■■

Wireless/cellular data network ( enable/disable ) ■■

Hotspot

■■

Tethering

■■

Airplane mood

Bluetooth ■■

Enable Bluetooth

■■

Enable pairing

■■

Find a device for pairing

■■

Enter the allow pin code

■■

Test connectivity

Corporate and ISP email configuration ■■

POP3

■■

IMAP

■■

Port and SSL settings

■■

S/MIME

Integrated commercial supplier e-mail configuration ■■

iCloud

■■

Google/Inbox

■■

Exchange Online

■■

Yahoo

■■

PRI updates/PRL updates/baseband updates

■■

Radio firmware

■■

IMEI vs. IMSI

■■

VPN

12

12

Introduction

1.7 Given a scenario, use methods to perform mobile device synchronism. ■■

■■

Synchronization methods ■■

Synchronize to the mottle

■■

Synchronize to the background

■■

Synchronize to the car

xlv

12 12

Types of data to synchronize ■■

Contacts

■■

Applications

■■

Email

■■

Pictures

■■

Music

■■

Videos

■■

Calendar

■■

Bookmarks

■■

Documents

■■

Location data

■■

Social media data

■■

E-books

■■

Passwords

■■

Mutual authentication for multiple services ( SSO )

■■

Software requirements to install the application on the personal computer

■■

Connection types to enable synchronization

2.0 Networking 2.1 Compare and contrast TCP and UDP ports, protocols, and their purposes. ■■

Ports and protocols ■■

21 – FTP

■■

22 – SSH

■■

23 – Telnet

■■

25 – SMTP

■■

53 – DNS

■■

80 – HTTP

■■

110 – POP3

■■

143 – IMAP

■■

443 – HTTPS

■■

3389 – RDP

■■

137-139 – NetBIOS/NetBT

7 7

xlvi

■■

Introduction

■■

445 – SMB/CIFS

■■

427 – SLP

■■

548 – AFP

■■

67/68 – DHCP

■■

389 – LDAP

■■

161/162 – SNMP

TCP vs. UDP

2.2 Compare and contrast common network hardware devices. ■■

Routers

■■

Switches ■■

Managed

■■

Unmanaged

■■

Access points

■■

Cloud-based network control

■■

Firewall

■■

Network interface card

■■

Repeater

■■

Hub

■■

Cable/DSL modem

■■

Bridge

■■

Patch panel

■■

Power over Ethernet ( PoE )

■■

■■

Injectors

■■

Switch

6

Ethernet over Power

2.3 Given a scenario, install and configure a basic wired/wireless SOHO network. ■■

Router/switch functionality

■■

Access point settings

■■

IP addressing

■■

NIC configuration

■■

6

■■

Wired

■■

Wireless

End-user device configuration

8

8

Introduction

■■

IoT device shape ■■

Thermostat

■■

Light switches

■■

Security cameras

■■

Door locks

■■

Voice-enabled, smart speaker/digital adjunct

■■

Cable/DSL modem shape

■■

Firewall settings ■■

DMZ

■■

Port forwarding

■■

NAT

■■

UPnP

■■

Whitelist/blacklist

■■

MAC filtering

■■

QoS

■■

Wireless settings ■■

Encryption

■■

Channels

■■

QoS

2.4 Compare and contrast wireless network protocols. ■■

802.11a

■■

802.11b

■■

802.11g

■■

802.11n

■■

802.11ac

■■

Frequencies

■■

xlvii

■■

2.4Ghz

■■

5Ghz

Channels ■■

1–11

■■

Bluetooth

■■

NFC

■■

RFID

■■

Zigbee

■■

Z-Wave

■■

3G

■■

4G

■■

5G

■■

LTE

8 8

xlviii

Introduction

2.5 Summarize the properties and purposes of services provided by network hosts. ■■

■■

■■

Server roles ■■

Web waiter

■■

File server

■■

Print server

■■

DHCP server

■■

DNS server

■■

Proxy server

■■

Mail server

■■

Authentication server

■■

syslog

9

Internet appliance ■■

UTM

■■

IDS

■■

IPS

■■

End-point management server

Legacy/embedded systems

2.6 Explain common net configuration concepts. ■■

9

IP addressing ■■

Static

■■

Dynamic

■■

APIPA

■■

Link local anesthetic

■■

DNS

■■

DHCP ■■

Reservations

■■

IPv4 vs. IPv6

■■

Subnet mask

■■

Gateway

■■

VPN

■■

VLAN

■■

NAT

7 7

Introduction

2.7 Compare and contrast Internet association types, network types, and their features. ■■

Internet connection types ■■

Cable

■■

DSL

■■

Dial-up

■■

Fiber

■■

Satellite

■■

ISDN

■■

Cellular

■■ ■■

■■

Tethering

■■

Mobile hot spot

xlix

6, 8

8

Line-of-sight radio receiver Internet service

Network types ■■

LAN

■■

WAN

■■

PAN

■■

MAN

■■

WMN

2.8 Given a scenario, use appropriate network tools. ■■

Crimper

■■

Cable stripper

■■

Multimeter

■■

Tone generator and probe

■■

Cable examiner

■■

Loopback plug

■■

Punchdown tool

■■

WiFi analyzer

6

14 14

lambert

Introduction

3.0 Hardware 3.1 Explain basic cable types, features, and their purposes. ■■

Network cables ■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

3, 6

Ethernet ■■

Cat 5

■■

Cat 5e

■■

Cat 6

■■

Plenum

■■

Shielded twisted pair

■■

Unshielded twisted pair

■■

568A/B

■■

Fiber

■■

Coaxial

■■

Speed and transmission limitations

Video cables ■■

VGA

■■

HDMI

■■

Mini-HDMI

■■

DisplayPort

■■

DVI

■■

DVI ( DVI-D/DVI-I )

Multipurpose cables ■■

Lightning

■■

Thunderbolt

■■

USB

■■

USB-C

■■

USB 2.0

■■

USB 3.0

Peripheral cables ■■

■■

3, 6

Serial

Hard drive cables ■■

SATA

■■

IDE

■■

SCSI

Adapters ■■

DVI to HDMI

■■

USB to Ethernet

■■

DVI to VGA

3

Introduction

3.2 Identify park connection types. ■■

RJ-11

■■

RJ-45

■■

RS-232

■■

BNC

■■

RG-59

■■

RG-6

■■

USB

■■

Micro-USB

■■

Mini-USB

■■

USB-C

■■

DB-9

■■

Lightning

■■

SCSI

■■

eSATA

■■

Molex

3.3 Given a scenario, install RAM types. ■■

RAM types ■■

SODIMM

■■

DDR2

■■

DDR3

■■

DDR4

■■

Single duct

■■

Dual transmit

■■

Triple transmit

■■

Error correcting

■■

Parity vs. non-parity

3.4 Given a scenario, choose, install and configure storehouse devices. ■■

Optical drives ■■

CD-ROM/CD-RW

■■

DVD-ROM/DVD-RW/DVD-RW DL

■■

Blu-ray

■■

BD-R

■■

BD-RE

3, 6 6

3

1 1

2 2

li

lii

■■

■■

Introduction

Solid-state drives ■■

M2 drives

■■

NVME

■■

SATA 2.5

Magnetic hard drives ■■

5,400rpm

■■

7,200rpm

■■

10,000rpm

■■

15,000rpm

■■

Sizes : ■■

2.5

■■

3.5

■■

Hybrid drives

■■

Flash

■■

■■

SD tease

■■

CompactFlash

■■

Micro-SD calling card

■■

Mini-SD card

■■

xD

Configurations ■■

RAID 0, 1, 5, 10

■■

Hot swappable

3.5 Given a scenario, install and configure motherboards, CPUs, and accessory cards. ■■

■■

Motherboard human body factor ■■

ATX

■■

mATX

■■

ITX

■■

mITX

Motherboard connectors types ■■

PCI

■■

PCIe

■■

Riser circuit board

■■

Socket types

■■

SATA

■■

IDE

■■

Front jury connection

■■

Internal USB connection

1, 2

1

Introduction

■■

BIOS/UEFI settings ■■

Boot options

■■

Firmware updates

■■

Security settings

■■

Interface configurations

■■

Security ■■

Passwords

■■

Drive encoding ■■

TPM

■■

LoJack

■■

Secure boot

■■

CMOS battery

■■

CPU features

■■

■■

■■

■■

Single-core

■■

Multicore

■■

Virtual technology

■■

Hyperthreading

■■

Speeds

■■

Overclocking

■■

Integrated GPU

Compatibility ■■

AMD

■■

Intel

Cooling mechanism ■■

Fans

■■

Heat sink

■■

Liquid

■■

Thermal paste

Expansion cards ■■

Video cards ■■

Onboard

■■

Add-on tease

■■

Sound cards

■■

Network interface tease

■■

USB expansion wag

■■

eSATA calling card

2

liii

liv

Introduction

3.6 Explain the purposes and uses of diverse peripheral types. ■■

Printer

■■

ADF/flatbed scanner

■■

Barcode scanner/QR scanner

■■

Monitors

■■

VR headset

■■

Optical

■■

DVD campaign

■■

Mouse

■■

Keyboard

■■

Touchpad

■■

Signature pad

■■

Game controllers

■■

Camera/webcam

■■

Microphone

■■

Speakers

■■

Headset

■■

Projector ■■

3

Lumens/brightness

■■

External storage drives

■■

KVM

■■

Magnetic reader/chip reader

■■

NFC/tap pay device

■■

Smart calling card lector

3.7 Summarize power provision types and features. ■■

Input 115V vs. 220V

■■

Output 5.5V vs. 12V

■■

24-pin motherboard arranger

■■

Wattage rat

■■

Number of devices/types of devices to be powered

3.8 Given a scenario, choose and configure appropriate components for a custom-made personal computer shape to meet customer specifications or needs. ■■

3

Graphic/CAD/CAM design workstation ■■

SSD

■■

High-end video recording

■■

Maximum RAM

2 2

4

4

Introduction

■■

■■

Audio/video editing workstation ■■

Specialized audio and video card

■■

Large, fast hard drive

■■

Dual monitors

Virtualization workstation ■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

Maximum RAM and CPU cores

Gaming PC ■■

SSD

■■

High-end video/specialized GPU

■■

High-definition sound card

■■

High-end cooling

Standard thickly node ■■

Desktop applications

■■

Meets recommended requirements for selected OS

Thin client ■■

Basic applications

■■

Meets minimum requirements for selected OS

■■

Network connectivity

Network attached memory device ■■

Media streaming

■■

File sharing

■■

Gigabit NIC

■■

RAID array

■■

Hard force

3.9 Given a scenario, install and configure common devices. ■■

■■

Desktop

4, 10, 12 4

■■

Thin customer

4

■■

Thick customer

4

■■

Account setup/settings

Laptop/common mobile devices

4 10

■■

Touchpad configuration

10

■■

Touchscreen configuration

10

■■

Application installations/configurations

10

■■

Synchronization settings

12

■■

Account setup/settings

10

■■

Wireless settings

10

lv

lvi

Introduction

3.10 Given a scenario, configure SOHO multifunction devices/printers and settings. ■■

Use allow drivers for a given operate arrangement ■■

■■

■■

■■

Duplex

■■

Collate

■■

Orientation

■■

Quality

Wired ■■

USB

■■

Serial

■■

Ethernet

Wireless ■■

Bluetooth

■■

802.11 ( a, barn, deoxyguanosine monophosphate, normality, actinium )

■■

Infrastructure vs. ad hoc

■■

Integrated print waiter ( hardware )

■■

Cloud printing/remote printing

Public/shared devices ■■

Sharing local/networked device via operating system settings ■■

■■

TCP/Bonjour/AirPrint

Data privacy ■■

User authentication on the device

■■

Hard drive caching

3.11 Given a scenario, install and maintain diverse print technologies. ■■

Laser ■■

■■

■■ ■■

5

Configuration settings

Device sharing ■■

■■

5

Imaging cram, fuser assembly, transfer belt, transfer roller, pickup rollers, offprint pads, duplexing assembly Imaging process : action, charging, exposing, developing, transferring, fuse, and cleaning maintenance : Replace toner, apply maintenance kit, calibrate, clean

Inkjet ■■

Ink cartridge, print head, roller, eater, duplexing forum, passenger car, and belt

■■

Calibrate

■■

Maintenance : clean heads, replace cartridges, calibrate, clear jams

5 5

Introduction

■■

■■

■■

■■

lvii

Thermal ■■

Feed forum, heating element

■■

Special thermal paper

■■

Maintenance : Replace newspaper, clean heat chemical element, remove debris

Impact ■■

Print head, ribbon, tractor feed

■■

Impact paper

■■

Maintenance : Replace ribbon, replace print head, replace newspaper

Virtual ■■

Print to file

■■

Print to PDF

■■

Print to XPS

■■

Print to double

3D printers ■■

Plastic filament

4.0 Virtualization and Cloud Computing 4.1 Compare and contrast cloud computing concepts. ■■

■■

Common overcast models ■■

IaaS

■■

SaaS

■■

PaaS

■■

Public vs. private vs. loanblend vs. community

Shared resources ■■

Internal vs. external

■■

Rapid elasticity

■■

On-demand

■■

Resource pooling

■■

Measured service

■■

Metered

■■

Off-site electronic mail applications

■■

Cloud file storage services ■■

■■

■■

Synchronization apps

Virtual lotion streaming/cloud-based applications ■■

Applications for cell phones/tablets

■■

Applications for laptops/desktops

Virtual desktop ■■

Virtual NIC

9 9

lviii

Introduction

4.2 Given a scenario, set up and configure client-side virtualization. ■■

Purpose of virtual machines

■■

Resource requirements

■■

Emulator requirements

■■

Security requirements

■■

Network requirements

■■

Hypervisor

9 9

5.0 Hardware and Network Troubleshooting 5.1 Given a scenario, use the best exercise methodology to resolve problems. ■■

Always consider corporate policies, procedures, and impacts before implementing changes

13 13

1. Identify the problem −− Question the user and identify user changes to calculator and perform backups before making changes −− Inquire regarding environmental or infrastructure changes −− Review system and application logs 2. Establish a theory of probable induce ( question the obvious ) −− If necessary, conduct external or inner inquiry based on symptoms 3. Test the theory to determine lawsuit −− Once the hypothesis is confirmed, determine the future steps to resolve problem −− If theory is not confirmed restore new hypothesis or escalate 4. Establish a design of action to resolve the trouble and implement the solution 5. Verify broad system functionality and, if applicable, implement hindrance measures 6. Document findings, actions, and consequence 5.2. Given a scenario, trouble-shoot common problems related to motherboards, RAM, CPUs, and ability. ■■

Common symptoms : unexpected shutdowns ; system lockups ; POST code beeps ; blank screen on bootup ; BIOS clock and setting resets ; attempts to boot to incorrect device ; continuous reboots ; no power ; overheating ; brassy noise ; intermittent device failure ; fans spin—no office to other devices ; indicator lights ; smoke ; burning smell ; proprietary crash screens ( BSOD/ pin bicycle ) ; distended capacitors ; log entries and error messages

13

13

Introduction

5.3. Given a scenario, trouble-shoot hard drives and RAID arrays. ■■

Common symptoms : read/write failure ; dull performance ; loud clicking noise ; failure to boot ; drive not recognized ; OS not found ; RAID not found ; RAID stops working ; proprietary crash screens ( BSOD/pin rack ) ; S.M.A.R.T. errors

5.4. Given a scenario, trouble-shoot video, projector, and display issues. ■■

Common symptoms : VGA mood ; no image on screen ; overheat closure ; dead pixels ; artifacts ; incorrect discolor patterns ; blur image ; flicker double ; distorted visualize ; distorted geometry ; burn-in ; oversized images and icons

5.5. Given a scenario, trouble-shoot common mobile device issues while adhering to the appropriate procedures. ■■

■■

Common symptoms : no display ; dense display ; flicker display ; sticking keys ; intermittent radio ; battery not charging ; haunt cursor/pointer drift ; no power ; num lock indicator lights ; no radio connectivity ; no Bluetooth connectivity ; can not display to external monitor ; touch screen non-responsive ; apps not loading ; dull performance ; ineffective to decrypt e-mail ; extremely short battery life ; overheating ; frozen system ; no sound from speakers ; GPS not functioning ; swollen battery

Common symptoms : streaks ; faded prints ; ghost images ; toner not fused to the paper ; wrinkle newspaper ; paper not feeding ; paper jamming ; no connectivity ; garbled characters on newspaper ; vertical lines on page ; backed up print queue ; low memory errors ; access denied ; printer will not print ; discolor prints in amiss print color ; ineffective to install printer ; error codes ; printing blank pages ; no effigy on printer display ; multiple failed jobs in logs

5.7. Given a scenario, trouble-shoot common wired and radio network problems. ■■

14

14 14

14

14

Disassembling processes for proper re-assembly : text file and label cable and cheat locations ; organize parts ; refer to manufacturer resources ; use appropriate hand tools

5.6. Given a scenario, trouble-shoot printers. ■■

14

Common symptoms : express connectivity ; unavailable resources : Internet, local resources : shares, printers, email ; no connectivity ; APIPA/link local address ; intermittent connectivity ; IP conflict ; decelerate transfer speeds ; low RF signal ; SSID not found

14 14

14 14

lix

lx

Introduction

A+ Certification Exam Objectives : 220-1002 The postdate board lists the domains measured by this examination and the extent to which they are represented on the examination. Domain

Percentage of Exam

1.0 Operating Systems

27 %

2.0 Security

24 %

3.0 Software Troubleshooting

26 %

4.0 Operational Procedures

23 %

Total

100 %

Objective

Chapter

1.0 Operating Systems 1.1 Compare and line common operate system types and their purposes. ■■

■■

■■

■■

■■

32-bit vs. 64-bit ■■

RAM limitations

■■

Software compatibility

Workstation operating systems ■■

Microsoft Windows

■■

Apple Macintosh OS

■■

Linux

Cell phone/tablet operating systems ■■

Microsoft Windows

■■

Android

■■

io

■■

Chrome OS

Vendor-specific limitations ■■

End-of-life

■■

Update limitations

Compatibility concerns between operating systems

15

15

Introduction

1.2 Compare and contrast features of Microsoft Windows versions. ■■

Compare features : Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows 10

■■

Windows 7

■■

Windows 8

■■

Windows 8.1

■■

Windows 10

■■

Corporate vs. personal needs

■■

■■

Domain access

■■

BitLocker

■■

Media concentrate

■■

BranchCache

■■

EFS

■■

■■

■■ ■■

Boot methods : ocular phonograph record ( CD-ROM, DVD, Blu-ray ) ; external drive/flash drive ( USB/eSATA ) ; Network boot ( PXE ) ; Internal fixed disk ( HDD/SSD ) ; Internal hard drive ( partition )

15, 17, 18, 19

15, 16, 17, 18, 19 15, 16, 17, 18, 19

Type of installations : unattended installations ; in-place upgrade ; clean install ; repair installation ; multiboot ; outback network installation ; persona deployment ; recovery partition ; refresh/restore Partitioning : moral force ; basic ; elementary ; extended ; legitimate ; GPT File system types/formatting : ExFAT ; FAT32 ; NTFS ; CDFS ; NFS ; ext3, ext4 ; HFS ; swap partition ; quick format vs. full format

■■

Load alternate third-party drivers when necessity

■■

Workgroup vs. Domain frame-up

■■

Time/date/region/language settings

■■

Driver installation, software, and Windows updates

■■

Factory recovery partition

■■

Properly formatted boot drive with the correct partition/format

■■

Prerequisites/hardware compatibility

■■

OS compatibility/upgrade path

1.4. Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft command-line tools. ■■

15, 17, 18, 19

Desktop styles/user interface

1.3. Summarize general OS initiation considerations and upgrade methods.

Navigation ■■

dir

■■

certificate of deposit

■■

..

lxi

16 16

lxii

Introduction

■■

ipconfig

■■

ping

■■

tracert

■■

netstat

■■

nslookup

■■

closure

■■

dism

■■

sfc

■■

chkdsk

■■

diskpart

■■

taskkill

■■

gpupdate

■■

gpresult

■■

format

■■

copy

■■

xcopy

■■

robocopy

■■

net income use

■■

net exploiter

■■

[ control name ] / ?

■■

Commands available with standard privileges vs. administrative privileges

1.5. Given a scenario, function Microsoft operate system features and tools. ■■

Administrative : Computer Management ; Device Manager ; Local Users and Groups ; Local Security Policy ; Performance Monitor ; Services ; System Configuration ; Task Scheduler ; Component Services ; Data Sources ; print management ; Windows Memory Diagnostics ; Windows Firewall ; Advanced Security ; Event Viewer ; User Account Management

■■

MSConfig : General ; Boot ; Services ; Startup ; Tools

■■

Task Manager : Applications ; Processes ; Performance ; Networking ; Users

■■

■■

Disk Management : drive Status ; Mounting ; Initializing ; Extending partitions ; Splitting partitions ; Shrink partitions ; Assigning/changing repel letters ; Adding drives ; Adding arrays ; Storage spaces System utilities : Regedit ; Command ; Services.msc ; MMC ; MSTSC ; Notepad ; Explorer ; Msinfo32 ; DxDiag ; Disk Defragmenter ; System Restore ; Windows Update

15, 16, 17, 19 15, 16, 17, 19

Introduction

1.6. Given a scenario, habit Microsoft Windows Control Panel utilities. ■■

Internet options : Connections ; Security ; General ; Privacy ; Programs ; Advanced

■■

Display/Display Settings : resolution ; Color astuteness ; Refresh rate

■■

User Accounts

■■

■■

Windows Firewall Power Options : Hibernate ; exponent plans ; Sleep/suspend ; Standby

■■

Credential Manager

■■

Programs and features

■■

HomeGroup

■■

Devices and Printers

■■

Sound

■■

Troubleshooting

■■

Network and Sharing Center

■■

Device Manager

■■

BitLocker

■■

Sync Center

1.7. Summarize application installation and shape concepts. system requirements ■■

Drive quad

■■

RAM

OS requirements ■■

■■

■■

Compatibility

Methods of facility and deployment ■■

Local ( CD/USB )

■■

Network-based

Local exploiter permissions ■■

■■

16, 19

System : performance ( virtual memory ) ; Remote settings ; System protection

■■

■■

16, 19

Folder Options : View hidden files ; Hide extensions ; General options ; View options

■■

■■

lxiii

Folder/file access for facility

Security considerations ■■

Impact to device

■■

Impact to network

17 17

lxiv

Introduction

1.8. Given a scenario, configure Microsoft Windows networking on a client/desktop.

19

■■

HomeGroup vs. Workgroup

■■

Domain frame-up

■■

Network shares/administrative shares/mapping drives

17

■■

Printer sharing vs. network printer mapping

17

■■

Establish network connections : VPN ; dialups ; radio ; wired ; WWAN ( cellular )

■■

Proxy settings

■■

Remote Desktop Connection

■■

Remote Assistance

■■

Home vs. Work vs. Public net settings

■■

■■

■■

Firewall settings : exceptions ; configuration ; enabling/disabling Windows Firewall Configuring an option IP address in Windows : IP addressing ; subnet mask ; DNS ; Gateway Network poster properties : Half duplex/full duplex/auto ; accelerate ; Wake-onLAN ; QoS ; BIOS ( on-board NIC )

1.9. Given a scenario, use features and tools of the macintosh OS and Linux client/ background operating systems. ■■

■■

19

Best practices ■■

Scheduled backups

■■

Scheduled phonograph record sustenance

■■

System updates/App Store

■■

Patch management

■■

Driver/firmware updates

■■

Antivirus/Anti-malware updates

Tools ■■

Backup/Time Machine

■■

Restore/Snapshot

■■

Image convalescence

■■

Disk care utilities

■■

Shell/Terminal

■■

Screen sharing

■■

Force Quit

20

20

Introduction

■■

■■

Features ■■

Multiple desktops/Mission Control

■■

Key Chain

■■

Spotlight

■■

iCloud

■■

Gestures

■■

Finder

■■

Remote Disc

■■

Dock

■■

Boot Camp

Basic Linux commands ■■

ls

■■

grep

■■

certificate of deposit

■■

closure

■■

pwd vs. passwd

■■

mendelevium

■■

cp

■■

rm

■■

chmod

■■

chown

■■

iwconfig/ifconfig

■■

phosphorus

■■

su/sudo

■■

apt-get

■■

united states virgin islands

■■

doctor of divinity

■■

kill

2.0 Security 2.1. Summarize the importance of forcible security measures. ■■

Mantrap

■■

Badge reader

■■

Smart card

■■

Security guard

■■

Door lock

■■

Biometric locks

■■

Hardware tokens

22

lxv

lxvi

Introduction

■■

Cable locks

■■

Server locks

■■

USB locks

■■

Privacy screen

■■

Key fobs

■■

Entry restraint roll

2.2. Explain coherent security concepts. ■■

Active Directory ■■

Login handwriting

■■

Domain

■■

Group Policy/Updates

■■

Organizational Units

■■

Home Folder

■■

Folder redirection

■■

Software tokens

■■

MDM policies

■■

Port security system

■■

MAC address filtering

■■

Certificates

■■

Antivirus/Anti-malware

■■

Firewalls

■■

User authentication/strong passwords

■■

Multifactor authentication

■■

Directory permissions

■■

VPN

■■

DLP

■■

Access manipulate lists

■■

Smart calling card

■■

Email filtering

■■

Trusted/untrusted software sources

■■

Principle of least privilege

22 22

Introduction

2.3. Compare and contrast radio receiver security system protocols and authentication methods. ■■

■■

Protocols and encoding ■■

WEP

■■

WPA

■■

WPA2

■■

TKIP

■■

AES

■■

22

22

Authentication ■■

Single-factor

■■

Multifactor

■■

RADIUS

■■

TACACS

2.4. Given a scenario, detect, remove, and prevent malware using appropriate tools and methods. ■■

lxvii

Malware ■■

Ransomware

■■

Trojan

■■

Keylogger

■■

Rootkit

■■

Virus

■■

Botnet

■■

Worm

■■

Spyware

Tools and methods ■■

Antivirus

■■

Anti-malware

■■

Recovery comfort

■■

Backup/restore

■■

End-user education

■■

Software firewalls

■■

DNS shape

22

22

lxviii

Introduction

2.5. Compare and contrast social engineering, threats, and vulnerabilities. ■■

Social technology ■■

Phishing

■■

Spear phishing

■■

Impersonation

■■

Shoulder surfing

■■

Tailgating

■■

Dumpster diving

■■

DDoS

■■

DoS

■■

Zero-day

■■

Man-in-the-middle

■■

Brute power

■■

Dictionary

■■

Rainbow table

■■

Spoofing

■■

Non-compliant systems

■■

Zombie

2.6. Compare and contrast the differences of basic Microsoft Windows OS security settings. ■■

■■

■■

User and groups ■■

Administrator

■■

Power user

■■

Guest

■■

Standard user

NTFS vs. parcel permissions ■■

Allow vs. deny

■■

Moving vs. copying folders and files

■■

File attributes

Shared files and folders ■■

Administrative shares vs. local shares

■■

Permission propagation

■■

Inheritance

■■

System files and folders

■■

User authentication ■■

Single sign-on

■■

Run as administrator vs. standard user

■■

BitLocker

■■

BitLocker To Go

■■

EFS

22 22

23 23

Introduction

2.7. Given a scenario, enforce security best practices to secure a workstation. ■■

■■

Password best practices ■■

Setting solid passwords

■■

Password passing

■■

Screensaver required password

■■

BIOS/UEFI passwords

■■

Requiring passwords

23

23

Account management ■■

Restricting drug user permissions

■■

Logon prison term restrictions

■■

Disabling guest account

■■

Failed attempts lockout

■■

Timeout/screen lock

■■

Change nonpayment admin user account/password

■■

Basic Active Directory functions ■■

Account creation

■■

Account omission

■■

Password reset/unlock account

■■

Disable account

■■

Disable autorun

■■

Data encoding

■■

Patch/update management

2.8. Given a scenario, implement methods for securing mobile devices. ■■

lxix

Screen locks ■■

Fingerprint interlock

■■

Face lock

■■

Swipe lock

■■

Passcode lock

■■

Remote wipes

■■

Locator applications

■■

Remote backup applications

■■

Failed login attempts restrictions

■■

Antivirus/Anti-malware

■■

Patching/OS updates

■■

Biometric authentication

■■

Full device encoding

23 23

lxx

Introduction

■■

Multifactor authentication

■■

Authenticator applications

■■

Trusted sources vs. untrusted sources

■■

Firewalls

■■

Policies and procedures ■■

BYOD vs. corporate-owned

■■

Profile security requirements

2.9. Given a scenario, follow through appropriate data end and disposal methods. ■■

■■

Physical destruction ■■

Shredder

■■

Drill/hammer

■■

Electromagnetic ( Degaussing )

■■

Incineration

■■

Certificate of destruction

22

Recycling or repurposing best practices ■■

Low-level format vs. standard format

■■

Overwrite

■■

Drive rub

2.10. Given a scenario, configure security on SOHO radio and wired networks. ■■

22

Wireless-specific ■■

Changing default SSID

■■

Setting encoding

■■

Disabling SSID air

■■

Antenna and access steer placement

■■

Radio exponent levels

■■

WPS

■■

Change default usernames and passwords.

■■

Enable MAC filtering.

■■

Assign inactive IP addresses.

■■

Firewall settings

■■

Port forwarding/mapping

■■

Disabling ports

■■

Content filtering/parental controls

■■

Update firmware

■■

Physical security

22

22

Introduction

lxxi

3.0 Software Troubleshooting 3.1. Given a scenario, trouble-shoot Microsoft Windows OS problems. ■■

■■

Common symptoms ■■

Slow performance

■■

Limited connectivity

■■

Failure to boot

■■

No OS found

■■

Application crashes

■■

Blue screens

■■

Black screens

■■

Printing issues

■■

Services fail to start

■■

Slow bootup

■■

Slow profile warhead

24

Common solutions ■■

Defragment the hard tug

■■

Reboot

■■

Kill tasks

■■

Restart services

■■

Update network settings

■■

Reimage/reload OS

■■

Roll binding updates

■■

Roll back devices drivers

■■

Apply updates

■■

Repair application

■■

Update boot orderliness

■■

Disable Windows services/applications

■■

Disable application inauguration

■■

Safe boot

■■

Rebuild Windows profiles

3.2. Given a scenario, trouble-shoot and resolve PC security issues. ■■

24

Common symptoms : pop-ups ; browser redirection ; security alerts ; decelerate performance ; Internet connectivity issues ; PC/OS locking ; lotion crash ; OS updates failures ; rogue antivirus ; spam ; renamed system files ; disappearing files ; file permission changes ; hijacked electronic mail ( responses from users regarding e-mail ; automated replies from strange mail electronic mail ) ; access denied ; invalid certificate ( trust root CA ) ; system/application log errors

24 24

lxxii

Introduction

3.3. Given a scenario, use best practice procedures for malware removal.

24

1. Identify and research malware symptoms.

24

2. Quarantine the infect systems. 3. disable system Restore ( in Windows ). 4. Remediate the infect systems.

a. Update the anti-malware software. b. Scan and use removal techniques ( safe modality, pre-installation environment ).

5. schedule scans and run updates. 6. enable system Restore and create a restore detail ( in Windows ). 7. Educate the end user. 3.4. Given a scenario, trouble-shoot mobile OS and application issues. ■■

Common symptoms : dense expose ; intermittent radio ; no radio connectivity ; no Bluetooth connectivity ; can not broadcast to external monitor ; touch screen non-responsive ; apps not loading ; boring performance ; unable to decrypt electronic mail ; highly short battery life ; overheating ; fixed system ; no strait from speakers ; inaccurate touch screen reply ; system lockout ; app log errors

3.5. Given a scenario, trouble-shoot mobile OS and application security issues. ■■

Common symptoms : bespeak drop/weak signal ; exponent drain ; slow data speeds ; unintended WiFi connection ; unintended Bluetooth pair ; leaked personal files/data ; data transmission over specify ; unauthorized bill access ; unauthorized placement chase ; unauthorized camera/ microphone energizing ; high resource utilization

24 24

24

24

4.0 Operational Procedures 4.1. Compare and contrast best practices associated with types of documentation. ■■

Network topology diagrams

■■

Knowledge base/articles

■■

Incident documentation

■■

Regulatory and submission policy

■■

Acceptable use policy

■■

Password policy

■■

Inventory management ■■

Asset tags

■■

Barcodes

25

25

Introduction

4.2. Given a scenario, implement basic change management best practices. ■■

Documented commercial enterprise processes

■■

Purpose of the change

■■

Scope the deepen.

■■

Risk analysis

■■

Plan for change.

■■

End-user adoption

■■

Change control panel ■■

Backout design

■■

Document changes.

4.3. Given a scenario, implement basic disaster prevention and convalescence methods. Backup and recovery ■■

Image floor

■■

File flat

■■

Critical applications

■■

Backup testing

■■

UPS

■■

Surge defender

■■

Cloud storage vs. local storehouse backups

■■

Account recovery options

4.4. Explain park safety procedures. ■■ ■■

■■ ■■

■■

25 25

Approvals

■■

■■

lxxiii

Equipment grounding Proper part handle and repositing : antistatic bags ; ESD straps ; ESD mats ; Self-grounding Toxic waste manage : batteries ; toner ; CRT, Cell phones, Tablets Personal safety : unplug world power before repairing personal computer ; remove jewelry ; lifting techniques ; weight limitations ; electric fire base hit, cable management ; base hit goggles ; air filter mask Compliance with local government regulations

25

25

26 26

lxxiv

Introduction

4.5. Explain environmental impacts and appropriate controls. ■■

MSDS documentation for handling and administration

■■

Temperature, humidity charge awareness, and proper ventilation

■■

26 26

Power surges, brownouts, and blackouts : battery backing ; billow suppressor

■■

Protection from airborne particles : enclosures ; air filters/mask

■■

Dust and debris : compressed atmosphere ; vacuums

■■

Compliance to local politics regulations

4.6. Explain the summons for addressing banned content/activity, and privacy, license, and policy concepts.

26

Incident reaction : beginning response ( identify ; report through proper channels ; data/device preservation ) ; Use of documentation/ software documentation changes ; Chain of custody ( tracking of evidence/ documenting work )

26

■■

■■

Licensing/DRM/EULA : open-source vs. commercial license ; personal license vs. enterprise licenses

■■

Regulated data : PII ; PCI ; GDPR ; PHI

■■

Follow all policies and security best practices

4.7. Given a scenario, use proper communication techniques and professionalism. ■■

Use proper linguistic process and avoid slang, acronym, slang, when applicable.

■■

Maintain a positivist attitude/Project confidence.

■■

actively listen ( taking notes ) and debar interrupting the customer.

■■

■■ ■■

■■

■■

■■

Be culturally sensible : habit appropriate professional titles, when applicable. Be on time ( if late, contact the customer ). debar distractions : personal calls ; texting/social media sites ; talking to coworkers while interacting with customers ; personal interruptions. Dealing with unmanageable customers or situations : Do not argue with customers and/or be defensive ; avoid dismissing customer problems ; avoid being judgmental ; clarify customer statements ( ask open ended questions to narrow the oscilloscope of the problem, restate the issue, or motion to verify understanding ) ; do not disclose experiences via social media outlets. Set and meet expectations/timeline and convey condition with the customer : offer different repair/replacement options, if applicable ; provide proper software documentation on the services provided ; follow up with customer/user at a late date to verify satisfaction. Deal appropriately with customers ’ confidential and individual materials : located on a computer, desktop, printer, etc.

25

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Introduction

4.8. Identify the basics of scripting. ■

Script file types ■

.bat

.ps1

.vbs

.sh

.py

.js

Environment variables

Comment syntax

Basic loops

21

Variables

Basic datum types ■

Integers

Strings

RDP

Telnet

SSH

21

Basic script constructs ■

4.9. Given a scenario, use outside access technologies.

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21 21

Third-party tools ■

Screen parcel feature

File share

Security considerations of each access method acting

Exam objectives are national to change at any time without anterior notice at CompTIA ’ s sole free will. Please visit CompTIA ’ s web site ( www.comptia.org ) for the most stream number of examination objectives.

Assessment Test for Exam 220-1001 1. Which of the trace is not considered a organization part that can be found inside a computer ? A. CPU B. RAM C. PCIe graphics adapter D. Motherboard 2. Which of the following is a physical memory format installed directly in today ’ s desktop calculator systems ? A. DIMM B. HDD C. SSD D. RAM 3. Which of the following are components that can normally be found on a motherboard ? ( Choose all that apply. ) A. Slots B. Fan connectors C. Gyroscope D. Scanner E. HDD 4. You are buying ocular disk and need to ensure that they have a large capacitance. What suffix indicates that the capacity of an optical disk is roughly twice that of its standard counterpart ? A. DL B. R C. RW D. RE 5. You are replacing a power issue with a fresh one. What is the name of the standard world power connection that has been used with larger hard drives since the beginning IBM personal computers were introduced ? A. AT system connection B. Berg C. Molex D. ATX system connection

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6. A exploiter has asked you to install a RAID array. Except in the event of RAID 0, which two things do all types of RAID offer ? ( Choose two. ) A. Faster read speeds B. Faster write speeds C. Redundancy D. Fault tolerance E. Ability to restore automatically from tape after a driveway failure 7. The is the measurement of the number of pixels an LCD monitor can display without the image appearing distorted. A. native resolving power B. Contrast ratio C. Maximum resolution D. Aspect ratio 8. Which of the pursue television connectors has an analogue variety and a digital variety show ? A. VGA B. HDMI C. DisplayPort D. DVI 9. Which of the watch connectors will you not find on the end of a USB cable ? ( Choose two. ) A. Lightning B. USB-C C. Molex D. DB-9 E. eSATA 10. Which of the follow is a standard computer that can access resources locally deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as from servers but requires no speciate enhancements ? A. Gaming PC B. Network-attached memory C. Thin customer D. Thick node 11. Which of the follow is a prerequisite for virtualization workstations ? A. Enhanced video recording B. Enhanced audio C. Maximum RAM and CPU cores D. A RAID align

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12. Which of the follow is not a necessity for a NAS ? A. Dual monitors B. File sharing services C. Gigabit NIC D. RAID array 13. What is the function of the laser in a laser printer ? A. It heats up the toner so that it adheres to the page. B. It charges the newspaper so that it will attract toner. C. It creates an persona of the page on the brake drum. D. It cleans the drum before a page is printed. 14. What is the component called that stores the material that ends up printed to the page by a laser printer ? A. Toner cartridge B. Ink cartridge C. Laser module D. Laser cartridge 15. Which service was created by Apple to allow iPhones and iPads to print without installing printer drivers ? A. TCP printing B. Bonjour C. AirPrint D. iPrint 16. Which network connectivity device stops broadcasts from being sent to computers on a different network section ? A. Hub B. Switch C. Router D. Firewall 17. Which of the following cable types is made with a plastic coat that does not produce toxic fumes when it burns ? A. Plenum B. Fiber C. Coaxial D. Unshielded twisted-pair

Assessment Test for Exam 220-1001

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18. Which of the following are standards used by coaxial cable ? ( Choose two. ) A. RG-6 B. RG-59 C. RJ-11 D. RJ-45 19. On which port does FTP run by nonpayment ? A. 21 B. 25 C. 53 D. 80 20. Which of the watch protocols can be used by a node to access electronic mail on a server ? A. DNS B. FTP C. SMTP D. IMAP 21. Which of the adopt protocols provide plug network transmissions ? ( Choose two. ) A. SMTP B. SNMP C. SSH D. HTTPS 22. Which of the adopt is a company that provides direct access to the Internet for base and business computer users ? A. ASP B. ISP C. DNS D. DNP 23. What is the datum throughput provided by one ISDN holder channel ? A. 16 Kbps B. 56 Kbps C. 64 Kbps D. 128 Kbps 24. Which of the follow technologies was developed for the IoT and communicates entirely in the 800 MHz to 900 MHz range ? A. Bluetooth B. 5G LTE C. Zigbee D. Z-Wave

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Assessment Test for Exam 220-1001

25. One of your network users was recently caught at work browsing pornographic websites. Which of the follow servers could be installed to prohibit this bodily process ? A. Web B. Security C. Proxy D. DNS 26. Google Docs is an exemplar of which type of cloud service ? A. SaaS B. IaaS C. PaaS D. GaaS 27. Which type of software is required to run client-side virtualization on your family net ? A. Terminal emulation B. Process rejoinder C. Hyperthreading D. Hypervisor 28. You are installing a newly display for a laptop. Which LCD component is creditworthy for providing luminosity ? A. Backlight B. Inverter C. Screen D. Digitizer 29. Your laptop has 4 GB of install memory and uses shared video memory. If the television circuit board is using 512 MB, how much is left for the rest of the arrangement ? A. 4 GB B. 3.5 GB C. 512 MB D. Can not determine 30. A drug user says that their keyboard backlight was working but immediately it ’ s not. What ’ s the easiest way to try to get it working again ? A. Change the BIOS set. B. Use Windows Control Panel. C. Replace the backlight. D. Use the keyboard function key.

Assessment Test for Exam 220-1001

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31. When using a capacitive touch shield on a mobile device, what is the most park creature used to input data ? A. Keyboard B. Trackball C. Stylus D. Finger 32. Which technology used by e-readers gives them longer battery life than tablets ? A. Lithium-polymer barrage B. Low-power backlight C. Electrophoretic ink D. Capacitive touch screen 33. When setting up two NFC devices, what is the name of the manner that allows the two devices to transmit data to each early ? A. Emulation mode B. Peer-to-peer mood C. Reader/writer mode D. Ad hoc mode 34. Which of the watch protocols can be used in close range to transfer data between a mobile device and a computer system or to allow media to stream from the mobile device to an audio system ? A. SMTP B. Bluetooth C. NFC D. Pegasus 35. Which term refers to copying data between a mobile device and a calculator system to mirror such things as contacts, programs, pictures, and music ? A. Calibration B. Remote rub C. Pairing D. Synchronization 36. You want to create and send encrypted emails from your smartphone. What do you need to use ? A. POP3 B. SMTP C. S/MIME D. VPN

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37. A exploiter calls to report that his laptop is not booting up. What is the beginning footprint you should take ? A. Quarantine the system. B. Identify the problem. C. Establish a theory of probable causal agent. D. Establish a design of military action to resolve the problem. 38. You are troubleshooting a net issue. What feature do switches most probably have to help trouble-shoot connectivity issues ? A. Port toggles B. Beep codes C. Indicator lights D. Log entries 39. Your laser printer has recently starting printing vertical white lines on documents it prints. What is the most probable induce of the problem ? A. The printer driver is faulty. B. The fuser is not heating properly. C. There is toner on the transfer corona electrify. D. There is a start on the EP drum. 40. A Desktop calculator has recently started exhibiting behind operation, particularly when opening and saving files to the hard drive. What should you try beginning ? A. Replace the hard repel. B. Remove old files and applications to free up disk space. C. Delete and reinstall the OS. D. Defragment the hard drive. 41. A network cable television has not been working properly. Another technician suggests testing the resistance on the cable. Which tools may be capable of doing this ? ( Choose two. ) A. Loopback plug B. Multimeter C. Cable tester D. Tone generator and probe

Answers to Assessment Test 220-1001 1. C. System components are necessity for the basic functionality of a calculator system. many of the landmarks found on the motherboard can be considered system components, even expansion slots, to a degree. What you plug into those slots, however, must be considered peripheral to the basic operation of the system. See chapter 1 for more information. 2. A. DIMMs are a type of memory module. HDD is a hard drive, and SSD is a solid-state drive—both are for permanent long-run storage. RAM is what memory is called, but it is not a physical memory format. See chapter 1 for more information. 3. A, B. Motherboards normally have RAM slots and expansion slots. Older motherboards even had CPU slots. mod motherboards have connectors for powering cooling fans. Gyroscopes are most normally found in mobile devices. Scanners are external devices. Although there might be one or more types of HDD interfaces built into the motherboard, the HDD itself is not. See chapter 1 for more data. 4. A. DL stands for double ( or double ) layer. With DVDs, the capacity about doubles, but with Blu-ray Discs, it actually does. R means recordable, and RW and RE are used to designate re-writeable or re-recordable, respectively. See chapter 2 for more information. 5. C. The standard peripheral exponent connection, or Molex connection, is normally used on larger drives because it allows more current to flow to the drive than smaller peripheral connectors. AT and ATX organization connectors are used to connect the power supply to the motherboard. A Berg connection was used for diskette magnetic disk drives. See chapter 2 for more information. 6. C, D. Except for RAID 0, all implementations of RAID offer a way to recover from the failure of at least one drive, which is an exemplar of demerit tolerance, through the implementation of some mechanism that stores redundant information for that function. Some RAID types offer faster read and/or write operation. RAID 1, for example, does not guarantee either. See chapter 2 for more information. 7. A. The native resolving power refers to how many pixels an LCD screen can display ( across and down ) without distortion. The native resolution is based on the placement of the actual transistors that create the picture by twisting the liquid crystals. The contrast ratio is the measurement between the darkest color and the lightest tinge that an LCD screen can display. Monitors do not measure contrast ratio. Aspect ratio measures the width of the image versus its height. See chapter 3 for more data. 8. D. DVI comes in both analogue ( DVI-A ) and digital ( DVI-D ) varieties. VGA is constantly analogue, HDMI and DisplayPort are constantly digital. See chapter 3 for more information. 9. C, D. USB cables are multipurpose cables that connect many types of peripherals. Connectors include USB-C, Lightning, and eSATA. Molex connectors provide power to PATA hard drives and ocular drives. A DB-9 connection is found on the end of a serial cable. See chapter 3 for more information.

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Answers to Assessment Test 220-1001

10. D. A thick customer is any computer arrangement with a standard shape. The bet on personal computer has enhancements over compact clients to their CPU, video, sound recording, and cooling. The NAS ( network-attached storehouse ) must have specialized capabilities and services along with a faster NIC than the thick customer and a RAID range. The reduce customer is a lesser device in comparison to the thick customer, but that cost-saving have is its enhancement. These less expensive computers can connect over the network to servers for their manoeuver system images and applications. See chapter 4 for more information. 11. C. Virtualization workstations require more RAM than standard systems and need to be equipped with american samoa many multicore processors as possible. Video and audio are not resources that need to be enhanced for such workstations. Although a RAID array is a wise summation whenever a NAS with valuable information is involved, a virtualization workstation does not require one. See chapter 4 for more information. 12. A. Dual monitors are not required for a network-attached storage ( NAS ) device ; it might not even use a monitor. A NAS will use file partake and benefit from a Gigabit NIC and RAID array. See chapter 4 for more information. 13. C. The laser creates an prototype on the light-sensitive drum that is then transferred to the paper by the transplant corona discharge. The fuser heats up the toner so that it adheres to the page. The transportation corona charges the foliate, and the eraser lamp cleans the drum before a page is printed. A rubber blade is besides used to remove toner physically from the cram. See chapter 5 for more information. 14. A. Laser printers use toner, which they melt to the page in the visualize of the text and graphics being printed. A toner cartridge holds the fine toner dust until it is used in the impression march. See chapter 5 for more information. 15. C. AirPrint was created by Apple to let iPhones and iPads print without installing a printer driver. See chapter 5 for more information. 16. C. A router does not pass along broadcasts to computers on other segments. Hubs and switches send broadcasts along because they do not section traffic at the logical network address tied. See chapter 6 for more information. 17. A. The plenum is an vent space within buildings used to circulate breathable air for occupants of a building. Fiber, coaxial, and UTP cables are normally enclosed with a PVC credit card coat, which produces toxic fumes when burned. For publicize public discussion spaces, plenum-grade cable is required. All cable types have plenum-rated versions. See chapter 6 for more information. 18. A, B. RG-6 and RG-59 are coaxial cable standards. RJ-11 and RJ-45 are connectors used with twisted-pair cable. See chapter 6 for more information. 19. A. FTP operates on ports 20 and 21. Port 25 is used by SMTP, port 53 by DNS, and port 80 by HTTP. See Chapter 7 for more information. 20. D. The IMAP and POP3 protocols can be used to retrieve electronic mail from mail servers. DNS is used to resolve host names to IP addresses. FTP is for file transfers, and SMTP is used to send e-mail. See chapter 7 for more information.

Answers to Assessment Test 220-1001

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21. C, D. Secure Shell ( SSH ) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure ( HTTPS ) are both dependable transmit protocols. Simple Network Management Protocol ( SNMP ) and bare Mail Transfer Protocol ( SMTP ) are not inherently secure. See chapter 7 for more information. 22. B. An Internet service supplier ( ISP ) provides address access to the Internet. ASP is a program language. DNS resolves host names to IP addresses. DNP is not a calculator networking acronym. See chapter 8 for more information. 23. C. An ISDN B ( pallbearer ) transmit provides 64 Kbps data throughput. A home-based BRI ISDN provides two B channels. See chapter 8 for more information. 24. D. Zigbee and Z-Wave were developed specifically for the Internet of Things ( IoT ). Zigbee can communicate in the 2.4 GHz range ampere well as the 800 MHz to 900 MHz scope. Z-Wave can communicate entirely in the 800 MHz to 900 MHz range. See chapter 8 for more information. 25. C. A proxy server can be configured to block access to websites containing potentially objectionable corporeal. Web servers host websites. There is no particular security server, although there are authentication servers, which provide security. A DNS waiter resolves host names to IP addresses. See chapter 9 for more information. 26. A. Google Docs is software, so it is an exercise of Software as a Service ( SaaS ). IaaS is Infrastructure as a Service. PaaS is Platform as a Service. GaaS is neither a test objective nor presently a cloud service type. See chapter 9 for more information. 27. D. The hypervisor is the samara piece of software needed for virtualization. Terminal emulation, process replica, and hyperthreading are not related to client-side virtualization. See chapter 9 for more information. 28. A. The backlight provides light to the LCD screen. The inverter provides power to the backlight, and the screen displays the painting. Digitizers take physical input ( such as touch ) and turn it into electronic data. See chapter 10 for more data. 29. B. If the laptop is using shared video recording memory, then the system memory is shared with the video recording wag. If the television card is using 512 MB ( half a gigabyte ), then there is 3.5 GB left for the system. See chapter 10 for more data. 30. D. Most systems with a keyboard backlight have a keyboard officiate key to turn the backlight on or off—try that first. If not, there is likely a mise en scene in Windows Control Panel, or possibly the BIOS. Replacing the backlight is the last resort. See chapter 10 for more information. 31. D. Capacitive touch screens react to flimsy changes in electric charges. The human finger is used as an remark device for capacitive affect screens. For more information, see chapter 11. 32. C. E-readers manipulation electrophoretic ink, besides known as E Ink. E Ink uses less energy than other LCD displays, prolonging battery life. For more information, see chapter 11. 33. B. Card emulation mode, reader/writer mode, and peer-to-peer mode are the three valid NFC communication modes. For two devices to transmit to each other, they will use peerto-peer mode. For more information, see chapter 11.

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Answers to Assessment Test 220-1001

34. B. Bluetooth allows you to pair a mobile device to a calculator or to a device such as an automotive audio system or headset. Data can be transferred between devices, and media can be streamed from the mobile device. SMTP is an electronic mail protocol. NFC is for short-distance data transfers, but not media streaming. Pegasus is not a calculator communications protocol. For more information, see chapter 12. 35. D. Synchronizing a mobile device with a calculator system allows you to mirror personal data between the devices, regardless of which one contains the most current data. calibration refers to matching the device ’ sulfur and user ’ randomness perceptions of where the user is touching the riddle. Remote wipes allow you to remove personal data from a lost or stolen device. Pairing is what must be done in Bluetooth for two Bluetooth devices to connect and communicate. For more information, see chapter 12. 36. C. The Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions ( S/MIME ) standard for public key encoding is used to create and read encrypted emails. POP3 and SMTP are standard e-mail protocols. VPNs create a private network over a public network, but they do not encrypt electronic mail message. For more information, see chapter 12. 37. B. In the best exercise methodology to resolve problems, the first step is to identify the problem. Quarantining the system is not necessary. Establishing a theory of probable lawsuit is the second pace, and establishing a plan of action is the fourth footfall. See chapter 13 for more information. 38. C. Switches and other connectivity devices have indicator lights to help indicate when things are working normally and when something international relations and security network ’ triiodothyronine working right. There are no interface toggles, and switches don ’ t habit beep codes. A switch might make a log entrance into an event lumberman, but this is less likely than it having indicator lights. See chapter 13 for more information. 39. C. White streaks on printouts are most likely caused by toner on the transfer corona cable. upright black lines are caused by a scrape or a furrow in the EP brake drum. If the fuser were not heating by rights, toner would not bail to the paper, and you would have smearing. Faulty printer drivers will cause garbage to print, or there will be no print at all. See chapter 14 for more data. 40. B. Hard drive operation can slow down if the drive gets curtly on space, particularly under 10 percentage of free space. First, try removing previous files and applications to free up phonograph record space. If that doesn ’ thymine resolve it, then defragment. If neither of those work, you could have a fail hard drive. See chapter 14 for more data. 41. B, C. A multimeter is specifically designed to test for electrical characteristics, so it would be the best tool to choose. cable testers are for verifying that a cable works by rights ; some are adequate to of testing resistance. A loopback fireplug is for testing the ability of a network arranger to send and receive. A tone generator and probe is used to trace a cable from one location to another. See chapter 14 for more information.

Assessment Test for Exam 220-1002 1. Which of the trace will accomplish a specific tax for the drug user ? A. Driver B. Application C. Operating arrangement D. Filesystem 2. Which operating system is a cloud-based operate system ? A. Linux B. Android C. Windows 10 D. Chrome OS 3. Which edition of Microsoft Windows 10 does not include Cortana ? A. Home B. Pro C. Education D. Enterprise 4. You need to change a calculator ’ randomness name and join it to a domain. Which creature should you use ? A. Device Manager B. User Accounts C. System Properties D. Credential Manager 5. You need to manage a distant Windows engage system. Which instrument can you use to perform this tax ? A. msinfo32 B. mstsc C. msconfig D. telnet 6. Which RAID system requires three or more disks to provide fault allowance ? A. Mirroring B. Striping C. RAID-1 D. Striping with parity

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7. Which Windows 10 feature replaces Internet Explorer ? A. Spotlight B. Edge C. Cortana D. UWP 8. Which Windows Update ramify will allow you to install preview releases of updates for Windows 10 ? A. Semi-Annual Channel B. Semi-Annual Channel ( Targeted ) C. Long-Term Servicing Channel D. Insider Program 9. You need to check the condition of your User Account Control ( UAC ) and Windows Activation on Windows 8/8.1. Which cock will display both of these ? A. User Settings B. Action Center C. Firewall with Advanced Security D. Windows Update 10. Which instrument will allow you to ready the operating system for imaging ? A. Microsoft Deployment Toolkit B. Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit C. sysprep.exe D. Windows Imaging 11. Which element of the boot process holds the information that instructs the operate arrangement to load from a specific division ? A. winload.exe B. Bootmgr C. winresume.exe D. BCD 12. Which feature allows you to create a simple local network, secured by a individual password, to share files and printers with other Windows 7 clients ? A. Domain B. Workgroup C. Libraries D. HomeGroup

Assessment Test for Exam 220-1002

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13. You need to configure an IP address for Windows 7 to use in the event that the DHCP server is down. Which of the following will allow you to perform this undertaking ? A. The Configuration check for the network adapter properties B. The Alternate Configuration pill of the IPv4 Properties dialogue corner C. The Set Up a New Connection or Network wizard D. The Remote tab of the System Properties dialog box 14. Which net sport allows a calculator to resume operation when it receives a particular network sign ? A. WoL B. PoE C. QoS D. DNS 15. Which filesystem performs on-the-fly defragmentation ? A. FAT B. NTFS C. ext4 D. FAT32 16. Where can you find updates for Apple operating systems ? A. iTunes B. App Store C. Keychain D. Mission Control 17. Which macOS feature is similar to Windows File Explorer ? A. Keychain B. iCloud C. Spotlight D. Finder 18. Which network protocol and port does RDP operate on ? A. TCP port 3389 B. TCP port 22 C. TCP port 23 D. TCP port 443

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Assessment Test for Exam 220-1002

19. Which argumentation would be used to comment Windows batch script code ? A. //comment B. ‘comment C. REM comment D. # comment 20. Your system log files report an ongoing try to gain access to a single account. This attempt has been unsuccessful to this point. What type of attack are you most likely experience ? A. Dictionary password attack B. Rootkit attack C. Worm attack D. TCP/IP hijacking 21. A server in your network has stopped responding to legitimate requests from users due to a malicious influence. Which type of attack has occurred ? A. DoS B. Keylogger C. Botnet D. Social engineer 22. You have found that several employees are using the administration ’ south electronic mail arrangement to solicit personal business. What policy would define the pervert of this arrangement ? A. acceptable manipulation policy ( AUP ) B. Mobile device management ( MDM ) C. Data loss prevention ( DLP ) D. Email filtering 23. A exploiter wants to ensure that all contacts from her mobile device are copied onto her computer before migrating to a new device. Which of the adopt processes can accomplish this ? A. Mirroring B. Synchronization C. Calling each contact D. Attaching the contacts to an e-mail 24. Which mobile function system is typically associated with the .ipa extension ? A. Android B. io C. Windows Phone D. BlackBerry OS

Assessment Test for Exam 220-1002

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25. A technician is configuring a new Windows computer for a home office. Which of the following steps should the technician take to secure the workstation ? A. Rename default accounts. B. Configure one sign-on. C. Disable Windows Update. D. disable Action Center pop fly. 26. Which critical system broadly requires third-party tools to troubleshoot performance problems ? A. RAM B. CPU C. Graphics D. Network 27. What is the last mistreat that should be performed when removing malware ? A. Identify the malware. B. Enable System Protection. C. Educate the end user. D. Schedule a scan. 28. Your fluid device is suffering from an intermittent wireless joining. What is recommended to alleviate sign drops ? A. Shorten the SSID. B. Use the 5 GHz ring. C. Reduce baron on the WAP. D. Use the 2.4 GHz band. 29. While working on a exploiter ’ south system, you discover a awkward note attached to the buttocks of the keyboard that has their username and password written on it. The user is not about, and you need to verify that the network connection is working. What should you do ? A. Log in, verify entree, and then log out. B. Log in and stay logged in when you are finished. C. Text the user. D. Log in and change the user ’ mho password. 30. While installing a raw network batting order, you incidentally broke a component off of the poster. What should you do ? A. explain that the card was broken out of the box. B. Install the circuit board anyhow. C. Inform the customer of the situation. D. Leave everything as-is until you can locate a newfangled circuit board.

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Assessment Test for Exam 220-1002

31. Which regulation is enforced by Health & Human Services ( HHS ) to regulate the privacy of affected role information related to health services ? A. SOX B. FERPA C. HIPAA D. GLBA 32. Which of the succeed are good measures to take to help to prevent ESD ? ( Choose two. ) A. Decrease the humidity. B. Tie back long hair. C. Take off your shoes. D. Perform self-grounding. 33. Which of the following screwdrivers has a splined head ? A. Flat-tipped B. Phillips C. Axial D. Torx 34. Which type of software licensing agreement normally provides spare test software, with the expectation that you will pay for it if you decide to keep it ? A. Freeware B. Shareware C. Open-source D. Single-user

Answers to Assessment Test 220-1002 1. B. An application is written to perform a specific job for the user, such as discussion process and data analysis. Drivers allow for the operate system to communicate with the hardware. The operating arrangement and the filesystem assist in running applications. See chapter 15 for more information. 2. D. The Google Chrome OS is a true cloud-based operate organization, because all the datum is stored in the cloud. Cloud-based operating systems require an Internet connection to access information. Android and Windows 10 use cloud storehouse but are not considered cloudbased operating systems. Linux is rigorously a workstation operating organization. See chapter 15 for more information. 3. C. For privacy issues, Windows 10 department of education does not include Cortana, since this edition is used for academic organizations. Windows 10 Home, Pro, and Enterprise all contain Cortana. See Chapter 15 for more data. 4. C. The System Properties applet ( sysdm.cpl ) allows you to change a computer ’ randomness name and join the system to a world. Device Manager is used to manage hardware resources. The User Accounts applet is used to manage drug user accounts. certificate Manager is used to manage store credentials. See chapter 16 for more information. 5. B. The Microsoft Terminal Services Client ( mstsc ) is used to allow outback connections to Window operating systems. Msinfo32 is used to collect data from the Windows function arrangement. Msconfig is used to configure inauguration and services. Telnet is not used to connect to Windows ; it is normally used with Linux/UNIX. See Chapter 16 for more data. 6. D. Striping with parity, besides known as RAID-5, requires three or more disks and provides fault tolerance. Mirroring, besides known as RAID-1, requires only two disks. Striping, besides known as RAID-0, provides no fault permissiveness. See chapter 16 for more information. 7. B. Although Internet Explorer is still installed in Windows 10, the Edge browser has largely replaced it ’ s functionality in Windows 10. The Spotlight sport will display a random wallpaper on the login screen from Bing.com. Cortana is a digital person adjunct. The Universal Windows Platform ( UWP ) is a development platform. See chapter 17 for more information. 8. D. The Insider Program allows for the facility of brand new features before they are publicly released. The Semi-Annual Channel is normally delayed by three to four months. The Semi-Annual Channel ( Targeted ) ramify will install updates as they are released to the general populace. The long-run Servicing Channel never installs newly features during the life of the translation of Windows. See Chapter 17 for more information. 9. B. The Action Center will allow you to see the status of both the UAC and Windows Activation. User Settings will show merely the UAC condition. firewall with Advanced Security and Windows Update will not show either of these. See chapter 18 for more information.

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Answers to Assessment Test 220-1002

10. C. The sysprep.exe utility will allow you to ready the function system for imaging, by resetting specific data, such as the calculator appoint. The Microsoft Deployment Toolkit can assist in creating the steps, but it calls on the sysprep tool. The Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit allows you to customize the Windows operate system for imagination, but it does not ready the manoeuver arrangement for imaging. Windows Imaging ( WIM ) is a file format to contain the image. See chapter 18 for more information. 11. D. The Boot Configuration Data ( BCD ) holds the information that instructs the Windows Boot Manager ( bootmgr ) to load the operating system from a specific partition. Winload.exe loads the function system kernel. Bootmgr is the initial bootstrap program that reads the BCD. Winresume.exe is used when resuming a former session that has been suspended. See chapter 18 for more information. 12. D. HomeGroup allows sharing of files and printers with other Windows 7 clients, secured with a unmarried password. Domains require sphere controllers and person accounts. Workgroups require exploiter accounts to be set up on each workstation in the network. Libraries are components of the Windows 7 operating system and HomeGroups that allow for the logical grouping of files. See chapter 19 for more data. 13. B. You can use the Alternate Configuration pill of the IPv4 Properties dialog box to configure an IP address for Windows 7 to use in the event the DHCP server is down. The Configuration check for the network adapter properties will allow you change the driver and settings for the adapter itself. The Set Up a New Connection or Network ace is used for the initial setup of the net. The Remote check of the System Properties dialogue box allows you to select Remote Assistance and Remote Desktop settings. See chapter 19 for more information. 14. A. Wake-on-LAN ( WoL ) allows a calculator to awake from sleep when it receives a especial WoL package over the network. might over Ethernet ( PoE ) is a standard of running office for a device over the network connection. timbre of Service ( QoS ) is a mechanism used by network protocols to give sealed net protocols precedence through the network. Domain name System ( DNS ) is a name arrangement used by the Internet and Microsoft that translates domain names to IP addresses. See chapter 19 for more information. 15. C. The ext4 filesystem does not suffer from fragmentation, because it performs on-thefly defragmentation. FAT is a 16-bit filesystem that suffers from fragmentation. NTFS is a journaled filesystem that suffers from atomization. FAT32 is a 32-bit filesystem that suffers from fragmentation. See chapter 20 for more information. 16. B. The App Store is where you can find update for the Apple engage system. iTunes is used to purchase and download music, video, and other contentedness. The Keychain is used to store credentials on behalf of the user. Mission Control is used to view all the presently running applications. See chapter 20 for more information. 17. D. The macOS Finder is the equivalent to Windows File Explorer. The Keychain is a password-management system for the operational organization. iCloud is a cloud-based repositing and backing avail. Spotlight helps you find applications, documents, and other files. See chapter 20 for more information.

Answers to Assessment Test 220-1002

xcv

18. A. The Remote Desktop Protocol ( RDP ) operates on TCP port 3389. The SSH protocol operates on TCP port 22. The Telnet service operates on TCP port 23, and HTTPS operates on TCP port 443. See chapter 21 for more information. 19. C. The line REM comment is used to comment Windows batch handwriting code. The line //comment is used to comment JavaScript code. The line ‘comment is used to comment VBScript code. The line # comment is used to comment Bash script code and PowerShell code. See chapter 21 for more information. 20. A. A dictionary password attack occurs when a user report is repeatedly attacked using a variety of passwords. A rootkit attack would not be immediately seen and would not show as an ongoing feat. A worm attack would not be visible as an ongoing attack to gain access. TCP/IP commandeer is a form of a man-in-the-middle fire. See chapter 22 for more information. 21. A. A denial-of-service ( DoS ) fire is used to disrupt legitimate requests from being answered. A keylogger is used to steal credentials by recording keystrokes. A botnet is a group of computers that are under the restraint of a threat agent. Social mastermind is a action in which an attacker attempts to acquire data about your net and system by social means, such as talking to people in the organization. See chapter 22 for more information. 22. A. The acceptable practice policy ( AUP ) defines the appropriate consumption of e-mail and other organizational systems and resources. Mobile device management ( MDM ) helps an administrator dominance mobile devices so that data is not exposed. Data loss prevention ( DLP ) is used to prevent personal and confidential information from being emailed outside of the administration. Email filtering filters email coming into the organization. See chapter 22 for more data. 23. B. Synchronization can copy all contacts, programs, electronic mail messages, pictures, music, and videos between a mobile device and a calculator. Mirroring is a term reserved for when devices replicate themselves to similar devices. Calling the contacts won ’ t achieve the craved consequence, and emailing contacts is inefficient and does not immediately result in placing the contacts on the computer. See chapter 23 for more information. 24. B. The .ipa file elongation is for io App Store package files. Android apps have an reference of .apk. The Windows Phone OS is typically associated with the .xap reference. Blackberry OS uses .jad. The latter of the two telephone types were not discussed in detail in this book. See chapter 23 for more information. 25. A. Renaming the default accounts on a new Windows computer is the easiest way to secure the operate on system. Configuring single sign-on should lone be performed if a resource is required that only uses SSO as authentication. Disabling Windows Update will do the opposite of securing the operate organization. Disabling Action Center popups will besides do the opposite of securing the operational arrangement. See chapter 23 for more information. 26. C. Graphics cards normally require third-party tools to diagnosis performance problems. RAM problems, CPU problems, and network problems can be diagnosed inside the function organization from Task Manager. See Chapter 24 for more information.

xcvi

Answers to Assessment Test 220-1002

27. C. The last gradation in the malware-removal process is the education of the end exploiter to prevent future occurrences of infection. Identifying the malware is the inaugural footprint in the malwareremoval procedure. Enabling System Protection is one of the last steps, but it is not the survive step. Scheduling a scan should be performed after you have remediated the malware. See chapter 24 for more information. 28. B. By using the 5 GHz radio dance band, you can limit the come of intervention from external devices, such as microwave ovens and Bluetooth devices. Shortening the SSID will have no impression on intermittent signal drops, nor will reducing power on the WAP. Using the 2.4 GHz band will credibly make signal drops worse. See chapter 24 for more information. 29. C. You should text the user and let them know that you need to verify their network connection. You should not log in as another person, with their username and password. You should not log in and stay logged in when you are finished. You should decidedly not log in and change the exploiter ’ randomness password. See chapter 25 for more information. 30. C. You should be honest and inform the customer of the situation. Explaining that the card was broken out of the box is untruthful and deceptive. Installing the card anyhow will cause new problems. Leaving everything as-is until you can locate a new menu does not help the customer, since you ’ ve created a new dilemma. See chapter 25 for more information. 31. C. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act ( HIPAA ) affects healthcare providers and providers that process health records. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act ( SOX ) is enforced by the Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC ) and regulates sensible fiscal information and fiscal records. The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act ( FERPA ) affects department of education providers and organizations that process student records. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act ( GLBA ) affects providers of fiscal services and safeguards customer information. See chapter 25 for more information. 32. B, D. Long haircloth or neckties can identical easily hold a static charge and damage calculator parts. In addition, if you don ’ thymine have an ESD strap or entangle, you should perform self-grounding before you touch sensitive calculator equipment. Lower humidity actually increases the risk of ESD. Taking off your shoes will not limit ESD. See Chapter 26 for more information. 33. D. A Torx screwdriver has a splined question, which is used for greater absorbing of the sleep together. A flat-tipped screwdriver, as the name suggests, has a flat gratuity. A Phillips screwdriver has a cross, which is used for better grip over a normal flat-tip screwdriver. An axial screwdriver is not a type of screwdriver. See chapter 26 for more information. 34. B. Shareware often provides a rid trial of a course of study, with the arithmetic mean that you will pay for it if you keep it. Freeware and open-source applications are by and large wholly exempt, although the developers may ask for donations. Single-user software is licensed for one exploiter. See chapter 26 for more information.

220-1001

PART

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Chapter

1

Motherboards, Processors, and Memory The trace CompTIA A+ 220-1001 objectives are covered in this chapter : ✓✓ 3.3 Given a scenario, install RAM types. ■■

RAM types ■■

SODIMM

■■

DDR2

■■

DDR3

■■

DDR4

■■

Single groove

■■

Dual groove

■■

Triple distribution channel

■■

Error correcting

■■

Parity vs. non-parity

✓✓ 3.5 Given a scenario, install and configure motherboards, CPUs, and addition cards. ■■

■■

Motherboard form divisor ■■

ATX

■■

mATX

■■

ITX

■■

mITX

Motherboard connectors types ■■

PCI

■■

PCIe

■■

Riser card

■■

Socket types

■■

■■

SATA

■■

IDE

■■

Front panel connection

■■

Internal USB connection

BIOS/UEFI settings ■■

Boot options

■■

Firmware upgrades

■■

Security settings

■■

Interface configurations

■■

Security ■■

Passwords

■■

Drive encoding ■■

TPM

■■

LoJack

■■

Secure boot

■■

CMOS battery

■■

CPU features

■■

■■

■■

Single-core

■■

Multicore

■■

Virtual technology

■■

Hyperthreading

■■

Speeds

■■

Overclocking

■■

Integrated GPU

Compatibility ■■

AMD

■■

Intel

Cooling mechanism ■■

Fans

■■

Heat sink

■■

Liquid

■■

Thermal paste

A personal computer ( personal computer ) is a computing device made up of many distinct electronic components that all serve together in order to accomplish some utilitarian tax, such as adding up the numbers in a spreadsheet or helping you to write a letter. note that this defi nition describes a computer as having many distinct parts that work together. Most PCs today are modular. That is, they have components that can be removed and replaced with another part of the lapp function but with unlike specifications in arrange to improve performance. Each part has a specific officiate. much of the calculation industry nowadays is focused on smaller devices, such as laptops, tablets, and smartphones. Smaller devices such as these require the lapp components as do their bigger desktop-sized cousins. Of run, the components are smaller and many times integrated into the like circuit dining table. The functionality of the individual parts is still critical, though, so what you learn here will serve you well careless of the type of device you ’ re working on. Unless specifically mentioned otherwise, the terms personal computer and calculator are used interchangeably throughout this book.

even though all parts inside a calculator case are significant, some are more significant than others. You ’ ll sometimes hear people refer to the “ big three ” computer parts, which are the motherboard, central processing unit, and memory. Without these, a computer won ’ thymine bring, whereas if a sound calling card fails, it ’ second credibly not going to make the entire system inoperable. In this chapter, you will learn how to identify, install, and configure the big three, which are critical to calculator functionality. You ’ ll besides learn about cooling systems, because excessively much heat will cause components to melt, which could make for a very bad day for the calculator user.

Understanding Motherboards The spur of the computer is the motherboard, differently known as the system board or mainboard. This is the print circuit board ( PCB ), which is a conductive series of pathways laminated to a nonconductive substrate that lines the bed of the computer and is often of a uniform semblance, such as green, brown, blue, black, or red. It is the most important component in the calculator because it connects all the other components together. digit 1.1 shows a distinctive personal computer arrangement board, as seen from above. All other components are

6

Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

attached to this circuit board. On the system board, you will find the central serve unit of measurement ( CPU ) time slot or integrated CPU, underlying circuitry, expansion slots, video components, random access memory ( RAM ) slots, and a kind of other chips. We will be discussing each of these components throughout this record. F i g u roentgen e 1 .1 A distinctive system control panel

System Board Form Factors System boards are classified by their form component ( invention ), such as ATX, micro ATX, and ITX. Exercise manage and watchfulness when acquiring a motherboard and case individually. Some cases are less accommodating than others, and they might not be physically compatible with the motherboard you choose.

Understanding Motherboards

7

Advanced Technology Extended Intel developed the Advanced Technology Extended ( ATX ) motherboard in the mid1990s to improve upon the classical AT-style motherboard architecture that had ruled the personal computer world for many years. The ATX motherboard has the central processing unit and memory slots at right angles to the expansion cards. This arrangement puts the processor and memory in line with the fan end product of the might supply, allowing the processor to run cooler. And because those components are not in line with the expansion cards, you can install fulllength expansion cards—adapters that extend the full length of the inside of a standard computer case—in an ATX motherboard machine. ATX ( and its derivatives ) is the elementary personal computer motherboard shape factor in use today. Standard ATX motherboards measure 12″ × 9.6″ ( 305 millimeter × 244 millimeter ). We will discuss expansion cards in more depth ( and cover that part of Exam Objective 3.5 ) in chapter 2, “ Internal Expansion, Storage Devices, and Power Supplies. ”

Micro ATX A form factor that is designed to work in standard ATX cases, a well as its own smaller cases, is known as micro ATX. Micro ATX follows the ATX principle of part placement for enhance cool over pre-ATX designs but with a smaller footprint. Some tradeoff come with this smaller shape. For the compact use of space, you must give up quantity—that is, measure of memory slots, motherboard headers, expansion slots, and integrated components. You besides have fewer micro ATX chassis bays, although the same minor motherboard can fit into much larger cases if your original peripherals are still a prerequisite. In the examination objectives, CompTIA refers to micro ATX as mATX.

Be mindful that micro ATX systems tend to be designed with baron supplies of lower electrical power in order to help keep baron consumption and hotness product down. If the system has a convention, reduced micro ATX cortege of components, the smaller ability provide will be fi neon. As more off-board USB ports are added and larger cases are used with extra encase peripherals, a larger baron provision might be required. Micro ATX motherboards share their width, mounting hole radiation pattern, and back interface form with ATX motherboards but are shallower and square, measuring 9.6″ × 9.6″ ( 244 millimeter × 244 millimeter ). They were designed to be able to fit into life-size ATX cases. figure 1.2 shows a life-size ATX motherboard next to a micro ATX motherboard.

8

Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

F iodine g uranium r einsteinium 1. 2 ATX and micro ATX motherboards

Micro-ATX

Standard-ATX VIA Mini-ITX Form Factor Comparison by VIA Gallery from Hsintien, Taiwan ; VIA Mini-ITX Form Factor Comparison, uploaded by Kozuch, licensed under CC BY 2.0 via Commons

Information Technology eXtended The Information Technology eXtended ( ITX ) production line of motherboard mannequin factors was developed by VIA as a low-power, humble form divisor ( SFF ) board for forte uses, including home-theater systems, compendious background systems, gaming systems, and embedded components. ITX itself is not an actual kind component but a family of shape factors. The class consists of the follow shape factors : ■■

Mini-ITX—6.7″ × 6.7″ ( 170 millimeter × 170 millimeter )

■■

Nano-ITX—4.7″ × 4.7″ ( 120 millimeter × 120 millimeter )

■■

Pico-ITX—3.9″ × 2.8″ ( 100 millimeter × 72 millimeter )

■■

Mobile-ITX—2.4″ × 2.4″ ( 60 millimeter × 60 millimeter )

The mini-ITX motherboard has four mounting holes that line up with three or four of the holes in the ATX and micro ATX shape factors. In mini-ITX boards, the back interfaces are placed in the lapp localization as those on the ATX motherboards. These features make mini-ITX boards compatible with ATX chassis. This is where the mounting compatibility ends, because despite the PC compatibility of the other ITX mannequin factors, they are used in embed systems, such as set-top boxes, home entertainment systems, and smartphones,

Understanding Motherboards

9

and lack the needed climb and interface specifications. name 1.3 shows the three larger forms of ITX motherboards, following to the ATX motherboards for comparison. farad one g u radius einsteinium 1. 3

ITX motherboards

Nano-ITX

Pico-ITX

Mini-ITX

Micro-ATX Standard-ATX VIA Mini-ITX Form Factor Comparison by VIA Gallery from Hsintien, Taiwan ; VIA Mainboards Form Factor Comparison upload by Kozuch, licensed under CC BY 2.0 via Commons

In the examination objectives, CompTIA refers to mini-ITX as mITX.

System Board Components now that you understand the basic types of motherboards and their form factors, it ’ south time to look at the key characteristics and components of the motherboard and, where applicable, their locations relative to each other. The following tilt summarizes winder concepts you need to know about motherboards : ■

Bus architecture

Chipsets

Expansion slots

Memory slots and external hoard

CPUs and their sockets

Power connectors

Onboard disk drive connectors

BIOS/UEFI/firmware

CMOS battery

Front-panel connectors

10

Chapter 1

Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

In the surveil sections, you will learn about some of the most common components of a motherboard, what they do, and where they are located on the motherboard. We ’ ll show what each part looks like so that you can identify it on most any motherboard that you run across. In the casing of some components, this chapter provides alone a brief introduction, with more detail to come in late chapters.

Bus Architecture In a personal computer, data is sent from one part to another via a bus, which is a common collection of bespeak pathways. In the very early days, PCs used serial buses, which sent one bit at a time and were painfully slow. brilliant engineers realized that they could redesign the bus and send eight bits at a time ( over synchronized separate lines ), which resulted in a big travel rapidly increase. This was known as a parallel bus. The downside of analogue communications is the personnel casualty of circuit duration ( how long the racing circuit could be ) and throughput ( how much data could move at one time ). The signal could travel only a short distance, and the sum of data was limited due to the careful synchronization needed between freestanding lines, the accelerate of which must be controlled to limit skewing the arrival of the person signals at the receiving end. What was once old is new again, as engineers have discovered methods to make serial transmissions work at data rates that are many times faster than twin signals. therefore, closely everything you see today uses a serial bus. The alone restriction of serial circuits is in the capability of the transceivers, which tends to grow over time at a refresh pace due to technical advancements. Examples of specifications that have heralded the migration toward the authority of consecutive communications are Serial Advanced Technology Attachment ( Serial ATA, or SATA ), Universal Serial Bus ( USB ), IEEE 1394/FireWire, and Peripheral Component Interconnect Express ( PCIe ). The term bus is besides used in any analogue or bit-serial wire implementation where multiple devices can be attached at the lapp time in latitude or in series ( daisy-chain ). Examples include Small Computer System Interface ( SCSI ), USB, and Ethernet.

On a motherboard, several different buses are used. Expansion slots of assorted architectures, such as PCIe, are included to allow for the insertion of external devices or adapters. other types of buses exist within the system to allow communication between the CPU, RAM, and other components with which data must be exchanged. Except for CPU slots and sockets and memory slots, there are no interpolation points for devices in many closed bus systems because no adapters exist for such an environment. The versatile buses throughout a given calculator arrangement can be rated by their bus topology speeds. The higher the bus focal ratio, the higher the performance of which the bus is able. In some cases, versatile buses must be synchronized for proper performance, such as the system busbar and any expansion buses that run at the front-side bus accelerate. other times, one bus will reference another for its own accelerate. The inner bus speed of a CPU is derived from the frontside busbar clock, for exemplify. The buses presented throughout this chapter are accompanied by their speeds, where allow.

Understanding Motherboards

11

Chipsets A chipset is a collection of chips or circuits that perform interface and peripheral functions for the processor. This collection of chips is normally the circuitry that provides interfaces for memory, expansion cards, and onboard peripherals, and it by and large dictates how a motherboard will communicate with the install peripherals. Chipsets are normally given a name and exemplar number by the master manufacturer. typically, the manufacturer and model besides tell you that your finical chipset has a certain set of features ( for model, type of RAM supported, type and brand of onboard video, and so on ). Chipsets can be made up of one or several integrate circuit chips. Intel-based motherboards, for model, typically use two chips. To know for sure, you must check the manufacturer ’ south software documentation, specially because cooling mechanisms frequently obscure today ’ mho chipset chips, sometimes hindering ocular mark and model designation. Chipsets can be divided into two major functional groups, called Northbridge and Southbridge. Let ’ s take a brief attend at these groups and the functions they perform. AMD and Intel have integrated the features of Northbridge and Southbridge into most of their CPUs. Therefore, the CPU provides Northbridge and Southbridge functionality as opposed to separate chipsets.

Northbridge The Northbridge subset of a motherboard ’ second chipset is the laid of circuitry or chips that performs one very important serve : management of high-speed peripheral communications. The Northbridge is creditworthy chiefly for communications with integrated television using PCIe, for exemplify, and processor-to-memory communications. consequently, it can be said that a lot of the dependable performance of a personal computer relies on the specifications of the Northbridge component and its communications capability with the peripherals it controls. When we use the terminus Northbridge, we are referring to a functional subset of a motherboard ’ sulfur chipset. There international relations and security network ’ triiodothyronine actually a Northbridge post of chipset.

The communications between the CPU and memory happen over what is known as the front-side busbar ( FSB ), which is just a set of signal pathways connecting the CPU and main memory, for case. The clock signal that drives the FSB is used to drive communications by certain other devices, such as PCIe slots, making them local-bus technologies. The back-side bus ( BSB ), if present, is a set of signal pathways between the CPU and external cache memory. The BSB uses the same clock signal that drives the FSB. If no back-side bus topology exists, hoard is placed on the front-side bus with the CPU and main memory.

12

Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

The Northbridge is directly connected to the Southbridge ( discussed adjacent ). It controls the Southbridge and helps to manage the communications between the Southbridge and the pillow of the calculator.

Southbridge The Southbridge subset of the chipset is responsible for providing hold to the slower onboard peripherals ( USB, Serial and Parallel ATA, PS/2, parallel ports, series ports, and sol on ), managing their communications with the respite of the computer and the resources given to them. These components do not need to keep up with the external clock of the CPU and do not represent a bottleneck in the overall operation of the system. Any part that would impose such a limitation on the system should finally be developed for FSB attachment. In other words, if you ’ ra considering any component early than the CPU, memory and cache, or PCIe slots, the Southbridge is in charge. Most motherboards today have integrated USB, network, analogue and digital audio, and FireWire ports for the Southbridge to manage, for example, all of which are discussed in more detail later in this chapter or in chapter 3, “ Peripherals and Connectors. ” The Southbridge is besides responsible for managing communications with the slower expansion buses, such as PCI, and bequest buses. figure 1.4 is a photograph of the chipset of a motherboard, with the hotness cesspool of the Northbridge at the top left field, connected to the heat-spreading cover of the Southbridge at the bottom right. F one g u radius e 1. 4 A advanced computer chipset

Understanding Motherboards

13

Figure 1.5 shows a schematic of a distinctive motherboard chipset ( both Northbridge and Southbridge ) and the components with which they interface. Notice which components interface with which parts of the chipset. F i g u roentgen einsteinium 1. 5 A conventional of a typical motherboard chipset

CPU

Frontside Bus

Cache

Backside Bus

Northbridge PCIe Controller AGP Controller

Memory Controller

ATA Interface ( s ) Serial ATA Floppy Controller

Onboard Audio PCI Expansion Bus

Southbridge Onboard LAN

Onboard USB/Serial/ Parallel

Expansion Slots The most visible parts of any motherboard are the expansion slots. These are minor plastic slots, normally from 1 to 6 inches hanker and approximately 1/2-inch wide. As their mention suggests, these slots are used to install diverse devices in the computer to expand its capabilities. Some expansion devices that might be installed in these slots include video, network, sound, and disk interface cards. If you look at the motherboard in your computer, you will more than likely see one of the main types of expansion slots used in computers today, which are PCI and PCIe. In the following sections, we will cover how to visually identify the different expansion slots on the motherboard.

PCI Expansion Slots It ’ randomness immediately considered an older engineering, but many motherboards in use today still contain 32-bit Peripheral Component Interconnect ( PCI ) slots. They are well recognizable because they are entirely around 3-inches long and classically ashen, although modern boards take liberties with the color. PCI slot became highly popular with the second coming

14

Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

of Pentium-class processors in the mid-1990s. Although popularity has shifted from PCI to PCIe, the PCI slot ’ second service to the diligence can not be ignored ; it has been an incredibly fecund architecture for many years. PCI expansion buses operate at 33 MHz or 66 MHz ( adaptation 2.1 ) over a 32-bit ( 4-byte ) channel, resulting in datum rates of 133 MBps and 266 MBps, respectively, with 133 MBps being the most common, waiter architectures excluded. PCI is a shared-bus regional anatomy, however, so mixing 33 MHz and 66 MHz adapters in a 66MHz system will slow all adapters to 33 MHz. Older servers might have featured 64-bit PCI slots deoxyadenosine monophosphate well, since interpretation 1.0, which double the 32-bit datum rates. See the sidebar in this chapter titled “ Arriving at the Exact Answer ” for assistant with understanding the mathematics involved in frequencies and snatch rates.

Arriving at the Exact Answer To get the mathematics precisely right when dealing with frequencies and data rates ending in 33 and 66, you have to realize that every 33 has an associated one-third ( 1/3 ), and every 66 has an associated two-thirds ( 2/3 ). The supernumerary quantities are left off of the final solution but must be added back on to get the mathematics precisely right. The commodity news is that omitting these small values from the equation still gets you close, and a snatch of know with the numbers leads to being able to make the association on-the-fly.

PCI slots and adapters are manufactured in 3.3V and 5V versions. Universal adapters are keyed to fit in slots based on either of the two voltages. The notch in the menu edge of the common 5V slots and adapters is oriented toward the front of the motherboard, and the notch in the 3.3V adapters toward the rear. number 1.6 shows respective PCI expansion slots. Note the 5V 32-bit slot in the foreground and the 3.3V 64-bit slots. besides notice that a universal 32-bit circuit board, which has notches in both positions, is inserted into and operates fine in the 64-bit 3.3V slot in the background. F i g u gas constant e 1. 6 PCI expansion slots

Understanding Motherboards

15

PCIe Expansion Slots The most common expansion slot architecture that is being used by motherboards is PCI Express ( PCIe ). It was designed to be a substitution for AGP, or accelerated graphics port, and PCI. PCIe has the advantage of being faster than AGP while maintaining the flexibility of PCI. PCIe has no plug compatibility with either AGP or PCI. Some modern PCIe motherboards can be found with unconstipated PCI slots for back compatibility, but AGP slots have not been included for many years. PCIe is casually referred to as a bus architecture to simplify its comparison with early bus technologies. true expansion buses share total bandwidth among all slots, each of which taps into different points along the common bus lines. In line, PCIe uses a switch component with point-to-point connections to slots, giving each component full use of the correspond bandwidth and producing more of a star topology versus a bus topology. Furthermore, unlike other expansion buses, which have parallel architectures, PCIe is a serial engineering, striping data packets across multiple consecutive paths to achieve higher data rates. PCIe uses the concept of lanes, which are the switch over point-to-point signal paths between any two PCIe components. Each lane that the switch interconnects between any two intercommunicate devices comprises a divide pair of wires for both directions of traffic. Each PCIe pairing between cards requires a negotiation for the highest mutually digest number of lanes. The single lane or combined collection of lanes that the switch interconnects between devices is referred to as a connect. There are seven different yoke widths supported by PCIe, designated x1 ( pronounced “ by 1 ” ), x2, x4, x8, x12, x16, and x32, with x1, x4, and x16 being the most common. The x8 liaison width is less common than these but more common than the others. A slot that supports a detail link width is of a physical size related to that width because the width is based on the phone number of lanes supported, requiring a relate number of wires. As a result, a x8 slot is longer than a x1 slot but shorter than a x16 slot. Every PCIe slot has a 22-pin dowry in common toward the back of the motherboard, which you can see in Figure 1.7, in which the buttocks of the motherboard is to the leave. These 22 pins comprise largely electric potential and anchor leads. Four major versions of PCIe are presently specified : 1.x, 2.x, 3.0, and 4.0. For the four versions, a single lane, and hence a x1 slot, operates in each direction ( or transmits and receives from either communicating device ’ second perspective ), at a datum rate of 250 MBps ( about twice the rate of the most common PCI slot ), 500 MBps, approximately 1 GBps, and roughly 2 GBps, respectively.

16

Chapter 1

fluorine i g uracil r e 1.7

Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

PCIe expansion slots

PCIe 5.0 is expected to be finalized in the middle of 2019. much like its predecessors, it doubles the accelerate of the previous version. consequently, a PCIe 5.0 x1 arranger would operate at about 4 MBps in each direction. It normally takes at least 12 months for manufacturers to produce devices after a standard has been ratified, so it ’ s improbable that any motherboards or cards will hit the commercialize before mid-2020 at the earliest.

An consociate bidirectional link has a nominal throughput of double these rates. Use the double rate when comparing PCIe to early expansion buses because those other rates are for bidirectional communication. This means that the 500 MBps bidirectional connection of a x1 slot in the fi rst adaptation of PCIe was comparable to PCI ’ mho good, a 64-bit slot running at 66 MHz and producing a throughput of 533 MBps. Bidirectional means that data flows in both directions, often simultaneously. unidirectional means datum flows in lone one management.

Combining lanes just results in a linear multiplication of these rates. For model, a PCIe 1.1 x16 slot is able of 4 GBps of throughput in each direction, 16 times the 250 MBps x1 rate. Bidirectionally, this fairly common slot produces a throughput of

Understanding Motherboards

17

8 GBps. Each subsequent PCIe specification doubles this throughput. The aforesaid PCIe 5.0 will produce bidirectional throughput of approximately 128 GBps, which is faster than some DDR4 standards ( which is to say, it ’ mho actually, actually fast ).

Using Shorter Cards in Longer Slots Up-plugging is defined in the PCIe specification as the ability to use a higher-capability slot for a lesser adapter. In other words, you can use a short ( fewer-lane ) poster in a longer slot. For model, you can insert a x8 card into a x16 slot. The x8 tease won ’ thymine wholly fill the slot, but it will work at x8 speeds if up-plugging is supported by the motherboard. otherwise, the specification requires up-plugged devices to operate at only the x1 rate. This is something you should be mindful of and investigate in boost. Downplugging is possible only on open-ended slots, although not specifically allowed in the official stipulation. even if you find or make ( by cutting a groove in the end ) an openended slot that accepts a longer card edge, the insert arranger can not operate faster than the slot ’ s maximal rated capability because the command physical wiring to the PCIe substitution in the Northbridge is not present.

Because of its high datum rate, PCIe is the current choice of gaming aficionado. additionally, technologies exchangeable to NVIDIA ’ s scalable Link Interface ( SLI ) allow such users to combine preferably identical graphics adapters in appropriately spaced PCIe x16 slots with a hardware bridge to form a single virtual graphics adapter. The job of the bridge is to provide non-chipset communication among the adapters. The bridge is not a prerequisite for SLI to work, but performance suffers without it. SLI-ready motherboards allow two, three, or four PCIe graphics adapters to pool their graphics processing units ( GPUs ) and memory to feed graphics output signal to a single monitor attached to the adapter acting as SLI master. SLI execution results in increase graphics performance over single-PCIe and non-PCIe implementations. Refer back to Figure 1.7, which is a photograph of an SLI-ready motherboard with three PCIe x16 slots ( every other slot, starting with the exceed one ), one PCIe x1 slot ( second slot from the exceed ), and two PCI slots ( first base and third gear slots from the bottom ). Notice the latch and tab key that secures the x16 adapters in place by their hooks. Any movement of these high-performance devices can result in irregular failure or poor operation.

Using Riser Cards Most PC expansion cards plug immediately into the motherboard. A special type of expansion poster, called a riser menu, provides extra slots that other expansion cards plug into. The other expansion cards are then analogue to the motherboard, as opposed to perpendicular. figure 1.8 shows an model of a riser card. It ’ s an older example, but it illustrates the concept well.

18

Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

F one g u radius einsteinium 1. 8 Riser card in a motherboard

By Dale Mahalko, Gilman, WI, USA CC BY-SA 3.0 from Wikimedia Commons

Riser cards aren ’ thymine much found in background PCs today but do still find some use in rackmounted servers with low-profile cases. The motherboard must be designed to accept a riser card, and the shell needs to be built for it equally good, for the external helping of the expansion wag to be accessible.

Memory Slots and Cache Memory, or random access memory ( RAM ), slots are the adjacent most luminary slots on a motherboard. These slots are designed for the modules that hold memory chips that make up chief memory, which is used to store presently used data and instructions for the CPU. many types of memory are available for PCs nowadays. In this chapter, you will become companion with the appearance and specifications of the slots on the motherboard so that you can identify them and appropriately install or replace RAM. For the most part, PCs today use memory chips arranged on a small circumference board. A dual in-line memory module ( DIMM ) is one type of racing circuit board. Today ’ sulfur DIMMs disagree in the number of conductors, or pins, that each particular physical class agent uses. Some common examples include 168-, 184-, 240-, and 288-pin configurations. In accession, laptop memory comes in smaller human body factors known as small outline DIMMs ( SODIMMs ) and MicroDIMMs. The single in-line memory module ( SIMM ) is an older memory shape

Understanding Motherboards

19

factor that began the tendency of placing memory chips on modules. More detail on memory box and the technologies that use them can be found former in this chapter in the department “ Understanding Memory. ” Figure 1.9 shows the form factors for some once-popular memory modules. Notice how they basically look the like, but that the module sizes and keying notches ( in between the pins along the bottom ) are different. F one g u radius vitamin e 1. 9 unlike memory module form factors

Memory slots are easy to identify on a motherboard. authoritative DIMM slots were normally black and, like all memory slots, were placed very close together. DIMM slots with color-coding are more common these days, however. The color-coding of the slot acts as a guidebook to the installer of the memory. See the department “ Single-, Dual-, and Triple-Channel Memory ” late in this chapter for more on the determination of this color-coding. Consult the motherboard ’ s documentation to determine the specific modules allowed a well as their compulsory orientation. The number of memory slots varies from motherboard to motherboard, but the structure of the unlike slots is similar. alloy pins in the bottom cook contact with the metallic pins on each memory module. Small alloy or formative tabs on each slope of the time slot keep the memory module securely in its slot. figure 1.10 shows four memory slots at the bottom of the picture, with the CPU socket included for character. sometimes, the amount of primary memory installed is inadequate to service extra requests for memory resources from newly launched applications. When this condition occurs, the user may receive an “ out of memory ” error message and an application may fail to launch. One solution for this is to use the hard drive as extra RAM. This space on the hard drive is known as a trade file or a foliate file. The engineering in cosmopolitan is known as virtual memory. The swap file, PAGEFILE.SYS in modern Microsoft operating systems, is an optimize space that can deliver information to RAM at the request of the memory control faster than if it came from the general storage pool of the drive. eminence that virtual

20

Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

memory can not be used directly from the hard drive ; it must be paged into RAM as the oldest contents of RAM are paged out to the hard drive to make board. The memory restrainer, by the way, is the chip that manages entree to RAM deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as adapters that have had a few hardware memory addresses reserved for their communication with the processor. F one g u gas constant e 1 .1 0 DDR memory slots

Nevertheless, relying besides a lot on virtual memory ( check your page demerit statistics in the Reliability and Performance Monitor ) results in the entire system slowing down perceptibly. An cheap and highly effective solution is to add physical memory to the system, frankincense reducing its reliance on virtual memory. More information on virtual memory and its shape can be found in chapter 15, “ Operating System Basics. ” Another type of memory most PCs have is cache memory, which is little and fast and logically sits between the CPU and RAM. Cache is a very fast human body of memory forged from electrostatic RAM, which is discussed in detail in the section “ Understanding Memory ” subsequently in this chapter. Cache improves system performance by predicting what the CPU will ask for future and prefetching this information before being asked. This substitution class allows the hoard to be smaller in size than the RAM itself. merely the most recently used datum and code or that which is expected to be used next is stored in cache. You ’ ll see three unlike cache designations : level 1 Cache L1 hoard is the smallest and fastest, and it ’ s on the central processing unit die itself. In other words, it ’ s an integrated depart of the fabrication design that ’ s used to stamp the processor pathways into the silicon chip. You can ’ thyroxine get any closer to the processor than that.

Understanding Motherboards

21

While the definition of L1 cache has not changed much over the years, the same is not genuine for other cache levels. L2 and L3 hoard used to be on the motherboard but now have moved on-die in most processors angstrom well. The biggest differences are the speed and whether they are shared. Level 2 Cache L2 hoard is larger but a little slower than L1 hoard. For processors with multiple cores, each core will generally have its own dedicated L1 and L2 caches. A few processors share a common L2 cache among the cores. Level 3 Cache L3 cache is larger and slower than L1 or L2, and is normally shared among all processor cores. The distinctive increasing orderliness of capacity and distance from the central processing unit fail is L1 hoard, L2 hoard, L3 cache, RAM, and HDD/SSD ( hard disk drive and solid-state drive—more on these in chapter 2 ). This is besides the typical decreasing order of focal ratio. The succeed tilt includes representative capacities of these memory types. The cache capacities are for each core of the original Intel Core i7 processor. The other capacities are merely mod examples. ■■

L1 cache—64 KB ( 32 KB each for data and instructions )

■■

L2 cache—256 KB

■■

L3 cache—4–12 MB

■■

RAM—4–64 GB

■■

HDD/SSD—100s of GB to respective TB

One manner to find out how much cache your system has is to use a utility such as CPU-Z, as shown in Figure 1.11. CPU-Z is freeware that can show you the measure of cache, processor name and total, motherboard and chipset, and memory specifications. It can be found at www.cpuid.com. F one g u radius e 1 .11 Cache in a system

22

Chapter 1

Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

Figure 1.11 shows L1D and L1I caches. many CPUs will split L1 cache into cache for data ( L1D ) or instructions ( L1I ). It ’ south highly improbable you ’ ll be tested on this, but it ’ south interesting to know.

Central Processing Unit and Processor Socket The “ brain ” of any computer is the central process unit ( CPU ). There ’ randomness no calculator without a CPU. There are many different types of processors for computers—so many, in fact, that you will learn about them subsequently in this chapter in the part “ Understanding Processors. ” Typically, in today ’ mho computers, the processor is the easiest component to identify on the motherboard. It is normally the component that has either a fan or a heat dip ( normally both ) attached to it ( as shown in Figure 1.12 ). These devices are used to draw away and disperse the heat that a processor generates. This is done because heat is the enemy of microelectronics. nowadays ’ second processors generate enough heating system that, without the heat sink, they would permanently damage themselves and the motherboard in a topic of minutes, if not seconds. farad one g uranium r e 1 .1 2

Two heat sinks, one with a sports fan

CPU sockets are about adenine varied as the processors that they hold. Sockets are basically flat and have several columns and rows of holes or pins arranged in a square, as shown in Figure 1.13. The leave socket is known as Socket AM3, made for AMD processors such as the Athlon II, and has holes to receive the pins on the CPU. This is known as a trap grid array ( PGA ) arrangement for a CPU socket. The holes and pins are in a row/column orientation, an array of pins. The right socket is known as Socket R or Socket LGA 2011, and there are spring-loaded pins in the socket and a grid of lands on the CPU. The state grid array ( LGA ) is a newer technology that places the delicate pins ( so far more sturdy than those on chips ) on the cheaper motherboard alternatively of on the more expensive CPU, opposite to

Understanding Motherboards

23

the way that the aging PGA does. The device with the pins has to be replaced if the pins become excessively damage to function. The PGA and LGA are mentioned again late in this chapter in the section “ Understanding Processors. ” F one g uranium gas constant e 1 .1 3 CPU socket examples

Modern CPU sockets have a mechanism in plaza that reduces the necessitate to apply considerable force to the CPU to install a processor, which was necessary in the early days of personal calculation. Given the extra surface area on today ’ mho processors, excessive atmospheric pressure applied in the incorrect manner could damage the CPU promotion, its pins, or the motherboard itself. For CPUs based on the PGA concept, zero interpolation force ( ZIF ) sockets are extremely democratic. ZIF sockets use a credit card or alloy lever on one of the two lateral pass edges to lock or release the mechanism that secures the CPU ’ sulfur pins in the socket. The CPU rides on the mobile top helping of the socket, and the socket ’ sulfur contacts that mate with the CPU ’ south pins are in the fix bottom part of the socket. The effigy of Socket AM3 shown on the entrust in Figure 1.13 illustrates the ZIF engage mechanism at the right edge of the socket. For processors based on the LGA concept, a socket with a different engage mechanism is used. Because there are no receptacles in either the motherboard or the CPU, there is no opportunity for a lock mechanism that holds the component with the pins in place. LGA-compatible sockets, as they ’ re called despite the misnomer, have a lid that closes over the CPU and is locked in place by an l-shaped arm that borders two of the socket ’ s edges. The nonlocking leg of the arm has a bend in the center that latches the eyelid closed when the other leg of the arm is secured. The right effigy in Figure 1.13 shows an LGA socket with no CPU installed and the lock branch secured over the eyelid ’ randomness pill, along the top boundary. Listing out all the socket types you might encounter would take a long meter. alternatively, we ’ ll give you a sampling of some that you might see. The first thing you might notice is that sockets are made for Intel or AMD processors, but not both. Keep that in take care when replacing a motherboard or a central processing unit. Make sure that the central processing unit and motherboard

24

Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

were designed for each other ( even within the Intel or AMD families ) ; otherwise, they won ’ t fit each other and won ’ thymine work. mesa 1.1 lists some common background socket/CPU relationships. Servers and laptops/tablets broadly have different sockets raw, although some CPU sockets will support processors designed for desktops or servers. Ta b fifty vitamin e 1 .1 Desktop personal computer socket types and the processors they support Socket

Released

Type

Processors

Socket AM4

2017

PGA

AMD Ryzen 3, Ryzen 5, Ryzen 7

Socket TR4

2017

LGA

AMD Ryzen Threadripper

LGA 2066 ( Socket R4 )

2017

LGA

Intel Skylake-X and Kaby Lake-X

LGA 1151 ( Socket H4 )

2015

LGA

Intel Skylake, Kaby Lake, and Coffee Lake

Socket FM2+

2014

PGA

AMD Kaveri and Godavari

Socket AM1

2014

PGA

AMD Athlon and Sempron

LGA 1150 ( Socket H3 )

2013

LGA

Intel Haswell, Haswell Refresh, and Broadwell

Socket FM2

2012

PGA

AMD Trinity

LGA 2011 ( Socket R )

2011

LGA

Intel Core i7 ( 3xxx and 4xxx series ), Xeon E5 2xxx/4xxx series

LGA 1155 ( Socket H2 )

2011

LGA

Intel Sandy Bridge, Ivy Bridge, Xeon E3 12xx series

Socket FM1

2011

PGA

AMD Llano

Socket AM3+

2011

PGA

AMD FX Vishera, FX Zambezi, Phenom II, Athlon II, Sempron

Socket AM3

2009

PGA

AMD Phenom II, Athlon II, Sempron, Opteron 1300 series

LGA 1156 ( Socket H )

2009

LGA

Intel Core i7 ( 800 series ), Core i5 ( 700 and 600 series ), Core i3 ( 500 serial ), Xeon ( X3400 and L3400 series ), Pentium ( G6000 series ), and Celeron ( G1000 series )

LGA 1366 ( Socket B )

2008

LGA

Intel Core i7 ( 900 series ), Xeon ( 35xx, 36xx, 55xx, and 56xx series )

Understanding Motherboards

25

Some bequest sockets, such as Socket 5 and Socket 7, supported both platforms, but it ’ s improbable that you will see one in the rampantly, as they are over 25 years erstwhile now.

Playing the diagnose game Back in bare times, Intel marketed only one or two processors at a time. For exercise, when the 80486DX was in the market, they didn ’ t have much else. then the Pentium came along, followed by the Celeron ( which everyone know was a stripped Pentium ), and the Pentium M, which was the mobile version of the Pentium. The active roll of processors started to expand. immediately, there are a draw of active chips, including the Xeon, Core series ( i9, i7, i5, i3, and m3 ), and even the Pentium and Celeron are hush kicking around. And with new invention coming about every year, it ’ sulfur difficult to keep traverse of what ’ s current. In about 2013, Intel began to publicize its project code names a sting more to make it easier to keep track of the new engineering bundles. no longer were technical school able to remember that an i7 required a specific character of socket, but they needed to know which i7 they were dealing with. For model, a Broadwell-based ( 2014 ) i7 requires an LGA 1150 socket, whereas most Kaby Lake ( 2016 ) i7s use an LGA 1151. One pin makes a huge difference ! Odds are you aren ’ triiodothyronine going to need to memorize all possible Intel chip and motherboard socket combinations for the examination or the actual universe. In the real universe, the Internet ’ second constantly there to remind you of which socket you need for a specific processor. To give you a flavor, though, table 1.2 covers a few of Intel ’ s recent CPU architecture codenames and the associated processor model numbers.

TA bel liter einsteinium 1. 2

Select Intel desktop processors

mention ( Year )

Core i9

Core i7

Core i5

Core i3

Coffee Lake ( 2017 )

n/a

87xx

86xx

83xx

80xx

85xx

81xx

84xx Kaby Lake ( 2016 )

n/a

77xxX

76xxX

73xx

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

Ta barn fifty east 1. 2 blue-ribbon Intel background processors ( continued ) name ( Year )

Core i9

Core i7

Core i5

Core i3

77xx

76xx

71xx

75xx 74xx Skylake ( 2015 )

79xxXE

78xxX

66xx

63xx

79xxX

67xx

65xx

61x

64xx

60xx

To make things tied more concern, you might hear references to the nth genesis of the i5 or i7 processor. For exercise, Coffee Lake is considered 8th genesis. other Intel codenames you will hear about over the following few years are Whiskey Lake, Cannon Lake, Ice Lake, Tiger Lake, and Sapphire Rapids. When you go to the parts shop, though, you ’ re probably not going to ask for a Coffee Lake i7. You ’ ll ask for an i7, see what they have in broth, and then figure out what motherboard you need. ( Or alternatively, based on your motherboard, you ’ ll number out which i7 you can use. ) What does all of this mean you need to do ? First, get comfortable knowing that a modern architecture may require a different motherboard. Second, feel absolve to memorize some of the more common combinations of motherboards and processors if you find it helpful. Some combinations are easier than others. For exemplar, all the processors in mesa 1.2 ending in an X need an LGA 2066 socket ( see Table 1.1 ). The others need LGA 1151.

Power Connectors In addition to these sockets and slots on the motherboard, a special connection ( the 24-pin white stuff connection shown in Figure 1.14 ) allows the motherboard to be connected to the baron supply to receive exponent. This connection is where the ATX power connection ( mentioned in chapter 2 in the section “ Understanding Power Supplies ” ) plug in.

Understanding Motherboards

27

F iodine g uracil roentgen e 1 .1 4 An ATX power connection on a motherboard

Onboard Disk Drive Connectors about all users store data, and the most widely used data storage device is a intemperate drive. There are multiple types of unvoiced drives, and we ’ ll make into them in more detail in chapter 2. Of course, those drives need to connect to the motherboard, and that ’ s what we ’ ll cover here. At one clock, integrated drive electronics ( IDE ) drives were the most coarse type of hard drive found in computers. Though much thought of in relative to hard drives, IDE was much more than a hard drive interface ; it was besides a democratic interface for many other driveway types, including optical drives and tape drives. today, we call it IDE Parallel ATA ( PATA ) and consider it to be a bequest engineering. trope 1.15 shows two PATA interfaces ; you can see that one pin in the center field is missing ( as a key ) to ensure that the cable gets attached by rights. The industry now favors Serial ATA rather. serial ATA ( SATA ) began as an enhancement to the master ATA specifications, besides known as IDE and, today, PATA. Technology is proving that the orderly progress of data in a single-file path is victor to placing multiple bits of data in parallel and trying to synchronize their transmission to the point that each bit arrives simultaneously. In other words, if you can build faster transceivers, serial transmissions are simpler to adapt to the flying rates than are parallel transmissions. The foremost version of SATA, known as SATA 1.5 Gbps ( and besides by the less-preferred terms SATA I and SATA 150 ), used an 8b/10b-encoding scheme that requires 2 non-data overhead bits for every 8 data bits. The result is a loss of 20 percentage of the rated bandwidth. The eloquent lining, however, is that the mathematics becomes quite easy. normally, you have to divide by 8 to convert bits to bytes. With 8b/10b encode, you divide by 10. consequently, the 150 MBps throughput for which this adaptation of SATA was nicknamed is easily derived as 1/10 of the 1.5 Gbps transfer rate. The master SATA specification besides provided for hot trade at the discretion of the motherboard and drive manufacturers.

28

Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

F i g uranium r e 1 .1 5 Two PATA hard drive connectors

Similar mathematics work for SATA 3 Gbps, besides recklessly tagged as SATA II and SATA 300, and SATA 6 Gbps, which is not approved for being called SATA III or SATA 600, but the damage is already done. note that each subsequent version doubles the throughput of the previous adaptation. figure 1.16 shows four SATA headers on a motherboard that will receive the data cable. note that identifiers silkscreened onto motherboards frequently enumerate such headers. The result numbers are not related to the SATA version that the header supports. alternatively, such numbers serve to differentiate headers from one another and to map to firmware identifiers, much visible within the BIOS configuration utility. F one g u radius e 1 .1 6 Four SATA headers

Understanding Motherboards

29

A newer character of expansion slot used quite often for hard drives is M.2. It ’ s not designed specifically for hard drives, but quite to replace the mini Serial ATA ( mSATA ) standard for ultra-small expansion components in laptops and smaller devices. We ’ ll talk more about it in Chapter 2.

BIOS/UEFI and the POST Routine Firmware is the list given to any software that is encoded in hardware, normally a readonly memory ( ROM ) chip, and it can be run without excess instructions from the operating arrangement. Most computers, large printers, and devices with no operate on system use fi rmware in some sense. The best exemplar of fi rmware is a calculator ’ s Basic Input/Output System ( BIOS ), which is burned into a chip. besides, some expansion cards, such as SCSI cards and graphics adapters, use their own fi rmware utilities for setting up peripherals. The BIOS chip, besides referred to as the ROM BIOS chip, is one of the most important chips on the motherboard. This special memory chip contains the BIOS system software that boots the system and allows the operate system to interact with sealed hardware in the calculator in stead of requiring a more complex device driver to do so. The BIOS chip is easily identified : If you have a brand-name computer, this nick might have on it the list of the manufacturer and normally the son BIOS. For clones, the chip normally has a dagger or print on it from one of the major BIOS manufacturers ( AMI, Phoenix/Award, Winbond, and others ). On later motherboards, the BIOS might be unmanageable to identify or it might even be integrated into the Southbridge, but the functionality remains careless of how it ’ randomness implemented. The successor to the BIOS is the Unifi erectile dysfunction Extensible Firmware Interface ( UEFI ). The extensile features of the UEFI permit for the support of a huge array of systems and platforms by allowing the UEFI access to system resources for storage of extra modules that can be added at any meter. In the trace section, you ’ ll see how a security feature known as Secure Boot would not be possible with the classic BIOS. It is the extensibility of the UEFI that makes such engineering feasible.

BIOS/UEFI Figure 1.17 gives you an theme of what a mod BIOS chip might look like on a motherboard. Despite the 1998 copyright on the label, which refers entirely to the oldest code present on the chip, this particular chip can be found on motherboards produced angstrom late as 2009. Notice besides the Reset CMOS jumper at lower left and its shape silkscreen at upper forget. You might use this sweater to clear the CMOS memory, discussed soon, when an stranger password, for example, is keeping you out of the BIOS configuration utility. The jumper in the photograph is in the clear position, not the normal operational position. System bootup is typically not possible in this state.

30

Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

F one g uranium gas constant e 1 .17 A BIOS chip on a motherboard

At a basic horizontal surface, the BIOS controls system boot options such as the sequence of drives from which it will look for engage system kick files. The bang succession menu from a BIOS is shown in Figure 1.18. other interface shape options will be available excessively, such as enabling or disabling integrate ports or an integrated video batting order. F one g uracil radius e 1 .1 8 BIOS bang succession

Most BIOS apparatus utilities have more to offer than a simple interface for making selections and saving the results. For example, these utilities much offer diagnostic routines that you can use to have the BIOS analyze the state and quality of the like components that it inspects during bootup, but at a much deeper level. Consider the scenario where a computer is making noise and overheating. You can use the BIOS configuration utility to access built-in diagnostics to check the rotational amphetamine of the motherboard fans. If the fans are running slower than expected, the noise

Understanding Motherboards

31

could be related to the bearings of one or more fans, causing them to lose rush and, therefore, cooling capacity. There is often besides a page within the utility that gives you entree to such bits of information as current exist readings of the temperature of the CPU and the ambient temperature of the inside of the system unit. On such a page, you can set the temperature at which the BIOS sounds a warning tone and the temperature at which the BIOS shuts down the system to protect it. You can besides monitor the instantaneous fan speeds, busbar speeds, and electric potential levels of the CPU and other vital landmarks to make sure that they are all within satisfactory ranges. You might besides be able to set a lower sports fan speed threshold at which the system warns you. In many cases, some of these levels can be altered to achieve such phenomena as overclocking, which is using the BIOS to set the system clock higher than what the CPU is rated for, or undervolting, which is lowering the voltage of the CPU and RAM, which reduces exponent consumption and heat production. Some BIOS firmware can monitor the status of a contact on the motherboard for intrusion detection. If the feature of speech in the BIOS is enabled and the detector on the human body is connected to the contact on the motherboard, the removal of the cover will be detected and logged by the BIOS. This can occur even if the organization is off, thanks to the CMOS battery. At the future bootup, the BIOS will notify you of the intrusion. No telling occurs over subsequent boots unless extra intrusion is detected. The BIOS has always played a function in system security. Since the early days of the personal calculator, the BIOS allowed the set of two passwords—the drug user password and the supervisor, or entree, password. The user password is required to leave the initial power-on screens and begin the procedure of booting an engage organization. The supervisory program password is required before entering the BIOS shape utility. It is constantly a good mind to set the supervisory program password, but the exploiter password should not be set on public systems that need to boot on their own, in case of an unanticipated power-cycle. In more holocene years, the role of the BIOS in system security has grown substantially. BIOS security has been extended to a point where the operational system is ready to take it over. The BIOS was a perfect campaigner to supervise security and integrity in a platformindependent means. Coupled with the Trusted Platform Module ( TPM ), a dedicate security coprocessor, or crypto processor, the BIOS can be configured to boot the arrangement entirely after authenticating the boot device. This authentication confirms that the hardware being booted to has been tied to the system containing the BIOS and TPM, a process known as seal. Sealing the devices to the system besides prohibits the devices from being used after removing them from the system. For farther security, the keys created can be combined with a PIN or password that unlocks their function or with a USB flash drive that must be inserted before boot. Microsoft ’ second BitLocker uses the TPM to encrypt the entire drive. normally, only exploiter data can be encrypted, but BitLocker encrypts operating-system files, the Registry, the hibernation file, and sol on, in addition to those files and folders that file-level encoding secures. If any changes have occurred to the Windows facility, the TPM does not release the keys required to decrypt and boot to the secured volume.

32

Chapter 1

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When a certain level of UEFI is used, the system fi rmware can besides check digital signatures for each boot fi le it uses to confi rm that it is the approve adaptation and has not been tampered with. This technology is known as Secure Boot. The kick fi les checked include option ROMs ( defi ned in the follow section ), the boot stevedore, and other operatingsystem boot fi les. only if the signatures are valid will the fi rmware load and execute the consociate software. The trouble can now arise that a particular function organization might not be supported by the database of known-good signatures stored in the fi rmware. In such a situation, the system manufacturer can supply an extension that the UEFI can use to support that operating system—a task not possible with traditional BIOS-based fi rmware. LoJack for Laptops is a UEFI-enabled security organization developed by Absolute Software. It performs similarly to other UEFI security methods already discussed, such as drive encoding, but adds a few features. For example, LoJack can remotely track steal laptops arsenic well as lock and edit certain files.

POST A major function of the BIOS is to perform a summons known as a power-on self-test ( POST ). POST is a series of system checks performed by the system BIOS and other highend components, such as the SCSI BIOS and the video recording BIOS, known jointly as choice ROMs. Among early things, the POST routine verifies the integrity of the BIOS itself. It besides verifies and confi rms the size of primary memory. During POST, the BIOS besides analyzes and catalogs other forms of hardware, such as buses and boot devices, equally well as manages the elapse of control condition to the specialized BIOS routines mentioned earlier. The BIOS is responsible for offering the exploiter a key sequence to enter the configuration act as POST is beginning. last, once POST has completed successfully, the BIOS selects the boot device highest in the configured boot order and executes the overcome kick record ( MBR ) or like construct on that device thus that the MBR can call its associated engage system ’ s boot loader and continue booting up. The POST process can end with a beep code or displayed code that indicates the issue discovered. Each BIOS publisher has its own series of codes that can be generated. figure 1.19 shows a simplified POST display during the initial boot sequence of a computer. farad one g u r e 1 .1 9

An model of a system POST screen

Understanding Motherboards

Flashing the System BIOS If ever you find that a hardware upgrade to your system is not recognized, flush after the latest and correct drivers have been installed, possibly a BIOS upgrade, besides known as flashing the BIOS, is in ordering. only sealed hardware benefits from a BIOS upgrade, such as drives and a change of CPU or RAM types. very often, this hardware is recognized immediately by the BIOS and has no associated driver that you must install. indeed, if your system doesn ’ metric ton recognize the new device, and there ’ s no driver to install, the BIOS is a coherent target. Let ’ s be clear about the fact that we are not talking about entering the BIOS apparatus utility and making changes to settings and subsequently saving your changes before exiting and rebooting. What we are referring to here is a refilling of the burned-in code within the BIOS itself. You might even notice after the upgrade that the BIOS setup utility looks different or has different pages and entries than ahead. On older systems and certain newer ones, a loss of baron during the upgrade results in calamity. The system becomes inoperable until you replace the BIOS chip, if potential, or the motherboard itself. Most new systems, however, have a fail-safe or two. This could be a dowry of the BIOS that does not get flashed and has good adequate code to boot the system and access the upgrade visualize. It could be a passive voice section to which the promote is installed and switched to lone if the ascent is successful. sometimes this is controlled onscreen. At other times, there may be a mechanism, such as a sweater, involved in the recovery of the BIOS after a power consequence occurs. The safest bet is to make certain that your laptop has plenty of battery power and is connected to AC might or your desktop is connected to an uninterruptible power supply ( UPS ). In all cases, if you think you need a BIOS upgrade, do not consult the BIOS manufacturer. rather, go to the motherboard or system manufacturer and check its web site. The motherboard or system manufacturer vendors have personalized their BIOS code after licensing it from the BIOS publisher. The seller will give you access to the latest code equally well as the appropriate flash utility program for its execution.

CMOS and CMOS Battery Your personal computer has to keep certain settings when it ’ s turned off and its might cord is unplug : ■■

Date

■■

Time

■■

Hard drive/optical drive shape

■■

Memory

■■

CPU settings, such as overclocking

■■

Integrated ports ( settings deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as enable/disable )

33

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Boot sequence

Power management

Virtualization support

Security ( passwords, Trusted Platform Module settings, LoJack )

Consider a situation where you added a modern graphics adapter to your desktop computer, but the built-in display interface continues to remain active, prohibiting the newfangled interface from working. The solution might be to alter your BIOS configuration to disable the inner graphics adapter, so that the new one will take over. alike reconfiguration of your BIOS settings might be necessity when overclocking—or changing the system clock speed—is desired, or when you want to set BIOS-based passwords or establish TPM-based wholedrive encoding, as with Microsoft ’ mho BitLocker. While not so much utilize nowadays, the system date and time can be altered in the BIOS configuration utility of your system ; once, in the early days of personal computer science, the date and time actually might have needed to be changed this way. Your personal computer keeps these settings in a special memory chip called the complemental metallic oxide semiconductor device ( CMOS ) memory chip. actually, CMOS ( normally pronounced see-moss ) is a manufacture engineering for integrate circuits. The fi rst normally used chip made from CMOS engineering was a type of memory chip, the memory for the BIOS. As a resultant role, the term CMOS stick and is the accept name for this memory check. The BIOS starts with its own nonpayment information and then reads information from the CMOS, such as which difficult campaign types are configured for this calculator to use, which drive ( s ) it should search for boot sectors, and thus on. Any overlapping information read from the CMOS overrides the default option data from the BIOS. A miss of corresponding information in the CMOS does not delete information that the BIOS knows natively. This process is a blend, not a write-over. CMOS memory is normally not upgradable in terms of its capability and might be integrated into the BIOS chip or the Southbridge. Although there are technical differences, in the real global the terms BIOS and CMOS ( and BIOS nick and CMOS chip ) are used interchangeably. You will hear person say, “ Did you check the BIOS ? ” or, “ Did you check CMOS settings ? ” and they ’ ra referring to the same thing. even though it ’ s an oversimplification, most people feel comfortable with thinking about the BIOS as the firmware that controls the boot action, whereas CMOS is the chip itself. It ’ s incredibly improbable that the A+ examination or any person is going to ask you to differentiate between the two, unless you get a job focusing specifically on those technologies.

To keep its settings, integrated circuit-based memory must have office constantly. When you shut off a computer, anything that is left in this type of memory is lost forever. The CMOS manufacture engineering produces chips with very depleted world power requirements. As a result, today ’ s electronic circuitry is more susceptible to damage from electrostatic release ( ESD ). Another branch is that it doesn ’ t take much of a baron informant to keep CMOS chips from losing their contents.

Understanding Motherboards

35

To prevent CMOS from losing its rather significant information, motherboard manufacturers include a belittled battery called the CMOS battery to power the CMOS memory, shown in the bottom-left corner of Figure 1.20. The batteries come in unlike shapes and sizes, but they all perform the same function. Most CMOS batteries look like large vigil batteries or small cylindrical batteries. today ’ south CMOS batteries are most much of a longlife, non-rechargeable lithium chemistry. F iodine g u gas constant vitamin e 1. 2 0 CMOS battery

Front- and Top-Panel Connectors From the time of the very first base personal calculator, there has been a minimum expectation as to the buttons and LEDs that should appear on the front of the encase. In today ’ second cases, buttons and LEDs have been added and placed on the clear of the case or on a beveled edge between the top and the front. They have besides been left on the front or have been used in a combination of these locations. Users expect a power release to use to turn the calculator on. ( These were on the side or back of very early PCs. ) The soft ability have available through the front power push button, which is no more than a relay, allows entree to multiple effects through the contact on the motherboard, based on how long the button is pressed. These effects can be changed through the BIOS or operating organization. Users besides expect a office lightly, often a green LED, to assure them that the button did its job. As time progressed, users were introduced to new things on the battlefront panel of their computers. Each of these components depends on connectivity to the motherboard for its functionality. As a leave, most motherboards have these

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

standardized connections in common. The succeed list includes the majority of these landmarks : ■■

Power button

■■

Power light

■■

Reset release

■■

Drive activity lights

■■

Audio jacks

■■

USB ports

So common are the versatile interfaces and indicators found on the presence panel of today ’ s computer chassis that the industry has standardized on a belittled number of connectors, making attachment to motherboards much simple. figure 1.21 shows a diagram for a motherboard heading. Consult the motherboard ’ s documentation for a especial model ’ s peg assignments. F one g u radius east 1. 2 1 The front-panel motherboard header 1 J1B1 2 7

J1E1 1 4

8

CD-ROM Audio

Wave Table

1 Telephony J1F1 J2J1

J4A1 ISA

1 3 CPU2 Fan

PCI # 1 – J4A2 PCI # 2 – J4B1 PCI # 3 – J4C1 PCI # 4 – J4D1

J6M1 1 3 CPU1 Fan

PCI IDE ( 2 )

3 Card Slot Fan

Sec J12E1 Pri J12F1 39

J13C1 1

40

J13G1 1 7

2

8 SCSI Hard Drive Front Panel LED

33

0 34

Power

2

2 J8L1

1

1 5 floppy Drive J12F1

Understanding Motherboards

37

Reset Button The readjust button appeared as a manner to reboot the calculator from a cold inauguration point without removing power from the components. Keeping the car powered tends to prolong the life of the electronics affected by power motorbike. Pressing the reset button besides gets around software lockups because the connection to the motherboard allows the system to restart from the hardware level. One disadvantage to power bicycle is that certain circuits, such as memory chips, might need time to drain their charge for the boot to be completely successful. This is why there is always a way to turn the computer off a well.

Drive Activity Light In the early days of personal calculation, the hard harrow tug ’ south LED had to be driven by the drive itself. Before long, the motherboard was equipped with drive headers, so adding pins to drive the drive activeness light was no exit. These days, all motherboards supply this connectivity. The benefit of having one LED for all inner drives is that all the drives are represented on the presence panel when entirely one LED is provided. The disadvantage might be that you can not tell which drive is presently active. This tends to be a minor refer because you much know which drive you ’ ve accessed. If you haven ’ triiodothyronine intentionally accessed any drive, it ’ s likely the drive that holds the operate on system or virtual-memory swap file is being accessed by the system itself. In contrast, external drives with removable media, such as optical drives, supply their own bodily process light on their faceplate.

Audio Jacks Early generations of optical drives had to have a special cable attached to the back of the drive. The cable was then attached to the sound tease if sound recording CDs were to be heard through the speakers attached to the legal calling card. legal emanating from a CD-ROM running an application, such as a game, did not have to take the same route and could travel through the lapp path from the force as general datum. The first enhancement to this arrangement came in the form of a front man 3.5 millimeter jack on the drive ’ sulfur faceplate that was intended for headphones but could besides have speakers connected to it. The audio that normally ran across the special cable was rerouted to the front jacklight when something was plugged into it. Many of today ’ south motherboards have 10-position pin headers designed to connect to standardized front-panel audio modules. Some of these modules have legacy AC ’ 97 analogue ports on them, whereas others have high-definition ( HD ) audio connections. Motherboards that accommodate both have a BIOS fructify that enables you to choose which header you want to activate, with the HD setting most frequently being the nonpayment.

USB Ports So many temporarily attached devices feature USB connectivity, such as USB keys ( dart drives ) and cameras, that front-panel connectivity is a must. Finding your way to the spinal column of the organization unit for a brief connection is barely worth the effort in some cases. For many years, motherboards have supplied one or more 10-position headers for inner connectivity of front-panel USB ports. Because this heading size is democratic for many applications, only 9 positions tend to have pins protruding, while the tenth status acts as a key, showing

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up in different spots for each application to discourage the connection of the wrong cable. figure 1.22 shows USB headers on a motherboard. The labels “ USB56 ” and “ USB78 ” indicate that one auction block serves ports 5 and 6, while the other serves ports 7 and 8, all of which are arbitrary, based on the manufacturer ’ randomness numbering convention. farad iodine g u r east 1. 2 2

Two motherboard USB headers

Understanding Processors now that you ’ ve learned the basics of the motherboard, you need to learn about the most crucial component on the motherboard : the CPU. The function of the CPU, or cardinal action unit, is to control and direct all the activities of the calculator using both external and home buses. It is a processor chip consisting of an array of millions of transistors. Intel and Advanced Micro Devices ( AMD ) are the two largest PC-compatible CPU manufacturers. Their chips were featured in table 1.1 during the discussion of the sockets into which they fit. Today ’ randomness AMD and Intel CPUs should be compatible with every PC-based operating system and application in the market. It ’ s possible that you could run into an app that doesn ’ metric ton work quite right on an AMD chip, but those cases are extremely rare. From a compatibility point of view, the most significant thing to remember is that the motherboard and processor motivation to be made for each early. The remainder of the hardware plugs into the motherboard and will be CPU mark agnostic. The term bit has grown to describe the entire software that a technician might install in a socket. however, the parole originally denoted the silicon wafer that is broadly hidden within the carrier that you actually see. The external pins that you see are structures that can withstand interpolation into a socket and are carefully threaded from the wafer ’ sulfur minuscule contacts. barely imagine how flimsy the structures must be that you don ’ t meet.

Older CPUs are broadly square, with contacts arranged in a fall power system array ( PGA ). Prior to 1981, chips were found in a rectangle with two rows of 20 pins known as a double in-line package ( DIP ) —see Figure 1.23. There are even integrated circuits that use the DIP form factor ; however, the DIP form gene is no longer used for personal computer CPUs. Most advanced CPUs

Understanding Processors

39

use the LGA form factor. figure 1.13, earlier in this chapter, shows an LGA socket next to a PGA socket. additionally, the ATX motherboard in Figure 1.2 has a PGA socket, while the micro ATX motherboard has an LGA. farad iodine g u roentgen e 1. 2 3

DIP and PGA

DIP ( Dual In-line Package )

PGA ( Pin Grid Array )

Intel and AMD both make across-the-board habit of an anatropous socket/processor combination of sorts. As mentioned earlier, the state grid array ( LGA ) packaging calls for the pins to be placed on the motherboard, while the mates for these pins are on the processor packaging. As with PGA, LGA is named for the landmarks on the processor, not the ones on the motherboard. As a result, the grid of metallic contact points, called lands, on the bed of the CPU gives this format its diagnose. You can easily identify which component inside the calculator is the CPU because it is a large square lying categoric on the motherboard with a identical bombastic heat sink and sports fan ( refer to Figure 1.12 ). The CPU is about constantly located very close to the RAM to improve system rush, as shown in Figure 1.1, Figure 1.2, and Figure 1.10. modern processors may feature the following characteristics : Multicore Older processors were one core, meaning that there was one jell of instruction pathways through the processor. consequently, they could process one set of tasks at a time. Designers then figured out how to speed up the computer by creating multiple cores within one central processing unit software. Each congress of racial equality effectively operates as its own independent processor, provided that the manoeuver system and applications are able to support multicore technology. ( about all do. ) today, about all background CPUs in the market are multicore. As an interest aside, throughout the 1980s and 1990s, processor clock speeds grew at very flying rates. But they haven ’ triiodothyronine suffer much faster over the last 10–15 years as designers ran into technical limitations for increasing speeds. alternatively, computers have gotten faster because of the introduction of multicore processors, which is basically alike having two ( or four or eight ) separate processors in one calculator.

Hyperthreading This term refers to Intel ’ s Hyper-Threading Technology ( HTT ). HTT is a mannequin of coincident multithreading ( SMT ). SMT takes advantage of a mod CPU ’ s superscalar architecture. Superscalar processors can have multiple instructions operating on separate data in twin. HTT-capable processors appear to the manoeuver system to be two processors. As a solution, the function system can schedule two processes at the same meter, as in the case

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

of symmetrical multiprocessing ( SMP ), where two or more processors use the same system resources. In fact, the engage system must support SMP in decree to take advantage of HTT. If the current process stalls because of missing data caused by, say, hoard or branch prediction issues, the execution resources of the processor can be reallocated for a different summons that is ready to go, reducing central processing unit downtime. HTT manifests itself in the Windows 10 Task Manager by, for case, showing graph for doubly as many CPUs as the system has cores. These virtual CPUs are listed as logical processors ( see Figure 1.24 ). F iodine g u gas constant e 1. 2 4 coherent processors in Windows

For an in-market example, compare the Intel i5 with the Intel i7. alike models will have the like number of cores ( say, four ), but the i7 supports HTT, whereas the i5 does not. This gives the i7 a performance edge over its cousin. For everyday e-mail and Internet use, this difference won ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate total to much. But for person who is using resource-intensive apps such as on-line bet on or virtual reality, the difference can be authoritative.

Understanding Processors

Which CPU Do You Have ? The surest way to determine which CPU your computer is using is to open the case and see the numbers stamped on the CPU, a process that today requires removal of the active agent heat sink. however, you may be able to get an mind without opening the character and removing the hotness sink and fan because many manufacturers place a very obvious poser somewhere on the sheath indicating the processor type. Failing this, you can always go to the manufacturer ’ s web site and look up the information on the model of calculator you have. An easier way may be to look in Control Panel ➢ System, as shown in Figure 1.25. even more detail information can be found by running the System Information by clicking Start and entering msinfo32.exe. Click System Information when it appears as the Best Match. A final way to determine a calculator ’ mho CPU is to save your work, exit any open programs, and restart the computer. Watch closely as the computer boots back up. You should see a notation that tells you what check you are using. F one g u r einsteinium 1. 2 5 System information

Throttling CPU throttling allows for reducing the operate frequency of the CPU during times of less demand or during battery operation. CPU choking is identical coarse in processors for mobile devices, where heat coevals and system-battery drain are key

41

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

issues of wide baron custom. You might discover throttling in action when you use a utility program that reports a lower CPU clock frequency than expected. If the lode on the organization does not require full-throttle operation, there is no need to push such a specify. Speed The speed of the processor is generally described in clock frequency ( MHz or GHz ). Since the dawn of the personal computer industry, motherboards have included oscillators, quartz crystals shaved down to a specific geometry so that engineers know precisely how they will react when a current is run through them. The phenomenon of a quartz crystal vibrating when exposed to a current is known as the piezoelectric effect. The crystal ( XTL ) known as the system clock keeps the fourth dimension for the run of data on the motherboard. How the front-side busbar uses the clock leads to an effective clock rate known as the FSB focal ratio. As discussed in the section “ Types of Memory ” former in this chapter, the FSB speed is computed differently for different types of RAM ( DDR2, DDR3, DDR4, and so away ). From here, the CPU multiplies the FSB accelerate to produce its own home clock rate, producing the third base speed mentioned thus far. As a resultant role of the foregoing tricks of physics and mathematics, there can be a discrepancy between the front-side bus topology frequency and the internal frequency that the CPU uses to latch data and instructions through its pipelines. This disagreement between the numbers comes from the fact that the CPU is able of splitting the clock signal it receives from the external oscillator that drives the front-side bus into multiple regular signals for its own inner use. In fact, you might be able to purchase a number of processors rated for different ( inner ) speeds that are all compatible with a individual motherboard that has a front-side bus rated, for case, at 1,333 MHz. Furthermore, you might be able to adjust the inner clock pace of the CPU that you purchased through settings in the BIOS. The successful technician needs to be familiar with more basic information than this, however. The sidebar titled “ Matching System Components ” explains these basics. The amphetamine of a processor can besides be tweaked by overclocking, or running the central processing unit at a higher speed than that which the manufacturer rated it. Running at a higher speed requires more voltage and besides generates more hotness, which can shorten the liveliness of the CPU. Manufacturers discourage the practice ( of class, they want you to just buy a faster and more expensive CPU ), and it much voids any guarantee. therefore, our official recommendation is to not do it. If you ’ re curious, though, batch of information on how to overclock is available on-line.

Matching System Components In a worldly concern of clock doubling, tripling, quadrupling, and so forth, it becomes increasingly significant to pay attention to what you are buying when you purchase CPUs, memory, and motherboards à la menu. The only well-known kinship that exists in the

Understanding Processors

43

marketplace among these components is the focal ratio of the FSB ( in MHz ) and the throughput of the memory ( in MBps ). Because 8 bytes are transferred in parallel by a central processing unit with a 64-bit ( 64 bits = 8 bytes ) system data bus, you have to know the FSB rat before you choose the RAM for any detail mod motherboard. For example, an FSB of 800 MHz requires memory rated at a throughput of 6,400 MBps ( 800 million cycles per second × 8 bytes per bicycle ). Matching CPUs with motherboards or CPUs with memory requires consulting the documentation or box of the components. by and large, the CPU gets selected first gear. once you know the CPU you want, the motherboard tends to come adjacent. You must choose a motherboard that features a socket compatible with your choose CPU. The FSB or QuickPath Interconnect ( QPI ) used on the selected motherboard/CPU dictates the RAM that you should purchase. QPI is discussed in more detail by and by in this chapter, in the “ Choosing the Right Memory for Your CPU ” sidebar.

32- and 64-Bit Processors The adjust of data lines between the CPU and the primary memory of the system can be 32 or 64 bits wide, among other widths. The wide-eyed the bus, the more data that can be processed per unit of measurement of meter, and hence, more bring can be performed. inner registers in the CPU might be lone 32 bits wide, but with a 64-bit system bus, two separate pipelines can receive information simultaneously. For true 64-bit CPUs, which have 64-bit internal registers and can run x64 versions of Microsoft operating systems, the external system data bus will constantly be 64 bits wide-eyed or some larger multiple thereof. Virtualization Support Many of today ’ mho CPUs support virtualization in hardware, which eases the load on the system that software-based virtualization imposes. For more information on virtualization, see chapter 9, “ Network Services, Virtualization, and Cloud Computing. ” AMD calls its virtualization engineering AMD-V ( V for virtualization ), whereas Intel calls theirs Virtualization Technology ( VT ). Most processors made today support virtual technology, but not all. Keep in mind that the BIOS and operating system must support it ampere well for virtualization to work. You may need to manually enable the virtualization support in the BIOS before it can be used. If you have an Intel central processing unit and would like to check its support of VT, visit the follow locate to download the Intel Processor Identification Utility : hypertext transfer protocol : //downloadcenter.intel.com/download/7838

As shown in Figure 1.26, the CPU Technologies pill of this utility tells you if your CPU supports Intel VT.

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

F one g u gas constant east 1. 2 6 Intel Processor Identification Utility

Integrated GPU Intel and AMD both have a tune of low-power CPUs, in the first place aimed at the netbook and embedded markets, that have built-in graphics processing units ( GPUs ). build up in specialize functionality to CPUs is nothing new, but ahead nowadays, mathematics coprocessors were some of the most complex features added on to the die of CPUs. A GPU, then, which is normally a large chip on your graphics arranger, is quite a bit more complex than anything so far integrated into the CPU. Integrated GPUs take a lot of the burden off of the CPU itself in addition to minimizing the sum of off-package communication that must occur, which improves overall system performance. As if that were not enough, the CPUs in this course are quite a bit smaller than standard CPUs. The Intel Atom and AMD Fusion ( now merely APU for Accelerated Processing Unit ) lines of CPUs were the first to have built-in GPUs and open the door for other complex systems to be built into future processors.

Understanding Memory “ More memory, more memory, I don ’ t have enough memory ! ” today, adding memory is one of the most democratic, easy, and cheap ways to upgrade a calculator. As the computer ’ second CPU works, it stores data and instructions in the calculator ’ s memory. reverse to what you might expect from an cheap solution, memory upgrades tend to afford the

Understanding Memory

45

greatest performance increase deoxyadenosine monophosphate well, up to a item. Motherboards have memory limits ; operating systems have memory limits ; CPUs have memory limits. To identify memory visually within a calculator, look for respective thin rows of humble tour boards sitting vertically, potentially packed tightly together near the central processing unit. In situations where only one memory stay is installed, it will be that stick and a few empty slots that are tightly packed together. figure 1.27 shows where memory is located in a system— in this case, all four banks are full. F i g u gas constant e 1. 2 7 location of memory within a system

Important memory Terms There are a few technical terms and phrases that you need to understand with regard to memory and its routine : ■■

Parity checking

■■

Error-correcting code ( ECC )

■■

Single- and double-sided memory

■■

Single-, dual-, and triple-channel memory These terms are discussed in detail in the follow sections.

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

Parity Checking and Memory Banks Parity check is a rudimentary error-checking scheme that offers no erroneousness correction. Parity checking works most much on a byte, or 8 bits, of data. A ninth bit is added at the transmitting end and removed at the receiving end so that it does not affect the actual datum transmitted. If the receiving end does not agree with the parity that is set in a particular byte, a parity error results. The four most common parity bit outline affecting this extra piece are known as even, odd, score, and quad. even and odd parity are used in systems that actually compute parity. Mark ( a term for a digital pulse, or 1 bit ) and space ( a condition for the miss of a pulsation, or a 0 sting ) parity are used in systems that do not compute parity but expect to see a fixed bit value stored in the parity bit placement. Systems that do not support or reserve the localization required for the parity bite are said to implement non-parity memory. The most basic exemplar for implementing memory in a calculator system uses eight memory chips to form a set. Each memory chip holds millions or billions of bits of data, each in its own cell. For every byte in memory, one bit is stored in each of the eight chips. A one-ninth chip is added to the set to support the parity bit in systems that require it. One or more of these sets, implemented as individual chips or as chips mounted on a memory module, form a memory bank. A deposit of memory is required for the calculator system to recognize electrically that the minimum act of memory components or the proper number of extra memory components has been installed. The width of the system data bus topology, the external bus of the processor, dictates how many memory chips or modules are required to satisfy a bank. For example, one 32-bit, 72-pin SIMM ( single in-line memory faculty ) satisfies a bank for an old 32-bit CPU, such as a 386 or 486 processor. Two such modules are required to satisfy a bank for a 64-bit processor— a Pentium, for exemplify. however, only a individual 64-bit, 168-pin DIMM is required to satisfy the like Pentium processor. For those modules that have fewer than eight or nine chips mounted on them, more than 1 bite for every byte is being handled by some of the chips. For example, if you see three chips mounted, the two larger chips customarily handle 4 bits, a nibble, from each byte stored, and the third, smaller chip handles the single parity bit for each byte. even and odd parity schemes operate on each byte in the set of memory chips. In each case, the number of bits set to a value of 1 is counted up. If there is an even number of 1 bits in the byte ( 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 ), evening parity bit stores a 0 in the one-ninth bit, the parity bit snatch ; otherwise, it stores a 1 to even up the count. Odd parity does just the face-to-face, storing a 1 in the parity act to make an even act of 1s odd and a 0 to keep an leftover number of 1s odd. You can see that this is effective only for determining if there was a blatant error in the laid of bits received, but there is no indication as to where the error is and how to fix it. furthermore, the entire 1-bit count is not significant, entirely whether it ’ mho evening or leftover. therefore, in either the even or curious dodge, if an even number of bits is altered in the same byte during transmission, the error goes undetected because flipping 2, 4, 6, or all 8 bits results in an even issue of 1s remaining even and an odd number of 1s remaining leftover. Mark and space parity are used in systems that want to see 9 bits for every byte transmitted but don ’ metric ton calculate the parity act ’ mho value based on the bits in the byte. Mark parity constantly uses a 1 in the parity bit, and space parity constantly uses a 0. These schemes offer less mistake detection capability than the tied and curious schemes because alone changes in the

Understanding Memory

47

parity bite can be detected. Again, parity bit see is not error correction ; it ’ s error detection only, and not the best human body of erroneousness signal detection at that. Nevertheless, an erroneousness can lock up the entire system and display a memory parity bit error. Enough of these errors and you need to replace the memory. therefore, parity match remains from the early on days of computing as an effective indicator of large-scale memory and data-transmission failure, such as with consecutive interfaces attached to analog modems or networking console interfaces, but not so a lot for detecting random errors. In the early days of personal calculation, about all memory was parity-based. As quality has increased over the years, parity check in the RAM subsystem has become more uncommon. As celebrated earlier, if parity bit see is not supported, there will by and large be fewer chips per module, normally one less per column of RAM.

Error Checking and Correction The next step in the evolution of memory mistake detection is known as error-correcting code ( ECC ). If memory supports ECC, check bits are generated and stored with the data. An algorithm is performed on the data and its control bits whenever the memory is accessed. If the leave of the algorithm is all zeros, then the data is deemed valid and work continues. ECC can detect single- and double-bit errors and actually adjust single-bit errors. In early words, if a detail byte—group of 8 bits—contains errors in 2 of the 8 bits, ECC can recognize the error. If only 1 of the 8 bits is in error, ECC can correct the erroneousness.

Single- and Double-Sided Memory Commonly public speaking, the terms single-sided memory and double-sided memory refer to how some memory modules have chips on one side and others have chips on both sides. Double-sided memory is basically treated by the arrangement as two divide memory modules. Motherboards that support such memory have memory controllers that must switch between the two “ sides ” of the modules and, at any particular moment, can access lone the side to which they have switched. Double-sided memory allows more memory to be inserted into a calculator, using half the physical space of single-sided memory, which requires no switch by the memory control.

Single-, Dual-, and Triple-Channel Memory Standard memory controllers manage access to memory in chunks of the like size as the system bus ’ sulfur data width. This is considered communicating over a individual impart. Most modern processors have a 64-bit system data bus topology. This means that a standard memory accountant can transfer precisely 64 bits of information at a fourth dimension. Communicating over a one channel is a bottleneck in an environment where the CPU and memory can both operate faster than the conduit between them. Up to a orient, every channel added in parallel between the CPU and RAM serves to ease this constriction. memory controllers that support dual- and triple-channel memory implementation were developed in an attempt to alleviate the bottleneck between the CPU and RAM. Dualchannel memory is the memory control ’ s coordination of two memory banks to work as

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

a synchronize arrange during communication with the CPU, doubling the specify system bus width from the memory ’ s perspective. Triple-channel memory, then, demands the coordination of three memory modules at a time. The major difference between dual- and triple-channel architectures is that triple-­ channel memory employs a phase of interleaving that reduces the come of information transferred by each module. however, there is an overall performance increase over that of dual-channel memory because of the capability to entree more data per whole of fourth dimension with triple-channel memory. Because today ’ s processors largely have 64-bit external datum buses, and because one stick of memory satisfies this bus width, there is a 1:1 ratio between banks and modules. This means that implementing dual- and triple-channel memory in nowadays ’ s most popular computer systems requires that pairs or triads of memory modules be installed at a time. note, however, that it ’ s the motherboard, not the memory, that implements dual- and triple-channel memory ( more on this in a moment ). mono memory, in contrast, is the classical memory model that dictates only that a complete bank be satisfied whenever memory is initially installed or added. One bank supplies alone half the width of the effective busbar created by dual-channel support, for exemplify, which by definition pairs two banks at a time. In about all cases, multichannel implementations support mono installation, but poorer performance should be expected. The same loss of operation occur when lone two modules are installed in a triple-channel motherboard. Multichannel motherboards include slots of different colors, normally one of each color per determined of slots. To use only a single channel, you populate slots of the same coloring material, skipping neighboring slots to do so. Filling neighboring slots in a dual-channel motherboard takes advantage of its dual-channel capability. Because of the particular tricks that are played with memory subsystems to improve overall system performance, care must be taken during the installation of disparate memory modules. In the worst sheath, the calculator will cease to function when modules of different speeds, different capacities, or unlike numbers of sides are placed together in slots of the same impart. If all of these parameters are identical, there should be no problem with pairing modules. Nevertheless, problems could still occur when modules from two different manufacturers or certain unsupported manufacturers are installed, all other parameters being the like. technical subscribe or documentation from the manufacturer of your motherboard should be able to help with such issues. Although it ’ s not the makeup of the memory that leads to dual-channel support but rather the technology on which the motherboard is based, some memory manufacturers hush package and sell pairs and triplets of memory modules in an feat to give you peace of mind when you ’ ra buy memory for a system that implements dual- or triple-channel memory architecture. Keep in take care, the motherboard memory slots have the distinctive color-coding, not the memory modules.

Types of Memory Memory comes in many formats. Each one has a particular determine of features and characteristics, making it best suited for a detail application. Some decisions about the application of the memory type are based on suitability ; others are based on affordability to consumers

Understanding Memory

49

or marketability to calculator manufacturers. The follow list gives you an idea of the huge range of memory types and subtypes : ■■

DRAM ( active random access memory ) ADRAM ( asynchronous DRAM ) FPM DRAM ( debauched page modality DRAM ) EDO DRAM ( extended data out DRAM ) BEDO DRAM ( collapse EDO DRAM ) SDRAM ( synchronous DRAM ) SDR SDRAM ( single data pace SDRAM ) DDR SDRAM ( double datum rate SDRAM ) DDR2 SDRAM ( double datum pace, version two, SDRAM ) DDR3 SDRAM ( double data rate, translation three, SDRAM ) DDR4 SDRAM ( double datum rate, translation four, SDRAM ) DDR5 SDRAM ( double datum rate, version five, SDRAM )

■■

SRAM ( electrostatic random access memory )

■■

ROM ( read-only memory )

I Can ’ t Fill All My Memory Slots As a reminder, most motherboard manufacturers document the quantity and types of modules that their equipment supports. Consult your documentation, whether in photographic print or on-line, when you have questions about supported memory. Most manufacturers require that slower memory be inserted in lower-numbered memory slots. This is because such a system adapts to the first module it sees, looking at the lower-numbered slots inaugural. counterintuitively, however, it might be required that you install modules of larger capacity rather than smaller modules in lower-numbered slots. additionally, memory engineering continues to advance after each genesis of motherboard chipsets is announced. Don ’ thyroxine be surprised when you attempt to install a unmarried faculty of the highest available capacity in your motherboard and the system doesn ’ thymine recognize the module, either by itself or with others. That capacity of faculty might not have been in universe when the motherboard ’ south chipset was released. sometimes, flashing the BIOS is all that is required. Consult the motherboard ’ south software documentation. One coarse point of confusion, not related to capacity, when memory is installed is the miss of recognition of four modules when two or three modules work fine, for case. In such a case, let ’ s say your motherboard ’ randomness memory accountant supports a full of four modules. Recall that a double-sided module acts like two distinguish modules. If you are using double-sided memory, your motherboard might limit you to two such modules

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

comprising four sides ( basically four virtual modules ), even though you have four slots on the board. If alternatively you start with three single-sided modules, when you attempt to install a double-sided module in the one-fourth slot, you are basically asking the motherboard to accept five modules, which it can not.

Pay particular attention to all synchronous DRAM types. note that the type of memory does not dictate the packaging of the memory. conversely, however, you might notice one finical memory box holding the same type of memory every time you come across it. however, there is no necessity to this end. Let ’ s detail the intricacies of some of these memory types.

DRAM DRAM is moral force random access memory. This is what most people are talking about when they mention RAM. When you expand the memory in a computer, you are adding DRAM chips. You use dram to expand the memory in the calculator because it ’ s a cheaper type of memory. Dynamic RAM chips are cheaper to manufacture than most other types because they are less complex. moral force refers to the memory chips ’ indigence for a constant update signal ( besides called a refresh sign ) in order to keep the information that is written there. If this sign is not received every then much, the information will bleed off and cease to exist. Currently, the most popular implementations of DRAM are based on synchronous DRAM and include DDR2, DDR3, and DDR4. Before discussing these technologies, let ’ s take a quick look at the bequest asynchronous memory types, none of which should appear on modern exams.

Asynchronous DRAM Asynchronous DRAM ( ADRAM ) is characterized by its independence from the CPU ’ s external clock. asynchronous DRAM chips have codes on them that end in a numeric value that is related to ( frequently 1/10 of the actual prize of ) the access time of the memory. access time is basically the difference between the time when the information is requested from memory and the time when the data is returned. Common access time attributed to asynchronous DRAM were in the 40- to 120-nanosecond ( n ) vicinity. A lower access fourth dimension is obviously better for overall performance. Because ADRAM is not synchronized to the front-side bus, you would often have to insert expect states through the BIOS apparatus for a faster CPU to be able to use the same memory as a slower CPU. These wait states represented intervals in which the CPU had to mark clock and do nothing while waiting for the memory subsystem to become ready again for subsequent access. Common asynchronous DRAM technologies included fast page mode ( FPM ), extended data out ( EDO ), and burst EDO ( BEDO ). Feel free to investigate the details of these particular technologies, but a thorough discussion of these memory types is not necessary here. The A+ technician should be concerned with synchronous forms of RAM, which are the only types of memory being installed in mainstream calculator systems today.

Synchronous DRAM Synchronous DRAM ( SDRAM ) shares a common clock signal with the calculator ’ s systembus clock, which provides the common sign that all local-bus components use for each step

Understanding Memory

51

that they perform. This feature ties SDRAM to the accelerate of the FSB and hence the central processing unit, eliminating the indigence to configure the CPU to wait for the memory to catch up. originally, SDRAM was the term used to refer to the only form of synchronous DRAM on the market. As the engineering progressed, and more was being done with each clock signal on the FSB, respective forms of SDRAM were developed. What was once called just SDRAM needed a new mention retroactively. today, we use the term single data rate SDRAM ( SDR SDRAM ) to refer to this original type of SDRAM. SDR SDRAM SDR SDRAM is immediately considered a bequest RAM technology, and it is presented here merely to provide a basis for the approaching discussion of DDR and other more advanced RAM. With SDR SDRAM, every clock the system clock ticks, 1 act of data can be transmitted per data peg, limiting the piece pace per peg of SDRAM to the equate numerical value of the clock ’ mho frequency. With today ’ s processors interfacing with memory using a latitude data-bus width of 8 bytes ( hence the term 64-bit central processing unit ), a 100 MHz clock signal produces 800 MBps. That ’ south mega bytes per second base, not mega bits. such memory modules are referred to as PC100, named for the true FSB clock rate upon which they rely. PC100 was preceded by PC66 and succeeded by PC133, which used a 133 MHz clock to produce 1,066 MBps of throughput. note that throughput in megabytes per moment is well computed as eight times the rate in the identify. This trick works for the more advanced forms of SDRAM as well. The coarse ribbon is the 8-byte system data bus. by the way, you can double throughput results when implementing dual-channel memory. DDR SDRAM Double data rate ( DDR ) SDRAM earns its name by doubling the transfer rate of ordinary SDRAM ; it does so by double-pumping the datum, which means transferring a act per pin on both the originate and falling edges of the clock signal. This obtains doubly the transfer rate at the like FSB clock frequency. It ’ s the increasing clock frequency that generates heating issues with newer components, so keeping the clock the lapp is an advantage. The lapp 100 MHz clock gives a DDR SDRAM system the depression of a 200 MHz clock compared to an SDR SDRAM system. For selling purposes, and to help in the comparison of disparate products ( DDR vs. SDR, for exercise ), the industry has settled on the practice of using this effective clock rate as the speed of the FSB.

Module Throughput Related to FSB Speed There is constantly an 8:1 module-to-chip ( or module-to-FSB-speed ) number ratio because of the 8 bytes that are transferred at a time with 64-bit processors ( not because of the ratio of 8 bits per byte ). The formula in Figure 1.28 explains how this relationship works. F i g uranium radius vitamin e 1. 2 8 The 64-bit memory throughput convention FSB in MHz

( hertz )

X 8 bytes

( bytes/cycle )

throughput

( bytes/second )

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

Because the actual arrangement clock accelerate is rarely mentioned in marketing literature, on packaging, or on store shelves for DDR and higher, you can use this advertise FSB frequency in your computations for DDR throughput. For example, with a 100 MHz clock and two operations per cycle, motherboard makers will market their boards as having an FSB of 200 MHz. Multiplying this effective rate by 8 bytes transferred per cycle, the datum rate is 1,600 MBps. Because DDR made throughput a spot trickier to compute, the industry began using this final throughput figure to name the memory modules alternatively of the actual frequency, which was used when naming SDR modules. This makes the leave seem many times better ( and much more marketable ), while it ’ s actually entirely twice ( or so ) as dear, or conclude to it. In this exercise, the module is referred to as PC1600, based on a throughput of 1,600 MBps. The chips that go into making PC1600 modules are named DDR200 for the effective FSB frequency of 200 MHz. Stated differently, the industry uses DDR200 memory chips to manufacture PC1600 memory modules. Let ’ s make sure that you grasp the relationship between the speed of the FSB and the name for the refer chips adenine well as the relationship between the name of the chips ( or the speed of the FSB ) and the name of the modules. Consider an FSB of 400 MHz, meaning an actual clock signal of 200 MHz, by the way—the FSB is double the actual clock for DDR, remember. It should be unclutter that this motherboard requires modules populated with DDR400 chips and that you ’ ll find such modules marketed and sold as PC3200. Let ’ s try another. What do you need for a motherboard that features a 333 MHz FSB ( actual clock is 166 MHz ) ? Well, just using the 8:1 rule mentioned earlier, you might be on the lookout for a PC2667 module. note, however, that sometimes the numbers have to be played with a moment to come up with the industry ’ second market terms. You ’ ll have an easier time finding PC2700 modules that are designed specifically for a motherboard like yours, with an FSB of 333 MHz. The label international relations and security network ’ t constantly technically accurate, but round numbers sell effective, possibly. The authoritative concept here is that if you find PC2700 modules and PC2667 modules, there ’ s absolutely no dispute ; they both have a 2667 MBps throughput rate. Go for the best cope ; just make sure that the memory manufacturer is reputable. DDR2 SDRAM Think of the 2 in DDR2 as so far another multiplier of 2 in the SDRAM technology, using a lower top out voltage to keep power consumption down ( 1.8V vs. the 2.5V of DDR ). still double-pumping, DDR2, like DDR, uses both sweeps of the clock signal for data transportation. internally, DDR2 farther splits each clock pulsation in two, doubling the issue of operations it can perform per FSB clock bicycle. Through enhancements in the electrical interface and buffers, vitamin a well as through adding off-chip drivers, DDR2 nominally produces four times the throughput that SDR is capable of producing. Continuing the DDR example, DDR2, using a 100 MHz actual clock, transfers data in four operations per cycle ( effective 400 MHz FSB ) and even 8 bytes per process, for a total of 3,200 MBps. Just as with DDR, chips for DDR2 are named based on the perceived frequency. In this sheath, you would be using DDR2-400 chips. DDR2 carries on the effective FSB frequency method for naming modules but can not merely call them PC3200 modules because those already exist in the DDR world. DDR2 calls these modules PC2-3200. ( Note the dash to keep the numeral components discriminate. )

Understanding Memory

53

As another case, it should make sense that PC2-5300 modules are populated with DDR2-667 chips. Recall that you might have to play with the numbers a spot. If you multiply the well-known FSB amphetamine of 667 MHz by 8 to figure out what modules you need, you might go searching for PC2-5333 modules. You might fi north dakota person advertise such modules, but most compatible modules will be labeled PC2-5300 for the same marketability mentioned earlier. They both support 5,333 MBps of throughput. DDR3 SDRAM The next generation of memory devices was designed to approximately double the performance of DDR2 products. Based on the functionality and characteristics of DDR2 ’ randomness proposed successor, most informed consumers and some members of the industry surely assumed the forthcoming list would be DDR4. This was not to be, however, and DDR3 was born. This naming conventionality proved that the 2 in DDR2 was not meant to be a multiplier but rather a revision mark of sorts. well, if DDR2 was the second gear interpretation of DDR, then DDR3 is the third. DDR3 is a memory type that was designed to be twice adenine fast as the DDR2 memory that operates with the same system clock rush. Just as DDR2 was required to lower exponent pulmonary tuberculosis to make up for higher frequencies, DDR3 must do the same. In fact, the vertex voltage for DDR3 is only 1.5V. The most normally found range of actual clock speeds for DDR3 tends to be from 133 MHz at the moo end to less than 300 MHz. Because double-pumping continues with DDR3, and because four operations occur at each wave cap ( eight operations per bicycle ), this frequency compass translates to common FSB implementations from 1,066 MHz to more than 2,000 MHz in DDR3 systems. These memory devices are named following the conventions established earlier. therefore, if you buy a motherboard with a 1,600 MHz FSB, you know immediately that you need a memory module populated with DDR3-1600 chips, because the chips are always named for the FSB accelerate. Using the 8:1 module-to-chip/FSB name convention, the modules that you need would be called PC3-12800, supporting a 12,800 MBps throughput. The earliest DDR3 chips, however, were based on a 100 MHz actual clock sign, so we can build on our earlier example, which was besides based on an actual clock rate of 100 MHz. With eight operations per bicycle, the FSB on DDR3 motherboards is rated at 800 MHz, quite a distribute of efficiency while hush not needing to change the master clock with which our examples began. Applying the 8:1 convention again, the resulting RAM modules for this motherboard are called PC3-6400 and support a throughput of 6,400 MBps, carrying chips called DDR3-800, again named for the FSB focal ratio. DDR4 SDRAM Continuing the inevitable march of engineering, DDR4 is the next iteration of SDRAM on the market. As you would expect, the speed of DDR4 is roughly double that of DDR3. DDR3 provided data rates of approximately 800 Mbps to 2,133 Mbps, whereas DDR4 ranges between 1,600 Mbps and 3,200 Mbps. DDR besides runs at a lower voltage—1.2 volts. finally, DDR4 can support more memory per chip, up to 512 GB per chip. realistically, though, no matchless produces motherboards ( or RAM ) that support that quantity. DDR5 RAM, which will once again double the speed of its predecessors, is supposed to be released in late 2018 or early 2019. DDR5 is already being used on television cards, though.

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

Choosing the Right Memory for Your CPU Picking out the veracious memory for your CPU and motherboard is all about understanding the minimum performance required for the CPU you choose. sometimes, the motherboard you choose to mate with the CPU makes your decision for you. If you go with the cheaper motherboard, you might find that equitable a individual distribution channel of DDR3 is all you need to worry about. otherwise, the more expensive boards might support dual- or triple-channel memory and require DDR4 modules. It ’ south normally safe to assume that the higher price of entree gets you better performance. This is generally true on wallpaper, but you might find that the higher-end apparatus doesn ’ thyroxine knock your socks off the way you expected. Let ’ s say that you head down to your local computer store where motherboards, CPUs, memory, and other calculator components are sold à la menu. You ’ ra concern in putting together your own system from cancel. normally, you will have a CPU in mind that you would like to use in your new system. Assume you want to save money and choose, for exemplar, an Intel Core i3-3250 dual-core processor. It ’ sulfur firm enough at 3.5 GHz, and it calls for an older LGA 1155 socket, meaning that you ’ ll save a snatch of money on that performance but you won ’ thyroxine be approaching the state of the art. Nevertheless, the FSB with which this CPU is outfitted runs at a goodly 1,333 MHz, and its consort chipsets call for DDR3 memory. As a resultant role, you will need to purchase one or more modules that contain DDR3-1333 chips, specially if you buy a motherboard that supports dual-channel memory. therefore, you ’ ll be buying PC3-10600 modules ( multiplying 1,333 by 8 and adjusting for marketing ). Recall the 8:1 module-to-chip/FSB identify convention. possibly you ’ d prefer the pricier Intel Core i9-7980XE Extreme Edition 18-core central processing unit. With a little inquiry, you discover that Intel did away with the FSB by moving the memory control out of the Northbridge and into the CPU. What remains is what Intel calls the QPI, or QuickPath Interconnect. QPI is a PCIe-like way that uses 20 bidirectional lanes to move data extremely fast between the CPU and RAM, requiring less able RAM than FSB CPUs to do the same sum of work. The Core i9 requires a motherboard that has an LGA 2066 socket and supports a minimum of DDR4-2666 memory chips ( chips, not modules ). therefore, you ’ ll be buying at least one stick of your chosen capacity of PC4-21300 ( multiplying 2,666 by 8 and rounding for marketing purposes ), or more sticks if you decide to take advantage of the chip ’ s ability to access deoxyadenosine monophosphate many as four channels of memory. You might expect that more expensive higher-end processors require more expensive, higher-end RAM. Generally this is true, but the cost remainder international relations and security network ’ thymine arsenic much as you might think. For exemplifying purposes, at the time of this writing—and remember, prices change all the time—16 GB of PC3-10600 RAM is about $ 180, whereas 16 GB of PC4-21300 is around $ 220. Compare that with the cost of the $ 160 i3 versus the $ 1,800 i9 Extreme, and the remainder seems negligible.

Understanding Memory

55

SRAM Static random access memory ( SRAM ) doesn ’ t require a refresh signal like DRAM does. The chips are more complex and are thus more expensive. however, they are well faster. DRAM access times come in at 40 nanoseconds ( n ) or more ; SRAM has access times faster than 10ns. SRAM is classically used for cache memory.

ROM ROM stands for read-only memory. It is called read-only because you could not write to the original form of this memory. Once information had been etched on a silicon chip and manufactured into the ROM box, the information couldn ’ triiodothyronine be changed. Some form of ROM is normally used to store the calculator ’ s BIOS because this information normally does not change often. The system ROM in the original IBM personal computer contained the power-on self-test ( POST ), BIOS, and cassette BASIC. Later, IBM computers and compatibles included everything but the cassette BASIC. The system ROM enables the computer to “ pull itself up by its bootstraps, ” or boot ( fi north dakota and start the operate organization ). Through the years, different forms of ROM were developed that could be altered, later ones more easily than earlier ones. The fi rst generation was the programmable ROM ( PROM ), which could be written to for the fi rst prison term in the airfield using a particular programming device, but then no more. You may liken this to the electrocution of a DVD-R. The effaceable PROM ( EPROM ) followed the PROM, and it could be erased using ultraviolet lightly and subsequently reprogrammed using the master program device. These days, dart memory is a form of electronically effaceable PROM ( EEPROM ). Of naturally, it does not require UV light to erase its contents, but rather a slightly higher than normal electrical pulse. Although the names of these memory devices are different, they all contain ROM. Therefore, careless which of these technologies is used to manufacture a BIOS chip, it ’ south never incorrect to say that the leave is a ROM check.

Memory Packaging First of all, it should be noted that each motherboard supports memory based on the accelerate of the front-side bus ( or the CPU ’ s QPI ) and the memory ’ s form agent. For example, if the motherboard ’ south FSB is rated at a maximum focal ratio of 1,333 MHz and you install memory that is rated at 1,066 MHz, the memory will operate at only 1,066 MHz, if it works at all, thus making the calculator function slower than it could. In their software documentation, most motherboard manufacturers list which character ( sulfur ) of memory they support deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as its utmost speeds and want pairings.

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

The memory slots on a motherboard are designed for particular module human body factors or styles. RAM historically evolved from mannequin factors no long seen for such applications, such as dual in-line package ( DIP ), single in-line memory faculty ( SIMM ), and one inline pin box ( SIPP ). The most popular shape factors for primary memory modules today are as follows : ■■

DIMM ( double in-line memory module )

■■

SODIMM ( little outline double in-line memory module )

Desktop computers will use DIMMs. Laptops and smaller devices require SODIMMs or smaller memory promotion. so, in addition to coordinating the accelerate of the components, their form divisor is an issue that must be addressed.

DIMM One type of memory software is known as a DIMM, which stands for double in-line memory module. DIMMs are 64-bit memory modules that are used as a box for the SDRAM family : SDR, DDR, DDR2, DDR3, and DDR4. The terminus double refers to the fact that, unlike their SIMM predecessors, DIMMs differentiate the functionality of the pins on one side of the module from the corresponding pins on the other side. With 84 pins per side, this makes 168 mugwump pins on each standard SDR faculty, as shown with its two identify notches deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the death peg labeled 84 on the right side in Figure 1.29. SDR SDRAM modules are no longer partially of the CompTIA A+ objectives, and they are mentioned here as a foundation only. F one g uranium roentgen e 1. 2 9 An SDR double in-line memory faculty ( DIMM )

The DIMM used for DDR memory has a sum of 184 pins and a individual key notch, whereas the DIMM used for DDR2 has a entire of 240 pins, one key notch, and possibly an aluminum screen for both sides, called a inflame broadcaster and designed like a hotness slump to dissipate heat away from the memory chips and prevent overheat. The DDR3 DIMM is exchangeable to that of DDR2. It has 240 pins and a individual key notch, but the pass is in a different location to avoid cross interpolation. not entirely is the DDR3 DIMM physically ill-sorted with DDR2 DIMM slots, it ’ second besides electrically contrastive. A DDR4 DIMM is the lapp distance as a DDR3 DIMM, but is about 0.9mm improbable and has 288 pins. The key is in a unlike spot, so you can ’ t put DDR4 memory into a DDR2 or DDR3 slot.

Understanding Memory

Figure 1.30 shows, from peak to bottom, DDR4, DDR3, and DDR2 DIMMs. F iodine g uranium radius einsteinium 1. 3 0 DDR4, DDR3, and DDR2 DIMMs

Inserting and Removing Memory Modules The original single in-line memory modules had to be inserted into their slots at a 45° angle. The installer then had to apply slight pressure as the module was maneuvered upright at a 90° angle to the motherboard, where a lock in mechanism would grip the faculty and prevent it from returning to its 45° position. This operation created a pressure that reinforced the contact of the faculty with its slot. Releasing the clips on either end of the module unlocked it and allowed it to return to 45°, where it could be removed. DIMM slots, by comparison, have no spring natural process. DIMMs are inserted straight into the slot with the locking tab pulled aside from the module. The lock in tabs are at either end of the module, and they automatically snap into place, securing the module. Pulling the tab away from the module releases the faculty from the slot, allowing it to be effortlessly removed.

57

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

SODIMM Notebook computers and early computers that require much smaller components don ’ metric ton use criterion RAM packages, such as DIMMs. rather, they call for a much smaller memory phase component, such as a modest sketch DIMM ( SODIMM ). SODIMMs are available in many physical implementations, including the older 32-bit ( 72- and 100-pin ) configuration and newer 64-bit ( 144-pin SDR SDRAM, 200-pin DDR/DDR2, 204-pin DDR3, and 260pin DDR4 ) configurations. DDR4 SODIMMs are slenderly long ( 69.6 millimeter ) than DDR3 SODIMMS ( 67.6 millimeter ). All 64-bit modules have a single identify notch. The 144-pin module ’ randomness notch is slightly off center. note that although the 200-pin SODIMMs for DDR and DDR2 have slenderly unlike key, it ’ s not then unlike that you don ’ t need to pay close attention to differentiate the two. They are not, however, interchangeable. DDR3 and DDR4 are keyed differently from the others as well, and, as mentioned previously, DDR4 modules are long. figure 1.31 shows a DDR3 SODIMM compared to DDR3 and DDR2 DIMMs. F one g uracil r e 1. 3 1 DDR3 SODIMM vs. DDR3 and DDR2 DIMMs

Understanding Cooling Systems

59

Understanding Cooling Systems It ’ s a basic concept of physics : electronic components turn electricity into work and heat. The surfeit hotness must be dissipated or it will shorten the life of the components. In some cases ( like with the CPU ), the component will produce so a lot heat that it can destroy itself in a matter of seconds if there is not some direction to remove this excess heat. air-cool methods are used to cool the internal components of most PCs. With air cool, the motion of air removes the heat from the part. sometimes, big blocks of metallic element called heat sinks are attached to a heat-producing part in order to dissipate the heating system more quickly.

Fans When you turn on a computer, you will often hear lots of whirring. contrary to democratic public opinion, the majority of the noise international relations and security network ’ thyroxine coming from the hard harrow ( unless it ’ s about to go bad ). Most of this noise is coming from the assorted fans inside the computer. Fans provide airflow within the computer. Most PCs have a combination of the following seven fans : Front Intake Fan This fan is used to bring bracing, cool tune into the computer for cooling purposes. Rear Exhaust Fan This fan is used to take hot atmosphere out of the case. Power Supply Exhaust Fan This winnow is normally found at the back of the office provision, and it is used to cool the power provide. In addition, this fan draws air travel from inside the case into vents in the power add. This pulls hot air through the ability supply indeed that it can be blown out of the case. The front intake sports fan assists with this airflow. The rise exhaust fan supplements the power add winnow to achieve the same resultant role outside of the power add. CPU Fan This sports fan is used to cool the processor. typically, this fan is attached to a big inflame sink, which is in turn attached immediately to the processor. Chipset Fan Some motherboard manufacturers replaced the heating system sink on their onboard chipset with a heat dip and fan combination as the chipset became more advanced. This fan aids in the cool of the onboard chipset ( particularly utilitarian when overclocking—setting the system clock frequency higher than the nonpayment ). Video Card Chipset Fan As video recording cards get more building complex and have higher operation, more video recording cards have cooling fans directly attached. Despite their list, these fans don ’ triiodothyronine bind to a chipset in the like sense as to a chipset on a motherboard. The chipset hera is the fit of chips mounted on the arranger, including the GPU and graphics memory. On many late-model graphics adapters, the equivalent of a second slot is dedicated to cooling the adapter. The cooling half of the adapter has vents in the backplane bracket to exhaust the heat air.

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

Memory Module Fan The more capable memory becomes of keeping up with the CPU, the hot the memory runs. As an excess measure of base hit, regardless of the presence of estrus spreaders on the modules, an optional fan apparatus for your memory might be in order. See the approaching section “ Memory Cooling ” for more information.

Motherboard Fan Power Connectors It ’ s important to be aware of the two main types of fan connections found on today ’ second motherboards. One of these connectors has alone three connections, while the other has four. The fan connectors and motherboard headers are exchangeable between the two pinouts, but if a human body fan has four conductors, it ’ s a sign that it ’ s calling for connectivity to an extra +5VDC ( volts direct current ) connection that the most common three-pin header doesn ’ thyroxine offer. A more rare three-pin chassis-fan connection features a +12VDC office connection for heavier-duty fans and a rotation peg used as an remark to the motherboard for sensing the speed of the fan. Four-pin CPU connections place the ground and exponent connections in pins 1 and 2, respectively, so that two-pin connectors can be used to power older fans. The four-pin header besides offers a tachometer remark signal from the fan on pivot 3 sol that the speed of the fan can be monitored by the BIOS and early utilities. Look for markings such as CPU FAN IN to identify this function. Pin 4 might be labeled CPU FAN PWM to denote the pulsewidth modulation that can be used to send a sign to the fan to control its speed. This is the function lost when a three-pin connection is placed in the correct put on a four-pin header. Four-pin chassis-fan connectors can share the tachometer affair but replace the accelerate control routine with the extra 5V mentioned earlier. early exponent connections and types will be covered in chapter 2, including the Molex connection, which can be used to power chassis and CPU fans using an adapter or the built-in connection on largely older fans manufactured before the motherboard connectors were standardized. figure 1.32 shows two three-pin chassis-fan headers on a motherboard. F i g uracil gas constant east 1. 3 2 Three-pin chassis-fan headers

Understanding Cooling Systems

Figure 1.33 shows a four-pin CPU fan header with an approaching three-pin connection from the fan. note that the key yellow journalism is lined up with the lapp three pins it ’ mho lined up with in the three-pin connectors. F one g u r einsteinium 1. 3 3 A four-pin CPU sports fan header

This physical aspect and the alike pin functions are what make these connectors interchangeable, provided that the header ’ randomness function matches the character of the fan being connected. figure 1.34 shows the resulting unused personal identification number on the four-pin header. Again, controlling the fan ’ south speed is not supported in this configuration. F iodine g u r e 1. 3 4 position of a three-pin connection on a four-pin header

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

Ideally, the airflow inside a computer should resemble what is shown in Figure 1.35, where the back of the chassis is shown on the leave in the persona. F iodine g uranium roentgen e 1. 3 5 System unit airflow

Power issue

CPU Case fans Case fan

Video card Hard drive

NIC

Motherboard = Airflow

Note that you must pay attention to the orientation course of the might provision ’ s airflow. If the power issue fan is an exhaust fan, as assumed in this discussion, the front and rear fans will match their earlier descriptions : front, intake ; rear, exhaust. If you run across a baron supply that has an inhalation fan, the predilection of the auxiliary chassis fans should be reversed a well. The back chassis fan ( s ) should always be installed in the same orientation course the power supply fan runs to avoid creating a minor airflow circumference that circumvents the hybridization flow of air throughout the case. The presence human body fan and the rear fans should constantly be installed in overrule orientation to avoid having them fight against each other and thereby reduce the inner airflow. Reversing supplementary chassis fans is normally no harder than removing four screws and flipping the fan. sometimes, the fan might precisely snap out, flip, and then snap back in, depending on the way it is rigged up.

Memory Cooling If you are going to start overclocking your calculator, you will want to do everything in your baron to cool all of its components, and that includes the memory. There are two methods of cooling memory : passive voice and active. The passive voice memory cooling method acting merely uses the ambient case airflow to cool the memory through the habit of enhanced heat profligacy. For this, you can buy either hotness sinks or, as mentioned earlier, especial “ for memory chips only ” devices known as hotness spreaders. Recall that these are special aluminum or copper housings that wrap around memory chips and conduct the hotness away from them.

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Active cool, on the early hand, normally involves forcing some kind of cooling average ( breeze or water ) around the RAM chips themselves or around their heat sinks. Most much, active cooling system methods are merely high-speed fans directing air right field over a set of heat spreaders.

Hard Drive Cooling You might be thinking, “ Hey, my hard drive is doing knead all the time. Is there anything I can do to cool it off ? ” There are both active and passive voice cool devices for hard drives. Most common, however, is the active cool true laurel. You install a hard driveway in a extra device that fits into a 5¼″ expansion bay. This device contains fans that draw in cool air travel over the hard drive, thus cooling it. design 1.36 shows an exemplar of one of these active hard drive coolers. As you might suspect, you can besides get inflame sinks for hard drives. F one g u gas constant e 1. 3 6 An active hard phonograph record cool

Chipset Cooling Every motherboard has a chip or chipset that controls how the computer operates. As with other chips in the calculator, the chipset is normally cooled by the ambient air movement in the case. however, when you overclock a calculator, the chipset may need to be cooled more because it is working harder than it normally would be. consequently, it is frequently desirable to replace the onboard chipset cool with a more effective one. Refer back to Figure 1.4 for a expect at a mod chipset cooling solution.

CPU Cooling Probably the greatest challenge in cool is the calculator ’ south CPU. It is the part that generates the most hotness in a calculator ( aside from some reasonably harebrained GPUs out there ). As a matter of fact, if a modern processor international relations and security network ’ metric ton actively cooled all of the time, it will generate enough heat to burn itself up in seconds. That ’ s why most motherboards have an internal CPU inflame detector and a CPU_FAN detector. If no cooling system fan is active, these devices will shut down the calculator before price occurs.

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There are a few different types of CPU cooling methods, but the most crucial can be grouped into three broad categories : air cooling system, liquid cooling, and fan-less and passive cool methods.

Air Cooling The parts inside most computers are cooled by air travel moving through the encase. The CPU is no exception. however, because of the large total of estrus produced, the CPU must have ( proportionately ) the largest airfoil area exposed to the moving air in the case. therefore, the heat sinks on the CPU are the largest of any inside the calculator. The CPU winnow frequently blows air down through the body of the heat sink to force the inflame into the ambient inner atmosphere where it can join the airflow circuit for removal from the case. however, in some cases, you might find that the heat sink extends up far, using ­radiator-type fins, and the sports fan is placed at a veracious slant and to the side of the heat slump. This purpose moves the heating system away from the hotness sink immediately alternatively of pushing the vent down through the heat dip. CPU fans can be purchased that have an adjustable rheostat to allow you to dial in adenine little airflow as you need, aiding in noise reduction but potentially ahead to accidental overheating. It should be noted that the highest-performing CPU coolers use copper plates in aim contact with the CPU. They besides use high-speed and high-CFM cooling system fans to dissipate the heat produced by the central processing unit. CFM is short for cubic feet per infinitesimal, an airflow measurement of the volume of air that passes by a stationary object per minute. Most new CPU heat sinks use tubing to transfer heat away from the CPU. With any cool system, the more surface sphere exposed to the cooling system method acting, the better the cool. Plus the heat pipes can be used to transfer heat to a location away from the heat reference before cooling. This is specially useful in cases where the kind component is minor and with laptops, where open outer space is limited. With advance heating system sinks and CPU cooling methods like this, it is important to improve the thermal transfer efficiency equally much as potential. To that end, cooling engineers came up with a compound that helps to bridge the highly small gaps between the CPU and the hotness sinkhole, which avoids superheated pockets of air that can lead to focal damage of the CPU. This product is known as thermal transfer colonial, or simply thermal compound ( alternatively, thermal dirt or thermal spread ), and it can be bought in small tubes. Singleuse tubes are besides available and alleviate the guess involved with how much you should apply. Watch out, though ; this stuff makes quite a fix and doesn ’ thymine want to come off your fingers identical easily. Apply the compound by placing a beading in the center of the heat slump, not on the CPU, because some heat sinks don ’ thyroxine cover the entire CPU package. That might sound like a problem, but some CPUs don ’ t have heat-producing components all the means out to the edges. Some CPUs even have a raised area directly over the silicon die within the box, resulting in a smaller reach sphere between the components. You should apply less than you think you need because the pressure of attaching the heat bury to the CPU will spread the compound across the entire come on in a very thin layer. It ’ s advisable to use a clean and jerk, lintfree applicator of your choosing to spread the colonial around a bite a well, just to get

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the spread started. You don ’ t need to concern yourself with spreading it besides thoroughly or excessively neatly because the pressure applied during attachment will equalize the compound quite well. During attachment, watch for oozing compound around the edges, clean it off immediately, and use less adjacent time.

Improving and Maintaining CPU Cooling In addition to using thermal compound, you can enhance the cool efficiency of a CPU heat sink by lapping the hotness cesspool, which smoothens the copulate surface using a very fine sanding component, about 1000-grit in the complete stage. Some vendors of the more expensive inflame sinks will offer this service as an addition. If your CPU has been in service for an drawn-out menstruation of clock time, possibly three years or more, it is a smart idea to remove the inflame slump and previous thermal compound and then apply fresh thermal colonial and reattach the heat sinkhole. Be careful, though ; if your thermal glue has already turned into thermal “ glue, ” you can wrench the processor right out of the socket, even with the release mechanism locked in topographic point. constantly, this damages the pins on the chip. Try running the computer for a copulate of minutes to warm the paste and then try removing the heat dip again. counterintuitively, possibly, you can remove a varnish estrus bury from the processor by gently rotating the heat dip to break the paste ’ s varnish. Again, this can be made easier with heat. If the CPU has risen in the socket already, however, rotating the heat sink would be an highly bad theme. sometimes, after you realize that the CPU has risen a snatch and that you need to release the mechanism holding it in to reseat it, you find that the publish branch is not accessible with the heat cesspool in station. This is an unfortunate predicament that will present plenty of opportunity to learn.

If you ’ ve always installed a brand-new heating system slump onto a CPU, you ’ ve most likely used thermal compound or the thermal compound while that was already applied to the estrus bury for you. If your new heating system cesspool has a mend of thermal compound pre-applied, don ’ triiodothyronine add more. If you always remove the heat sinkhole, don ’ t hear to reuse the temporary hookup or any other human body of thermal compound. Clean it all off and start fresh.

Liquid Cooling Liquid cool is a engineering whereby a special water block is used to conduct heat away from the central processing unit ( a well as from the chipset ). Water is circulated through this block to a radiator, where it is cooled. The theory is that you could achieve better cool performance through the use of liquid cooling system. For the most separate, this is true. however, with traditional cooling methods ( which use air and water ), the lowest temperature you can achieve is room temperature.

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Plus, with liquid cool, the pump is submerged in the coolant ( broadly speaking ), so as it works, it produces estrus, which adds to the overall liquid temperature. The main benefit to liquid cooling is secrecy. only one fan is needed : the fan on the radiator to cool the water. so, a liquid-cooled arrangement can run extremely restfully. Liquid cool, while more efficient than air out cooling and much hushed, has its drawbacks. Most liquid-cooling systems are more expensive than auxiliary winnow sets and require less familiar components, such as a reservoir, pump, water obstruct ( south ), hosiery, and radiator. The proportional complexity of installing fluid cooling systems, coupled with the perceive danger of liquids in close proximity to electronics, leads most calculator owners to consider fluid cooling a freshness or a liability. The primary market for liquid cooling is the highperformance recess that engages in overclocking to some degree. however, developments in active agent air cool, including extensive pipe of heat aside from the body of the heat sink, have kept advanced cool methods out of the forefront. Nevertheless, advances in fluids with dependable electrolytic properties and even viscosities keep liquid cooling viable. In the future sections, you will notice a batch of seeming liquid-cooling methods. While these methods use liquid in the execution of their cooling system duties, fluid to them is analogous to the heat used in cartridges to effect print in inkjet printers. In other words, the follow cooling systems are no more liquid-cooling methods than inkjet printers are thermal printers.

Fanless and Passive CPU Cooling Methods Advancements in publicize cooling led to products like the Scythe Ninja series, which is a stack of thin aluminum fi newton with bull tubing running up through them. Some of the hottestrunning CPUs can be passively cooled with a device like this, using lone the existing airmovement scheme from your calculator ’ randomness case. Adding a fan to the side, however, adds to the cool efficiency but besides to the noise grade, even though Scythe calls this wrinkle Ninja because of how quietly it is. In addition to standard and advance air-cool methods, there are other methods of cooling a CPU ( and other chips as well ). many of these are fanless, in that they do not include a fan but are still considered active because they require power to operate. Others require neither a winnow nor world power, making them passive voice methods. Some of these methods might appear slightly irregular, but they much deliver extreme results. experimental methods can besides result in permanent damage to your calculator, so try them at your own risk.

Heat Pipes Heat pipes are close up systems that employ some shape of tubing fi lled with a liquid suitable for the applicable temperature range. pure purgative is used with this technology to achieve cooling to ambient temperatures ; no outside mechanism is used. One end of the heating system pipe is

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heated by the component being cooled. This causes the liquid at the heat end to evaporate and increase the relative press at that end of the hotness shriek with respect to the cool end. This atmospheric pressure imbalance causes the heated vapor to equalize the press by migrating to the cool end, where the vaporization condenses and releases its heat, warming the nonheated end of the pipe. The cool environment surrounding this end transfers the heat away from the pipe by convection. The condense liquid drifts to the pipe ’ s walls and is drawn back to the inflame end of the heat pipe by gravity or by a wicking substantial or texture that lines the inside of the pipe. Once the fluent returns, the work repeat. Heat pipes are found throughout the calculate diligence but are particularly beneficial in smaller devices, even a large as laptops. This is because heat pipes work in the absence of cavernous spaces that support airflow. A dim-witted radiator of sorts at the cool end of the pipes, coupled with a bare fan, is enough to keep such devices running cool indefinitely.

Peltier Cooling Devices Water- and air-cool devices are highly effective by themselves, but they are more effective when used with a device known as a Peltier cooling element. These devices, besides known as thermoelectric coolers ( TECs ), facilitate the transportation of heat from one side of the element, made of one material, to the early side, made of a different material. thus, they have a hot side and a cold side. The cold side should constantly be against the CPU surface, and optimally, the hot side should be mated with a inflame bury or water block for hotness dissipation. consequently, TECs are not meant to replace air-cool mechanisms but to complement them. One of the downsides to TECs is the likelihood of condensation because of the subambient temperatures these devices produce. Closed-cell foams can be used to guard against damage from condensing.

Phase-Change Cooling With phase-change cool, the cooling impression from the exchange of a fluid to a gasoline is used to cool the inside of a personal computer. It is a identical expensive method of cooling, but it does work. Most frequently, external air-conditioner-like pumps, coils, and evaporators cool the coolant, which is sent, ice coldness, to the heat sink blocks on the central processing unit and chipset. think of it as a watercooling system that chills the water below room temperature. unfortunately, this is well the noisiest cooling method acting in this discussion. Its results can not be ignored, however ; it is potential to get CPU temps in the range of –4° F ( –20° C ). normal CPU temperatures hover between 104° F and 122° F ( 40° C and 50° C ). The major drawback to this method is that in higher-humidity conditions, condensation can be a problem. The moisture from the air out condenses on the heating system sink and can run off onto and under the central processing unit, therefore shorting out the electronics. Designers of phase-change cooling systems offer solutions to help ensure that this international relations and security network ’ t a problem. Products in the form of foam, silicone adhesive, and greaseless, noncuring adhesives are available to seal the coat and perimeter of the processor. additionally, manufacturers sell gaskets and shims that correspond to specific processors, all designed to protect your delicate and expensive components from price.

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Liquid Nitrogen and Helium Cooling In the interest of completeness, there is a novel approach to super-cooling processors that is ill advised under all but the most extreme circumstances. By filling a vessel placed over the component to be cooled with a liquid phase of nitrogen or, for an flush more intense consequence, helium, temperatures from –100° C to –240° C can be achieved. The results are short-change lived and only utilitarian in overclocking with a horizon to fructify records. The processor is not likely to survive the incidental due to the internal stress from the extreme point temperature changes american samoa well as the stress placed on the microscopic inner joints by the passage of excessive electrons.

Undervolting not an attachment, undervolting takes advantage of the place of physics whereby reduction in electric potential has an exponential effect on the reduction of power consumption and associated heat production. Undervolting requires a BIOS ( where the fix is made ) and CPU combination that supports it. You should monitor the system for irregular adverse effects. One of your troubleshooting steps might include returning the CPU voltage to normal and observing the results.

Summary In this chapter, we took a enlistment of the key home system components of a personal computer. You learned primarily about the “ big three, ” which are the motherboard, processor, and memory. Included in the motherboard discussion were form factors, connection types, such as PCIe and SATA, BIOS/UEFI settings, and the CMOS battery. CPU topics included features such as multicore, hyperthreading, and virtualization, equally well as compatibility. With RAM you learned about unlike types ( SODIMMs, DDR2, DDR3, and DDR4 ) and concepts such as single-, dual-, and triple-channel, error adjust, and parity. last, the chapter ended with cooling systems, which keep the components from damaging themselves with excess heat. This chapter laid the foundation garment for the pillow of the book, including the following few chapters on extra hardware components.

Exam Essentials Know the types of system boards. Know the characteristics of and differences between ATX, micro ATX, ITX, and mini-ITX motherboards. Know the components of a motherboard. Be able to describe, identify, and replace ( where applicable ) motherboard components, such as chipsets, expansion slots, memory slots, central processing unit sockets, power connectors, BIOS/UEFI ( firmware ), and CMOS batteries.

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Understand the purposes and characteristics of processors. Be able to discuss the unlike processor packaging, old and new, and know the meaning of the terms hyperthreading, cores, cache, amphetamine, virtualization support, and integrate GPU. Understand the purposes and characteristics of memory. Know about the characteristics that set the respective types of memory apart from one another. This includes the actual types of memory, such as DRAM ( which includes several varieties ), SRAM, ROM, and CMOS, a well as memory packaging, such as DIMMs and SODIMMs. besides have a firm understand of the different levels of cache memory a well as its function in general. Know how to replace RAM, given a scenario. RAM must match the motherboard in kind factor and in rush. For case, some motherboards will merely accept DDR3 or DDR4 memory. The focal ratio should be compatible with the FSB. Understand the purposes and characteristics of cooling systems. Know the different ways internal components can be cooled and how overheat can be prevented.

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Review Questions The answers to the chapter review questions can be found in Appendix A. 1. Which computer component contains all the circuitry necessary for other components or devices to communicate with one another ? A. Motherboard B. CPU C. RAM D. Expansion bus 2. You are told by a technician over the telephone that you need to bring successor DDR SDRAM memory. What type of promotion is used for DDR SDRAM memory ? A. 168-pin DIMM B. 224-pin DIMM C. 184-pin DIMM D. 240-pin DIMM 3. You need to replace memory in a desktop personal computer and to go purchase RAM. When you are at the storehouse, you need to find the allow type of memory. What memory chips would you find on a stick of PC3-16000 ? A. DDR-2000 B. DDR3-2000 C. DDR3-1600 D. PC3-2000 4. A customer wants you to build a fresh personal computer for her, with a smaller case and lower might requirements. When selecting a motherboard, which form factor should you choose for a smaller size and lower world power pulmonary tuberculosis ? A. ATX B. AT C. Micro ATX D. ITX 5. A motherboard failed on a desktop personal computer with an Intel Core i7-8700K central processing unit. When looking for a substitution motherboard, which CPU socket does it need to have ? A. LGA 1366 B. LGA 1150 C. LGA 1151 D. LGA 2066

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6. You have just replaced a processor in a computer and now need to add a cool mechanism. What should you use to attach the cooling system system to the processor ? A. Heat sinkhole B. Thermal paste C. Fan D. Superglue 7. A technician asks you how to get a computer ’ sulfur central processing unit to run faster than it presently does. What is he trying to achieve ? A. Hyperthreading B. Overclocking C. Virtualization D. Multicore support 8. You are assembling a new calculator and are looking at fresh cooling systems. Which of the watch cool systems requires the use of a pump ? A. Liquid B. Thermal spread C. Heat sink D. Heat sink plus fan 9. You are replacing a motherboard in a calculator that uses an AMD Ryzen 3 processor. Which CPU socket type do you need to ensure that the motherboard has ? A. AM2 B. AM3 C. AM4 D. LGA 1151 10. You press the front baron button on a calculator and the organization boots. late, you press it briefly and the system hibernates. When you press it again, the system resumes. You crush and hold the button and the system shuts down. What is this feature called ? A. Programmable power B. piano office C. Relay power D. Hot world power

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11. You are training fresh technicians to install RAM and pointing out differences between packages. Which of the comply are the numbers of pins that can be found on DIMM modules used in desktop motherboards ? ( Choose two. ) A. 180 B. 184 C. 200 D. 204 E. 232 F. 240 12. You are installing a new computer, and the exploiter wants to use virtualization. Which two hardware components need to support virtual technology for this to work properly ? ( Choose two. ) A. RAM B. Motherboard C. CPU D. BIOS 13. You find out that a disgruntled ex-employee ’ sulfur calculator has a boot password that must be entered before the operate arrangement is ever loaded. There is besides a password preventing your access to the BIOS utility program. Which of the following motherboard components can most probably be used to return the calculator to a state that will allow you to boot the system without knowing the password ? A. cable heading B. Power reset connection C. Toggle trade D. Jumper 14. Your core i5 fan has a four-pin connection, but your motherboard only has a single threepin header with the CPU_FAN label. Which of the following will be the easiest solution to get the necessary cool for your CPU ? A. Plug the four-pin connection into the three-pin header. B. Buy a four-pin to three-pin adapter. C. Leave the fireplug disconnected and use only the inflame sink. D. Add an supernumerary human body fan. 15. You are installing a raw video card into a PCIe slot. What is the combine sum throughput of a PCIe 2.0 x16 slot ? A. 500 MBps B. 1 GBps C. 16 GBps D. 32 GBps

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16. Which of the follow allows you to perform the most complete restart of the calculator without removing power ? A. Start ➢ Restart B. Start ➢ Hibernate C. Reset release D. Power button 17. You have merely found out that a newly BIOS upgrade exists for your computer, and you obtain a transcript to install it. Which of the follow is most helpful when flashing the BIOS on a background computer system ? A. DVD-ROM B. Uninterruptable world power supply C. Internet connection D. Windows administrator password 18. Intel and AMD have integrated which of the following into their Atom and APU processor lines that had not been integrated before ? A. GPU B. Math coprocessor C. FSB D. RAM accountant 19. You have just purchased a motherboard that has an LGA 1156 socket for an Intel Pentium processor. What type of memory modules will you most likely indigence for this motherboard ? A. DIP B. SIMM C. DIMM D. SODIMM 20. You need to install a new television card into a background computer. What type of expansion slot is preferred today for high-performance graphics adapters ? A. AGP B. PCIe C. PCI D. SATA

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Chapter 1 ■ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory

Performance-Based Question 1 You will encounter performance-based questions on the A+ examination. The questions on the examination necessitate you to perform a specific undertaking, and you will be graded on whether or not you were able to complete the task. The comply requires you to think creatively in rate to measure how well you understand this chapter ’ sulfur topics. You may or may not see similar questions on the actual A+ examination. To see how your suffice compares to the authors ’, refer to Appendix B. You have been asked to remove a double in-line memory faculty and insert one with a larger capacity in its invest. Describe the march for doing so.

Performance-Based question 2 Identify the component each arrow points to in the follow prototype of an ATX motherboard.

$ PNQ5* ” ¡ ” ¡ $ PNQMFUF4UVEZ ( VJEF ‘PVSUI & EJUJPO By 2VFOUJO % PDUFSBOE+PO # VIBHJBS $ PQZSJHIU¥CZ+PIO8JMFZ4POT *OD

Chapter

2

Internal Expansion, Storage Devices, and Power Supplies The follow CompTIA A+ 220-1001 examination objectives are covered in this chapter : ✓✓ 3.4 Given a scenario, choose, install, and configure repositing devices. ■■

■■

■■

Optical drives ■■

CD-ROM/CD-RW

■■

DVD-ROM/DVD-RW/DVD-RW DL

■■

Blu-ray

■■

BD-R

■■

BD-RE

Solid-state drives ■■

M2 drives

■■

NVME

■■

SATA 2.5

Magnetic hard drives ■■

5,400rpm

■■

7,200rpm

■■

10,000rpm

■■

15,000rpm

■■

Sizes : ■■

2.5

■■

3.5

■■

Hybrid drives

■■

Flash

■■

■■

SD menu

■■

CompactFlash

■■

Micro-SD card

■■

Mini-SD card

■■

xD

Configurations ■■

RAID 0, 1, 5, 10

■■

Hot swappable

✓✓ 3.5 Given a scenario, install and configure motherboards, CPUs, and accessory cards. ■■

Expansion cards ■■

Video cards ■■

Onboard

■■

Add-on card

■■

Sound cards

■■

Network interface card

■■

USB expansion card

■■

eSATAcard

✓✓ 3.7 Summarize power provision types and features. ■■

Input 115V vs. 220V

■■

Output 5.5V vs. 12V

■■

24-pin motherboard arranger

■■

Wattage rat

■■

Number of devices/types of devices to be powered

As a personal computer technician, you need to know quite a morsel about hardware. Given the importance and magnitude of this cognition, the best means to approach it is in sections. The first chapter introduced the topic via the primary core components, and this chapter follows up where it left off. First, we will look at adding functionality by plugging expansion cards into the motherboard. then, we will focus on storage devices that hold data persistently—that is, they don ’ triiodothyronine necessitate power to maintain data like RAM does. ultimately, we will end the chapter by looking at the simple-looking but potentially dangerous box that gives the components the department of energy they need—the baron provide.

Installing and Configuring Expansion Cards An expansion calling card ( besides known as an arranger card ) is just a circuit board that you install into a computer to increase the capabilities of that calculator. expansion cards come in varying formats for different uses, but the important thing to note is that no matter what function a card has, the poster being installed must match the bus topology type of the motherboard into which it is being installed. For example, you can install a PCI network batting order into a PCI expansion slot only. For today ’ mho integrated components ( those built into the motherboard ), you might not need an adapter to achieve the related services, but you will distillery need to install a driver— a software program that lets the operate system talk to the hardware—to make the integrated devices function with the engage system. Most motherboard manufacturers supply drivers with their motherboards, either on a phonograph record or flaunt drive, that contain all the device drivers needed to get the built-in electronics recognized by the manoeuver system. performance of the driver ’ south setup program by and large results in all components working properly. The following are the four most common categories of expansion cards installed today : ■■

Video

■■

Multimedia

■■

Communications

■■

Input/Output

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Let ’ s take a flying count at each of these poster types, their functions, and what some of them look like.

Video A video recording adapter ( more normally called a graphics arranger or even more normally, a video wag ) is the expansion calling card that you put into a calculator to allow the calculator to present information on some kind of expose, typically a monitor or a projector. A video recording circuit board is besides responsible for converting the datum commit to it by the CPU into the pixels, addresses, and early items required for display. sometimes, video cards can include dedicate chips to perform some of these functions, thus accelerating the amphetamine of display. You will encounter two classes of video cards : onboard cards and addition cards. Onboard ( or integrated ) cards are built into the motherboard. As mentioned earlier, you need to install a device driver to get them to work properly, but those often come packaged with the motherboard itself. The top to an integrated card is that it frees up an expansion slot. The manufacturer can either leave the slot open or design the motherboard and/ or case to be smaller. One downside is that if the video calling card fails, you need a newfangled motherboard, or you can install an addition card. A second downside is that the onboard video cards aren ’ thymine typically high-end. If the exploiter wants great graphics from a knock-down television calling card, then an addition card is about always the manner to go. As for accessory cards, PCIe is the favored expansion slot character. You might be able to find the rare motherboard that still offers a bequest AGP slot, and you might see some PCI video recording cards, but they are uncommon. The technology on which PCIe was designed performs better for video than those on which AGP and PCI are based. figure 2.1 shows an example of a bare PCIe-based video card. Fi guanine uranium gas constant e 2 .1 A PCIe television expansion card

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Multimedia The most basic and fecund multimedia arranger is the sound card. television tuner cards and video recording capture cards besides offer multimedia experiences but are less common than fathom cards.

Sound Card Just as there are devices to convert computer signals into printouts and video data, there are devices to convert those signals into sound. These devices are known as sound cards. Although sound cards started out as pluggable adapters, this functionality is one of the most common integrated technologies found on motherboards today. A sound circuit board typically has small, round, 1/8″ jacks on the binding of it for connecting microphones, headphones, and speakers equally well as early sound equipment. Older phone cards used a DA15 game port, which could be used either for joysticks or musical Instrument Digital Interface ( MIDI ) controllers. name 2.2 shows an exercise of a reasoned poster with a DA15 game port. Fi deoxyguanosine monophosphate u radius e 2. 2 A authoritative sound poster

TV Tuner Cards and Video Capture Cards The television receiver tuner tease is a class of internal and external devices that allows you to connect a air sign, such as home cable television, to your computer and display the output signal on the computer monitor. television receiver radio receiver cards come in analogue, digital, and hybrid varieties. Most television receiver radio receiver cards act as video appropriate cards arsenic well. A video capture calling card can besides be a standalone device, and it is much used to save a video pour to the computer for late manipulation or sharing. Video-sharing sites on the Internet make video capture cards quite popular with enterprises and Internet socialites alike. television receiver tuner cards and video capture cards need and frequently come with software to care in the process of multimedia input.

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Communications Communications adapters enable a computer to transmit data to other devices that might be besides aloof to cable up to immediately. Network adapters and modems are the two most popular types of communications adapters. network adapters are generally used within the administrative knowledge domain of a home or enterprise and trust on other devices to relay their transmissions around the world. In contrast, modems let conduct domestic or external communication between two devices across the Public Switched Telephone Network ( PSTN ). Although there are early devices in the PSTN, the service provider ’ randomness network appears as a defile to the end stations, unlike the intermediate devices of a home or enterprise data network.

Network Interface Card A network interface poster ( NIC ) is an expansion card that connects a calculator to a network so that it can communicate with early computers on that network. It translates the data from the analogue data stream used inside the calculator into the consecutive data stream that makes up the frames used on the network. It has a connection for the type of expansion bus on the motherboard ( PCIe or PCI ) adenine well as an interface for the type of network it is connecting to ( such as fiber connectors, Registered Jack 45 [ RJ-45 ] for unshielded wrench pair [ UTP ], antenna for radio receiver, or BNC for bequest wheedle ). In addition to physically installing the NIC, you need to install drivers for the NIC in order for the calculator to use the adapter to access the network. figure 2.3 shows a PCIe x1 Ethernet NIC with an RJ-45 port. ( Network connectors are covered in more detail in chapter 6, “ Networking Fundamentals. ” ) fIgurE 2.3

A network interface circuit board

Some computers have NIC circuitry integrated into their motherboards. therefore, a computer with an integrated NIC wouldn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate necessitate to have a NIC expansion circuit board installed unless it was faster or you were using the second NIC for load poise ( splitting the dealings between two cards to increase rush ), security, or fault-tolerance ( having a stand-in in case one fail ) applications.

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Wireless NICs Wireless NICs have the unique characteristic of requiring that you configure their get in touch device before configuring the NIC. Wired NICs can by and large create a liaison and begin operation just by being physically connected to a hub or switch. The wireless access point or ad-hoc spouse calculator must besides be configured before fasten communication, at a minimum, can occur by using a wireless NIC. These terms are explained in greater detail in chapter 8, “ Installing Wireless and SOHO Networks. ” Figure 2.4 shows a PCI wireless NIC. Fi gram u gas constant e 2. 4 A wireless NIC

Modem Any computer that connects to the Internet using an analogue dial-up association needs a modem, or modulator/demodulator. A modem is a device that converts digital signals from a computer into analogue signals that can be transmitted over phone lines and back again. These expansion card devices have one connection for the expansion busbar being used ( PCIe or PCI ) and another for connection to the telephone course. actually, as you can see in Figure 2.5, which shows a PCI modem, there might be two Registered Jack 11 ( RJ-11 ) ports : one for connection to the telephone line and the other for connection to a telephone. This is chiefly so that a phone can gain entree to the lapp wall jack that the calculator connects to without swapping their cords or using a separate splitter. Keep in judgment, though, that you won ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate be able to use the earphone while the computer is connected to the Internet.

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An home analogue modem

You might notice that the modem looks a lot like a network menu. Modems use smaller 4-pin RJ-11 connectors, whereas NICs use 8-pin RJ-45 connectors. And flush though it ’ south probably hard to see in Figure 2.5, modems with two connectors have a little call icon etched into the faceplate as well.

Input/Output An input/output circuit board is much used as a catchall phrase for any expansion calling card that enhances the system, allowing it to interface with devices that offer remark to the system, end product from the system, or both. The comply are coarse examples of modern I/O cards : ■

USB cards

Storage cards, such as eSATA

Thunderbolt cards

Figure 2.6 shows a 7-port PCIe x1 USB expansion circuit board ( left ) adjacent to an eSATA tease ( right ). USB cards normally come in 2-, 4-, and 7-port configurations, whereas eSATA cards much have one or two external ports. This eSATA wag besides has two inner SATA connectors on the top ( left field, in the mental picture ) of the card. You ’ ll besides fi north dakota cards that have multiple port types, such as eSATA and USB.

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Fi deoxyguanosine monophosphate uranium gas constant einsteinium 2. 6 USB and eSATA expansion cards

These cards are to be installed in a compatible slot on the motherboard. Their configuration is minimal, and it is normally completed through the Plug and Play action. Nevertheless, check the BIOS settings after installation for new entries in the menu structure. It ’ s the job of the BIOS to track all the hardware in the arrangement and supply resources as needed. For exemplar, a fresh Thunderbolt expansion card might allow you to configure whether bind Thunderbolt devices should be allowed to wake the system, how long of a delay should be observed before waking the system, and diverse settings for how to use memory and other resources.

Adapter Configuration Expansion cards might require shape. however, most can be recognized automatically by a plug and Play operating system. In other words, resources are handed out automatically without jumper settings, or the installation of device drivers is handled or requested mechanically. Supplying the drivers might be the only mannequin of shape required. Some adapters, however, require more specific configuration steps during installation. For model : ■■

■■

■■

Two or more PCIe graphics adapters that support SLI ( see Chapter 1, “ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory, ” ) must be bridged in concert with extra hardware that comes with the adapters. Most fathom cards tend to work with no particular configuration, but advanced features will need to be implemented through the function system or through utilities that came with the arranger. The functions of television and video capture cards are sometimes not native to the operating system and consequently come with advanced utilities that must be learned and configured before the adapters will work american samoa expected.

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Wireless network adapters much require the installation of a screw-on antenna, which should be postponed until after the card is in full inserted and physically secured in the organization. Software shape that allows these cards to communicate with a wireless access point can be challenging for the novitiate. Wired network adapters tend to be easier to configure than radio receiver ones. Nevertheless, even wired NICs might require manual shape of certain protocol settings, such as IP addressing, duplex apartment, and accelerate, in order for them to be fat.

In general, initiation and configuration steps for expansion cards can be summarized as follows : 1. see that the computer is powered off. 2. Install the arranger into an open time slot. 3. connect power, if needed.

This most frequently applies to video cards. 4. After booting up the computer, install the driver.

Again, Plug and Play may take care of this mechanically for you. 5. If the menu international relations and security network ’ metric ton recognized or providing the expect functionality, check the BIOS for

shape settings. 6. For early shape options, use the utility provided by the manufacturer,

if applicable. In any event, consult the documentation provided with your arranger or the manufacturer ’ s web site for extra shape requirements or options. The more specialized the arranger, the more likely it will come with specialty-configuration utilities.

Understanding Storage Devices What dear is a calculator without a place to put everything ? memory media hold the files that the operate organization needs to operate and the data that users need to save. The many different types of storehouse media differ in terms of their capacity ( how much they can store ), entree meter ( how fast the calculator can access the information ), and the forcible type of media used.

Hard Disk Drive Systems Hard phonograph record drive ( HDD ) systems ( or hard drives for short ) are used for permanent memory and promptly access. Hard drives typically rest inside the computer, where they are semipermanently mounted with no external access ( although there are external and removable hard drives ) and can hold more data than other forms of repositing. Hard drives use a

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charismatic storehouse medium, and they are known as conventional drives to differentiate them from newer solid-state storehouse media. The hard disk drive system contains the follow three critical components : Controller This component controls the drive. The accountant chip controls how the drive operates and how the datum is encoded onto the platters. It controls how the datum sends signals to the assorted motors in the drive and receives signals from the sensors inside the drive. Most of today ’ s hard phonograph record drive technologies incorporate the restrainer and drive into one forum. today, the most common and well known of these technologies is SATA. Hard Disk This is the physical storage medium. hard disk drive systems store data on modest magnetic disk ( from under 1 column inch to 5 inches in diameter ), besides called platters, stacked together and placed in an enclosure. Host Bus Adapter The host bus adapter ( HBA ) is the translator, converting signals from the accountant to signals that the computer can understand. Most motherboards today incorporate the host arranger into the motherboard ’ south circuitry, offering headers for drivecable connections. Legacy host adapters and certain modern adapters house the hard drive control circuitry. figure 2.7 shows a arduous disk drive and server adapter. The hard drive accountant is integrated into the drive in this case, but it could reside on the host adapter in other unvoiced tug technologies. This particular exemplar shows a hard drive plugging into an expansion poster. Today ’ randomness drives about constantly connect straight to the motherboard, again with the HBA being integrated with the drive itself. Fi thousand u r e 2. 7 A unvoiced disk drive system

PATA unvoiced drive PATA host arranger

Hard drives, regardless of whether they are charismatic or solid-state, most frequently connect to the motherboard ’ mho SATA or PATA interfaces. You learned about SATA and PATA in Chapter 1, but Figure 2.8 provides a reminder of what the interfaces look like ; SATA is on the exceed.

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Fi gigabyte uranium roentgen east 2. 8 Four SATA and two PATA ports

The back of the hard drive will have data and ability connectors. figure 2.9 shows the datum and world power connectors for a PATA drive and a SATA repel. Fi gram uracil gas constant e 2. 9 PATA ( top ) and SATA ( bed ) hard drive data and power connectors

Data

Power

Today, IDE ( PATA ) hard drives are basically disused. Most of that is due to the limitations in transportation speeds. Most PATA hard drives follow the ATA/100 standard, which has a

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maximal transfer rush of 100 MBps. There are faster ATA standards, such as ATA/133 and ATA/167, but drives using those standards are rare. SATA III ( besides known as SATA 6 Gb/s ), on the other hand, has a maximum transfer speed of 600 MBps.

There ’ s another hard drive connection type called SAS, or Serial Attached SCSI. ( SCSI is pronounced “ scuzzy ” and stands for Small Computer System Interface—aren ’ metric ton acronym within acronym great ? ) SAS tends to be a bit faster than SATA, and is used by and large in enterprise calculate applications. You won ’ t see many SAS ports on conventional background or laptop motherboards. SAS is not on the A+ examination objectives.

Anatomy of a Hard Drive A heavily driveway is constructed in a cleanroom to avoid the initiation of contaminants into the hermetically seal drive encase. Once the casing is sealed, most manufacturers seal one or more of the screws with a gummed label admonition that removal of or damage to the seal will result in voiding the drive ’ s guarantee. even some of the smallest contaminants can damage the preciseness components if allowed inside the hard drive ’ s external shell. The stick to is a number of the terms used to describe these components in the follow paragraph : ■

Platters

Read/write heads

Tracks

Sectors

Cylinders

Clusters ( allotment units )

Inside the varnish case of the hard drive lie one or more platters, where the actual data is stored by the read/write heads. The heads are mounted on a mechanism that moves them in tandem across both surfaces of all platters. Older drives used a stepper motive to put the heads at discrete points along the coat of the platters, which spin at thousands of revolutions per minute on a spike mounted to a hub. Newer drives use voice coils for a more analogue bowel movement, resulting in reduced data loss because the circuitry can sense where the data is located through a servomechanical scheme, even if the data shifts due to changes in physical disk geometry. figure 2.10 shows the inner components of a conventional hard drive.

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Fi thousand u roentgen e 2 .1 0 Anatomy of a hard drive

By Eric Gaba, Wikimedia Commons drug user Sting, CC BY-SA 3.0, hypertext transfer protocol : //commons.wikimedia.org/w/index

.php ? curid=11278668

Factory preparation for newer drives, or low-level format in the field for bequest drives, maps the implicit in flaws of the platters so that the drive controllers know not to place data in these compromise locations. additionally, this phase in force formulation creates concentric rings, or tracks, which are drawn magnetically around the surface of the platters. Sectors are then delineated within each of the tracks. Sectors are the magnetic domains that represent the smallest units of storage on the magnetic disk ’ mho platters. This is illustrated in Figure 2.11. Magnetic-drive sectors normally store only 512 bytes ( 1/2 KB ) of data each. Fi gravitational constant uranium r e 2 .11 Cylinders, tracks, and sectors

Cylinder Sector Track

The capacity of a hard drive is a function of the number of sectors it contains. The accountant for the hard force knows precisely how the sectors are laid out within the harrow fabrication. It takes focus from the BIOS when writing information to and reading

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data from the drive. The BIOS, however, does not always understand the actual geometry of the tug. For exemplar, the BIOS does not support more than 63 sectors per lead. Nevertheless, many hard drives have tracks that contain many more than 63 sectors per track. As a leave, a translation must occur from where the BIOS believes it is directing information to be written to where the information is actually written by the accountant. When the BIOS detects the geometry of the drive, it is because the control reports dimensions that the BIOS can understand. The like sort of trickery happen when the BIOS reports to the operate on system a linear address outer space for the operate system to use when requesting that data be written to or read from the drive through the BIOS. The basic hard drive geometry consists of the postdate three components : ■■

The count of sectors that each track contains

■■

The number of read/write heads in the disk assembly

■■

The number of cylinders in the assembly

This set of values is known as CHS ( for cylinders/heads/sectors ). The number of cylinders is the number of tracks that can be found on any single come on of any single phonograph record. It is called a cylinder because the collection of all same-number tracks on all writable surfaces of the hard tug assembly looks like a geometric cylinder when connected together vertically. therefore, cylinder 1, for exemplify, on an forum that contains three platters comprises six tracks ( one on each side of each phonograph record ), each labeled track 1 on its respective surface. Because the count of cylinders indicates only the number of tracks on any one writable airfoil in the fabrication, the number of writable surfaces must be factored into the equality to produce the full number of tracks in the entire assembly. This is where the number of heads comes in. There is a single head dedicated to each writable surface, two per platter. By multiplying the number of cylinders by the number of heads, you produce the full number of tracks throughout the disk assembly. By multiplying this merchandise by the count of sectors per path, you discover the sum number of sectors throughout the disk assembly. Dividing the result by 2 provides the number of kilobytes that the hard drive can store. This works because each sector holds 512 bytes, which is equivalent to 1/2 KB. Each clock time you divide the solution by 1,024, you obtain a smaller count, but the unit of measurement of measure increases from kilobytes to megabytes, from megabytes to gigabytes, and so on. The equation in Figure 2.12 illustrates this calculation. Fi gigabyte uracil r e 2 .1 2 Computing total sectors in CHS geometry cylinders ( tracks/surface ) X heads ( surfaces/drive ) entire tracks ( tracks/drive ) ten sectors ( sectors/track ) total sectors ( sectors/drive )

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For exemplar, a campaign labeled with the maximal allowed CHS geometry of 16383/16/63, respectively, results in only 7.9 GB. Using the equality and multiplying the issue of cylinders by the number of heads, you arrive at 262,128 entire tracks on the drive. Multiplying this phone number by 63, the resultant role is that there are 16,514,064 total sectors on the drive. Each sector holds 1/2 KB, for a total capacity of 8,257,032 KB. Dividing by 1,024 to convert to MB and again by 1,024 to convert to GB, the 7.9 GB capacity is revealed. As a result, although drives larger than 8 GB still display the 16383/16/63 CHS capability for devices that must adhere to the CHS geometry, the CHS outline can not be used on today ’ sulfur larger drives at the risk of losing the huge majority of their capacity. The solution is to allow the operational system to reference coherent blocks of 1/2 KB sectors that can be individually addressed by a 48-bit measure, resulting in 128 PB of drive capacity, far above the largest drives being manufactured today. A PB is 1,024 terabyte ; a TB is 1,024 GB. File systems laid down on the tracks and their sectors routinely group a configurable number of sectors into equal or larger sets called clusters or allotment units. This concept exists because operational arrangement designers have to settle on a finite number of addressable units of storehouse and a fix number of bits to address them uniquely. Because the units of repositing can vary in size, however, the maximum come of a repel ’ sulfur repositing capacity can vary consequently, but not unless logical driveway capacities in excess of 2 terabit are implemented. Volumes based on the master boot commemorate ( MBR ) structure are limited to 2 TB total. such volumes include those created on basic disks a well as simple and mirrored volumes on moral force disks. Be mindful that today ’ s hard drives and volumes created with RAID can surely exceed 2 TB by combining multiple simple volumes into spanned or striped volumes, at which point utmost NTFS volume sizes—discussed at the end of this section—come into play. Keep in thinker that larger clusters beget larger volumes, but they result in less efficient custom of distance, a phenomenon that is discussed in the be paragraph. No two files are allowed to occupy the same sector, so the opportunity exists for a neutralize of distance that defragmenting can not correct. Clusters exacerbate the trouble by having a alike foible : The operate organization does not allow any two files to occupy the lapp cluster. thus, the larger the cluster size, the larger the electric potential waste. So although you can increase the cluster size ( by and large to a large as 64 KB, which corresponds to 128 sectors ), you should keep in mind that unless you are storing a celebrated act of identical big files, the waste will escalate astoundingly, possibly negating or reversing your sensed storage-capacity addition. however, if you have single files that are very large, say hundreds of megabytes or larger, then increased bunch sizes are for you. For example, assuming the 2 TB maximum size for elementary and mirror dynamic volumes, a 64 KB bunch size results in a maximal cross or strip NTFS volume size of 64 KB less than 256 TB.

HDD Speeds As the electronics within the HBA and control get faster, they are adequate to of requesting data at higher and higher rates. If the platters are spinning at a changeless rate, however, the

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information can be accessed only vitamin a fast as a given fi xed rate. To make information available to the electronics more cursorily, manufacturers increase the travel rapidly at which the platters spin from one generation of drives to the next, with multiple speeds coexisting in the market for an irregular menstruation, at least until the demand dies down for one or more speeds. The follow whirl rates have been used in the industry for the platters in conventional charismatic hard phonograph record drives : ■

5,400 revolutions per minute

7,200 revolutions per minute

10,000 revolutions per minute

12,000 revolutions per minute

15,000 revolutions per minute

While it is true that a higher revolutions per moment ( revolutions per minute ) rat results in the ability to move data more quickly, there are many applications that do not benefit from increased disk-access speeds. As a solution, you should choose only faster drives, which are besides normally more expensive per byte of capability, when you have an application for this type of operation, such as for house the partition where the operate system resides or for identical disk-intensive programs. For comparison, a 7,200 revolutions per minute SATA intemperate drive can sustain data read speeds of about 100 MBps, which is about the same as a PATA ATA/100 7,200 revolutions per minute drive. A 10,000 revolutions per minute ( besides known as 10k ) SATA drive can top out around 200 MBps. All 15,000 revolutions per minute drives are SAS drives, not SATA or PATA drives.

Higher speeds besides consume more energy and produce more estrus. The lower speeds can be ideal in laptops, where heat product and battery custom can be issues with higherspeed drives. even the fastest conventional difficult drives are slower than solid-state drives are at transferring data.

HDD Sizes Physically, the most common hard drive sizes are 3.5″ and 2.5″. Desktops traditionally use 3.5″ drives, whereas the 2.5″ drives are made for laptops. Converter kits are available to mount a 2.5″ drive into a 3.5″ background hard drive bay, however. figure 2.13 shows the two drives together. As you can see, the 2.5″ tug is importantly smaller in all three dimensions, but it does have the same connectors as its bigger cousin. ultimately, 1.8″ drives are used in some laptops and smaller devices.

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Fi deoxyguanosine monophosphate u radius e 2 .1 3 A 3.5″ and 2.5″ hard drive

Solid-State Drives Unlike conventional hard drives, solid-state drives ( SSDs ) have no moving parts—they use the same solid-state memory technology found in the other forms of flash memory. You can think of them as bad versions of the blink of an eye drives that are therefore common. SSDs take advantage of the transfer speed of the SATA 6 GB/s bus, which you will recall is up to 600 MBps. In fact, SSDs are so firm, the SATA bus topology is the bottleneck. As you might expect, SSDs have several advantages over their mechanical counterparts. These include the follow : ■■

Faster start-up and read times

■■

Less office consumption and heat produced

■■

Silent operation

■■

Generally more dependable because of a lack of moving parts

■■

Less susceptible to damage from physical jolt and heat product

■■

Higher data concentration per square centimeter The disadvantages of SSDs are as follows :

■■

■■

The engineering to build an SSD is more expensive per byte. All solid-state memory is limited to a finite count of spell ( including erase ) operations. Lack of longevity could be an issue. As the engineering matures, this is becoming less and less of a trouble.

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You will find that SSDs in the grocery store broadly have lower overall capability than HDDs as well. For example, it ’ s not uncommon to find HDDs over 8 terabit in size, whereas the biggest SSD ( at the time of this compose ) is 2 TB. A 1 TB SSD is in the same price stove as an 8 tuberculosis HDD. When used as a substitute for traditional HDDs, SSDs are expected to behave in a similar fashion, chiefly by retaining contents across a baron bicycle. With SSD, you can besides expect to maintain or exceed the speed of the HDD. SSDs can be made faster still by including a little sum of DRAM as a hoard. many SSDs are what ’ south known as SATA 2.5, meaning they use a SATA port and are 2.5″ in size. This international relations and security network ’ t dependable for all solid-state drives, though, as you will see in the approaching “ other SSDs ” section.

Hybrid Drives A cost-saving option to a standard SSD that can still provide a significant increase in operation over conventional HDDs is the hybrid drive. hybrid drives can be implemented in two ways : a solid-state hybrid drive and a dual-drive storage solution. Both forms of hybrid drives can take advantage of solutions such as Intel ’ s Smart Response Technology ( SRT ), which informs the drive system of the most used and highest-value data. The drive can then load a imitate of such data into the SSD dowry of the hybrid tug for faster learn access. It should be noted that systems on which data is accessed randomly do not benefit from hybrid drive engineering. Any datum that is accessed for the inaugural time will besides not be accessed from flash memory, and it will take as long to access it as if it were accessed from a traditional hard drive. Repeated consumption, however, will result in the monitor software ’ s flag of the datum for caching in the SSD.

Solid-State Hybrid Drive The solid-state hybrid driveway ( SSHD ) is a conventional HDD manufactured with a hearty amount of flash-memory-like solid-state memory aboard. The SSHD is known to the operate on system as a single drive, and individual access to the separate components is unavailable to the exploiter.

Dual-Drive Solutions Dual-drive storage solutions can besides benefit from technologies such as Intel ’ s SRT. however, because they are implemented as two break drives ( one conventional HDD and one SSD ), each with its own separate file organization and drive letter, the user can besides manually choose the data to move to the SSD for faster read access. Users can choose to implement dual-drive systems with SSDs of the like size as the HDD, resulting in a fuller caching scenario.

other SSDs It ’ s been said that the advent of the SSD was a major advancement for the computer industry. solid-state drives are basically made from the same circuitry that RAM is,

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and they are very, very fast. The limitation in the system is now the SATA control that most hard drives are plugged into. ( SATA III is limited to 600 MBps ; due to overhead most SSDs top out at about 550 MBps during a consecutive read data transfer. ) thus as enterprising calculator engineers are known to do, some started looking into ways to overcome this barrier. The solution is that over the last few years, there have been more seismic shifts in the memory arena. Two technologies that we ’ ll cover here are M.2 and NVMe.

M.2 First, M.2 ( pronounced “ M dot 2 ” ) international relations and security network ’ t merely designed for hard drives. It ’ s a shape factor designed to replace the mSATA standard for ultra-small expansion components in laptops and smaller devices. mSATA uses the PCI Express Mini Card layout and 52-pin connection. M.2 is smaller and faster, using a 22-mm-wide, 66-pin card boundary connection. primitively developed under the mention Next Generation Form Factor ( NGFF ), M.2 was born from the hope to standardize little form divisor SSD hard drives. M.2 supports more than hard drives, though ; you will find M.2 cards that provide Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Global Positioning System ( GPS ), and Near Field Communication ( NFC ) connectivity, arsenic well as PCIe and SATA connections. One interesting connectivity feature of M.2 is that the slots and cards are keyed such that entirely a specific type of card can fit into a certain time slot. The keys are given letter names to distinguish them from each early, starting with the letter A and moving up the rudiment as the location of the key moves across the expansion card. table 2.1 explains the time slot names, some interface types supported, and coarse uses. Ta boron l vitamin e 2 .1 M.2 keying characteristics Key

Common Interfaces

Uses

A

PCIe x2, USB 2.0

Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and cellular cards

B

PCIe x2, SATA, USB 2.0, USB 3.0, audio

SATA and PCIe x2 SSDs

E

PCIe x2, USB 2.0

Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and cellular cards

M

PCIe x4, SATA

PCIe x4 SSDs

Let ’ s look at some examples. figure 2.14 shows four different M.2 cards. From left to right, they are an A- and E-keyed Wi-Fi circuit board, two B- and M-keyed SSDs, and an M-keyed SSD. Of the four, only the M-keyed SSD can get the fastest speeds ( up to 1.8 Gbps ), because it supports PCIe x4. SSDs on the market are keyed B, M, or B+M. A B-keyed or M-keyed SSD won ’ thyroxine fit in a B+M socket. A B+M keyed drive will fit into a B socket or an M socket, however.

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Fi gravitational constant u r e 2 .1 4 Four M.2 cards

Photo citation : Andrew Cunningham / Ars Technica

Another interest feature of the cards is that they are besides named based on their size. For example, you will see wag designations such as 1630, 2242, 2280, 22110, or 3042. The first two numbers refer to the width, and the stay to the distance ( in millimeters ) of the card. In Figure 2.14, you see a 1630, a 2242, and two 2280 cards. trope 2.15 shows a motherboard with two M.2 slots. The one on the left is E-keyed, and the one on the right is B-keyed. The left slot is designed for an E-keyed Wi-Fi NIC, and the right matchless for a B-keyed SSD. Fi gigabyte u r e 2 .1 5 Two M.2 slots

Photo accredit : Andrew Cunningham / Ars Technica

As mentioned earlier, M.2 is a form factor, not a bus standard. M.2 supports SATA, USB, and PCIe buses. What does that mean for M.2 hard drives ? It means that if you purchase an M.2 SATA intemperate drive, it will have the same amphetamine limitation as SATA III, or about

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600 MBps. That ’ s not terrible, but it means that the primary advantage of an M.2 SATA drive versus a conventional SATA SSD is size. An M.2 PCIe hard repel is an wholly unlike report. PCIe, you will recall from chapter 1, is much faster than SATA. A PCIe 2.0 x1 bus supports one-way datum transfers of 500 MBps. That is close to SATA III speed, and it ’ s alone a one lane for an older standard. calculate 2.16 shows an M.2 PCIe 2.0 x4 Kingston HyperX Predator. These drives come in capacities up to 960 GB, and support data reads of up to 2.64 GBps and utmost spell speeds of 1.56 GBps. All your calculator needs is an open PCIe time slot. fluorine I g u radius E 2 .1 6

M.2 PCIe SSD

Non-Volatile Memory Express Created by a consortium of manufacturers, including Intel, Samsung, Dell, SanDisk, and Seagate, non-volatile memory express ( NVMe ) is an open standard designed to optimize the travel rapidly of data transfers. Like M.2, NVMe drives hold SATA and PCIe buses. You can fi north dakota NVMe SSDs in packages that fit into M.2 slots, PCIe slots, and even 2.5″ NVMe drives with a PCI interface. Current NVMe SSDs can support data reads of up to 3.5 GBps, provided that the interface they are plugged into supports it arsenic well, of course. Said differently, remember that an NVMe SATA III SSD will still be limited to 600 MBps ; PCIe does not have the lapp restriction. One electric potential return you might see with NVMe hard drives is that in order to be a boot drive, the motherboard must support it. If the motherboard has a built-in M.2 slot, odds are that the BIOS will support booting from an NVMe drive. If you are adding it using a PCIe port, the BIOS might not be able to boot from that drive. It ’ s about a consume to purchase an M.2 or NVMe SATA SSD, unless the humble size is the primary factor for choosing it. Buying one that supports PCIe will greatly enhance the speed of the unvoiced drive system in the computer.

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Optical Storage Drives Most computers today have an ocular repositing repel, such as the latest Blu-ray Disc ( BD ) drive ; a digital versatile phonograph record ( DVD ), besides called digital television phonograph record drive ; or the bequest pack disk ( certificate of deposit ) drive. Each type of ocular drive can besides be expected to support the engineering that came before it. such ocular repositing devices began seriously replacing diskette diskette drives in the late 1990s. Although, like HDDs, these discs have greater data capacity and increased operation over floppies, they are not intended to replace difficult magnetic disk drives. HDDs greatly exceed the capacity and operation of ocular drives. The CDs, DVDs, and BDs used for data memory are virtually the like as those used for permanent recorded audio and video. The way that data, audio, and video recording information is written to consumer-recordable versions makes them virtually identical from such professionally manufactured discs. Any differences that get up are due to the format used to encode the digital information on the disk. Despite the differences among the professional and consumer formats, newer players have no publish with any type of magnetic disk used. The encoding schemes used to store data on such discs are uncongenial with the schemes used to record audio and video to the same magnetic disk.

CD-ROMs, DVD-ROMs, BD-ROMs, and Capacities The come of data that can be stored on the three primary formats of optical disk varies greatly, with each generation of magnetic disk exceeding the capacity of all previous generations. The adopt sections detail the skill behind the capacities of all three formats.

CD-ROM The CD-ROM ( read-only memory ) was designed for long-run storehouse of data. cd-rom are read-only, meaning that data written at the factory can ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate be erased or changed. cd-rom became identical popular because they made a great software distribution medium. Programs are always getting larger and increasingly require more room to install, adaptation after interpretation. alternatively of installing the program of the day using 100 diskette disks, you could use a individual CD-ROM, which can hold approximately 650 MB in its original, least-capable format. Although CDs capable of storing 700 MB finally became and continue to be the most common, phonograph record with 800 MB and 900 MB capacities have been standardized adenine well. See table 2.2 former in this chapter for a number of ocular phonograph record and their capacities.

DVD-ROM For even more storage capacitance, many computers feature some phase of DVD or BD drive, such as the original DVD-ROM drive. The basic DVD-ROM disk is a single-sided disk that has a individual layer of encode data. These discs have a capacity of 4.7 GB, many times the highest cd-rom capacity. simple multiplication can sometimes be used to arrive at the capacities of other DVD-ROM varieties. For example, when another media open is added on the side of the magnetic disk where the label is much applied, a double-sided disk is created. such double-sided discs have a capacity of 9.4 GB, precisely twice that of a single-sided phonograph record.

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Practically talk, the expect 9.4 GB capacity from two independent layers isn ’ triiodothyronine realized when those layers are placed on the same side of a DVD, resulting in alone 8.5 GB of functional space. ( BDs do not have this issue ; they make practice of the full capacitance of each layer. ) The personnel casualty of capacitance is due to the distance between tracks on both layers being 10 percentage wider than normal to facilitate burning one layer without affecting the other. This results in approximately 90 percentage remaining capacity per layer. This engineering is known as DVD DL ( DL for dual-layer ), attained by placing two media surfaces on the like side of the disk, one on exceed of the other, and using a more sophisticate mechanism that burns the inner layer without altering the translucent out layer and frailty versa, all from the same side of the magnetic disk. Add the DL engineering to a double-sided disk, and you have a phonograph record capable of holding 17.1 GB of information—again, doubly the capacity of the single-sided translation. figure 2.17 shows an case of a DVD-ROM driveway, which besides accepts CD-ROM phonograph record. modern 5¼″ ocular drives are identical from older ones, aside from obvious markings concerning their capabilities. Fi guanine uracil roentgen e 2 .17 A DVD-ROM drive

Blu-ray Disc ROM The next generation of optical memory engineering was designed for modern high-definition video sources. The equipment used to read the resulting phonograph record employs a violet laser, in contrast to the crimson laser used with standard DVD and CD technologies. Taking a bit of creative license with the tinge of the laser, the Blu-ray Disc Association named itself and the technology Blu-ray Disc ( BD ), after this visibly unlike characteristic. Blu-ray technology further increases the memory capacitance of ocular media without changing the form agent. On a 12-cm magnetic disk, like to those used for CD-ROMs and DVD-ROMs, BD derives a 25 GB storage capacity from the basic magnetic disk. When you add a second level to the same or opposite side of the phonograph record, you attain 50 GB of storage. The Blu-ray laser is of a short wavelength ( 405 new mexico ) than that of DVD ( 650 new mexico ) and CD ( 780 nanometer ) technologies. As a leave, and through the use of polished optics, the laser can be focused on a much smaller area of the disk. This leads to a higher density of information being stored in the same area.

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An matter to period to note is that designers of the Blu-ray technology do not have to stop with the common double-layer solution to increase capacity. Blu-ray Discs with more than four layers on a side have been demonstrated, largely owing to the highly accurate focus attainable with the Blu-ray laser. In the interest of completeness, it should be mentioned that a high-definition technology immediately related to DVD, called HD DVD, was once a rival to Blu-ray. In February 2008, Toshiba, HD DVD ’ s primary supporter, gave up the contend, conceding to Blu-ray Disc as the achiever in the high-definition optical-disc race. HD DVD featured red- and blue-laser compatibility and 15 GB data storage capacity. postpone 2.2 hook together the most popular optical-disc formats and lists their respective capacities. Some of these formats have already been introduced ; others are presented in the approaching section “ Recordable Discs and Burners. ” Boldfaced capacities in the table are the normally accept values for their respective formats. Ta barn fifty e 2. 2 ocular disk and their capacities Disc Format

Capacity

CD SS ( includes recordable versions )

650 MB, 700 MB, 800 MB, 900 MB

DVD-R/RW SS, SL

4.71 GB ( 4.7 GB )

DVD+R/RW SS, SL

4.70 GB ( 4.7 GB )

DVD-R, DVD+R DS, SL

9.4 GB

DVD-R SS, DL

8.54 GB ( 8.5 GB )

DVD+R SS, DL

8.55 GB ( 8.5 GB )

DVD+R DS, DL

17.1 GB

BD-R/RE SS, SL

25 GB

BD-R/RE SS, DL

50 GB

BD-R/RE DS, DL

100 GB

SS = single-sided ; DS = double-sided ; SL = single-layer ; DL = dual-layer

Optical Drive Data Rates CD-ROM drives are rated in terms of their data transplant speed. The first CD-ROM drives transferred data at the lapp speed as dwelling audio certificate of deposit players, 150 KBps, referred to as 1X. soon after, candle drives rated as 2X drives that would transfer data at 300 KBps appeared.

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They increased the spin speed in club to increase the data transfer rate. This system of ratings continued up until the 8X accelerate was reached. At that point, the CDs were spinning sol fast that there was a danger of them flying aside inside the drive. so, although future CD drives used the same rate ( as in 16X, 32X, and indeed on ), their rat was expressed in terms of theoretical maximal transfer pace ; 52X is wide regarded as the highest multiplier for data CDs. therefore, the drive international relations and security network ’ t necessarily spinning faster, but through electronics and cushion advances, the transfer rates continued to increase. The standard DVD-ROM 1X transfer rate is 1.4 MBps, already nine times that of the comparably labeled CD-ROM. As a result, to surpass the transplant pace of a 52X cd-rom drive, a DVD-ROM drive necessitate alone be rated 6X. DVD transfer rates of 24X at the upper berth end of the scale are common. The 1X transfer pace for Blu-ray is 4.5 MBps, approximately 3¼ times that of the comparable DVD multiplier and close to 30 times that of the 1X four hundred transfer rate. It takes 2X speeds to play commercial Blu-ray videos by rights, and 6X drives are coarse nowadays.

Recordable Discs and Burners Years after the original factory-made CD-ROM disk and the drives that could read them were developed, the industry, powerfully persuaded by consumer demand, developed disk that, through the use of consort drives, could be written to once and then used in the same fashion as the master CD-ROM disk. The firmware with which the drives were equipped could vary the office of the laser to achieve the coveted solution. At standard baron, the laser allowed disk inserted in these drives to be read. Increasing the power of the laser allowed the crystalline media airfoil to be melted and changed in such a direction that light would reflect or refract from the surface in microscopic increments. This characteristic enabled mimicking the way in which the original CD-ROM magnetic disk stored data. finally, discs that could be written to, erased, and rewritten were developed. Drives that contained the firmware to recognize these discs and control the laser varied the laser ’ mho power in three levels. The original two levels closely matched those of the writable phonograph record and drives. The third base level, somewhere in between, could neutralize the crystalline material without writing fresh information to the disk. This medium level of power left the disk surface in a state similar to its original, unwritten state of matter. subsequent high-octane laser custom could write new information to the neutralize locations. The best algorithm for such drives, which are inactive available nowadays, allow two types of magnetic disk erasure. The entire magnetic disk can be erased before modern data is written ( erased or formatted, in assorted application interfaces ), or the data can be erased on-the-fly by one laser, fair fractions of a irregular before modern data is written to the lapp location by a second laser. If not by rights implemented in a slowly, settle fashion, the latter method can result in spell errors because the crystalline substantial does not adequately return to its impersonal state of matter before the write operation. The downside to slowing down the process is obvious, and methods exist to allow a belittled flat of encoding error without data loss. This motivation to move more slowly adds a one-third speed rating—the rewrite speed—to the existing understand and write travel rapidly ratings of a drive. The follow section delves more deeply into this concept. Updates to the drive ’ s firmware can often increase or equalize these speeds.

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Recordable cadmium Formats CD-recordable ( CD-R ) and CD-rewritable ( CD-RW ) drives ( besides known as cadmium burners ) are basically CD-ROM drives that allow users to create ( or sunburn ) their own CD-ROMs. They look identical similar to CD-ROM drives, but they feature a logo on the front panel that represents the drive ’ s CD-R or CD-RW capability. figure 2.18 shows the cd-r and CD-RW son that you are likely to see on such drives. Fi deoxyguanosine monophosphate uracil roentgen e 2 .1 8 cd-r and CD-RW logos

The remainder between these two types of drives is that CD-R drives can write to a CD-R magnetic disk entirely once. A CD-RW drive can erase information from a CD-RW disk and rewrite to it multiple times. besides, CD-RW drives are rated according to their write, rewrite, and read times. therefore, rather of a individual military rank like 52X, as in the case of CD-ROM drives, CD-RW drives have a compound rat, such as 52X-32X-52X, which means that it writes at 52X, rewrites at 32X, and reads at 52X.

Recordable DVD Formats A DVD burner is similar to a cd-r or CD-RW drive in how it operates : It can store big amounts of data on a special, writable DVD. Single-sided, dual-layer ( DL ) phonograph record can be used to write 8.5 GB of information to one single-sided magnetic disk. Common name for the variations of DVD burning technologies include DVD+R, DVD+RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-R DL, and DVD+R DL. The “ plus ” standards come from the DVD+RW Alliance, while the “ dash ” counterparts are specifications of the DVD Forum. The count of sectors per magnetic disk varies between the “ plus ” and “ dash ” variants, indeed older drives might not support both types. The firmware in today ’ second drives knows to check for all possible variations in encoding and capability. The “ plus ” variants have a better opportunity of interoperability, even without the disk being finalized. A DVD-ROM, or recordable drive, looks very similar to a cd-rom drive. The chief dispute is the presence of one of the assorted DVD logo on the front man of the drive. cd-rom and recordable CDs can normally be read and, if applicable, burned in DVD burners. digit 2.19 and Figure 2.20 show the most popular data-oriented logo that you are probably to see when dealing with DVD drives suited for computers. figure 2.19 shows the “ smash ” son, while figure 2.20 shows the “ plus ” logo.

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Fi gram u r e 2 .1 9 DVD Forum logos

Fi gravitational constant uracil r vitamin e 2. 2 0 DVD+RW Alliance logos

Table 2.3 lists the independent DVD formats used for storing and accessing data in computer systems, a good as their characteristics. Ta bacillus fifty vitamin e 2. 3 DVD formats and characteristics Format

Characteristics

DVD-ROM

Purchased with data encoded ; ineffective to be changed

DVD-R, DVD+R

Purchased blank ; able to be written to once and then treated like a DVD-ROM

DVD-RW, DVD+RW

Purchased blank ; able to be written to and erase multiple times ; seance normally must be closed for subsequent access to stored data

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Recordable BD Formats The Blu-ray Disc Association duplicated the use of the R suffix to denote a magnetic disk capable of being recorded lone once by the consumer. rather of the familiar RW, however, the association settled on RE, short for re-recordable. As a result, watch for magnetic disk labeled BD-R and BD-RE. Dual-layer versions of these discs can be found deoxyadenosine monophosphate well. The Blu-ray Disc Association decided against creating separate logos for each BD type, resolving alternatively to use merely the logo shown in Figure 2.21. Discs are labeled most frequently in a sans-serif font with the actual type of the magnetic disk a well as this generic BD logo. Fi g uracil r einsteinium 2. 2 1 The Blu-ray Disc logo

RAID Multiple hard drives can work together as one system, often providing increased performance ( debauched disk reads and writes ) or demerit tolerance ( security against one harrow failing ). such systems are called Redundant Array of Independent ( or Inexpensive ) Disks ( RAID ). RAID can be implemented in software, such as through the function system, or in hardware, such as through the BIOS of a RAID hardware enclosure. Hardware RAID is more efficient and offers higher performance but at an increase cost. There are several types of RAID. The following are the most normally used RAID levels : RAID 0 RAID 0 is besides known as harrow strip, where a denude set of equal space from at least two drives creates a larger volume. This is in line to inadequate distance on multiple disks being used to create a simple volume set, which is not raid 0. RAID 0 doesn ’ metric ton provide the mistake tolerance implied by the excess part of the appoint. Data is written across multiple drives, so one drive can be reading or writing while another drive ’ s read-write head is moving. This makes for faster datum access. If any one of the drives fails, however, all contentedness is lost. Some form of redundancy or defect allowance should be used in concert with RAID 0. RAID 1 besides known as phonograph record mirror, RAID 1 is a method acting of producing fault tolerance by writing all data simultaneously to two separate drives. If one drive fails, the other contains all of the data, and it will become the primary drive. Disk mirroring doesn ’ thymine avail access accelerate, however, and the price is duplicate that of a one drive. If a divide host

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adapter is used for the moment tug, the term duplex is attributed to RAID 1. only two drives can be used in a RAID 1 array. RAID 5 RAID 5 combines the benefits of both RAID 0 and RAID 1, creating a excess striped volume set. Sometimes you will hear it called a chevron set with parity. Unlike RAID 1, however, RAID 5 does not employ mirroring for redundancy. Each band places data on n-1 disks, and parity computed from the data is placed on the remaining disk. The parity is interleaved across all the drives in the array so that neighboring stripes have parity on different disks. If one tug fails, the parity data for the stripes that lost data can be used with the remaining data from the working drives to derive what was on the fail drive and to rebuild the bent once the drive is replaced. The lapp work is used to continue to serve customer requests until the drive can be replaced. This process can result in a obtrusive performance decrease, one that is predictable because all drives contain the same total of data and parity. furthermore, the loss of an extra drive results in a catastrophic loss of all data in the array. notice that while survive requests are served before the array is rebuilt, nothing needs to be computed for stripes that lost their parity. Recomputing parity for these stripes is required only when rebuilding the array. A minimum of three drives is required for RAID 5. The equivalent of one drive is lost for redundancy. The more drives in the array, the lupus erythematosus of a percentage this single disk represents. human body 2.22 illustrates RAID 1 and RAID 5. Fi g uracil radius e 2. 2 2 RAID 1 and RAID 5 RAID 1

RAID 5 A2 B2 Cp

A3 Bp

Ap

A1 A2 A3 A4

A1 A2 A3 A4

A1 B1 C1 Dp

D1

C2 D2

B3 C3 D3

Disk 0

Disk 1

Disk 0

Disk 1

Disk 2

Disk 3

RAID 10 besides known as RAID 1+0, RAID 10 adds demerit tolerance to RAID 0 through the RAID 1 mirror of each disk in the RAID 0 striped set. Its inverse, known as RAID 0+1, mirrors a dispatch strip set to another striped bent equitable like it. Both of these implementations require a minimal of four drives and, because of the RAID 1 part, use half of your buy storage space for mirroring. There are other implementations of RAID that are not included in the CompTIA A+ examination objectives. Examples include RAID 3 and RAID 4, which place all parity on a one drive, resulting in varying performance changes upon drive loss. foray into 6 is basically raid 5 with the ability to lose two disks and however function. RAID 6 uses the equivalent of two parity disks as it stripes its data and circulate parity blocks across all disks in a fashion alike to that of RAID 5. A minimum of four disks is required to make a RAID 6 range.

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Removable Storage and Media Thus far we ’ ve focused on storage media that is inner to a personal computer, but external and removable storage options exist arsenic well. Among the early types of repositing available are tape backup devices, solid-state memory, external intemperate drives, and optical drives. removable storage once meant something vastly different from what it means nowadays. It used to mean big, bulky tape cartridges or, if you go back far enough, punch cards. consecutive tape backing is one of the entirely remnants of the erstwhile forms of obliterable storehouse that can be seen in the market today. The more mod solution is random-access, solidstate removable repositing. The play along sections present details of magnetic tape backing and the new obliterable storehouse solutions.

Tape Backup Devices An older form of removable storage is the magnetic tape backup. Tape backup devices can be installed internally or outwardly and use either a digital or analogue magnetic tape medium alternatively of disks for storage. They hold much more data than any other medium, but they are besides much slower. They are chiefly used for batch archival storage, not interactional repositing. With hard disks, it ’ s not a count of “ if they fail ” — it ’ mho “ when they fail. ” So you must back up the information onto some other storehouse medium. Tape stand-in devices were once the most common choice in larger enterprises and networks because they were able to hold the most data and were the most dependable over the long term. nowadays, however, videotape stand-in systems are fading in popularity due to writable and rewritable ocular magnetic disk deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as obscure memory. Nevertheless, when an enterprise needs to back up big amounts of data on a unconstipated footing, many hush turn to some form of record media. Backing up to tape can be faster than backing up to the mottle over an Internet connection. mesa 2.4 lists the best-known magnetic tape formats in ordering of market exhaust dates, oldest first, and their capacities. note that capacities are not associated with the format names but rather with models of tape within each format class. You credibly won ’ triiodothyronine be tested on these, but they could be something you run across in the crazy. Ta b-complex vitamin l east 2. 4 consecutive tape formats Format Name

Representative Capacity

Quarter-inch Cartridge ( QIC )

200 KB to respective gigabytes

Digital Linear Tape ( DLT )

Up to 800 GB

Eight Millimeter ( Data8, Exabyte )

Up to 60 GB

Digital Audio Tape ( DAT ) /Digital Data Storage ( DDS )

Up to 300 GB, native

Linear Tape-Open ( LTO )

Up to 12 terabyte ( up to 192 TB planned )

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Many of the standards shown in table 2.4 are technologically disused but will however be in consumption because a ship’s company has the equipment. LTO is calm evolving, though. The most holocene adaptation is LTO-8, which was released in 2017. far enhancements through LTO-12 are planned, with the goals of increasing data capacity american samoa well as backing amphetamine.

Flash Memory Once used entirely for primary memory, the same components that sit on your motherboard as RAM can be found in versatile physical sizes and quantities among today ’ s solid-state storage solutions. These include older obliterable and non-removable flash memory mechanisms, Secure Digital ( SD ) and other memory cards, and USB flash drives. Each of these technologies has the electric potential to store faithfully a stagger sum of information in a minute form component. Manufacturers are using innovative promotion for some of these products to provide commodious enchant options ( such as keychain attachments ) to users. additionally, recall the SSD alternatives to magnetic hard drives mentioned earlier in this chapter. For many years, modules and PC Card devices known as ostentation memory have offered low- to mid-capacity storage for devices. The diagnose comes from the concept of easily being able to use electricity to alter the contents of the memory immediately. The original flash memory is inactive used in devices that require a nonvolatile means of storing critical data and code much used in booting the device, such as routers and switches. For case, Cisco Systems uses blink of an eye memory in versatile forms to store its Internetwork operate System ( IOS ), which is accessed from flash during bootup and, in sealed cases, throughout process uptime and therefore during an administrator ’ s configuration sessions. Lesser models store the IOS in compress shape in the flaunt memory device and then decompress the IOS into RAM, where it is used during shape and operation. In this case, the flash memory is not accessed again after the boot-up process is complete, unless its contents are being changed, as in an IOS upgrade. Certain devices use externally obliterable personal computer Card technology as flash memory for like purposes. The following sections explain a bite more about nowadays ’ s most popular forms of ostentation memory, memory cards, and USB flash drives.

SD and other memory Cards Today ’ s smaller devices require some shape of obliterable solid-state memory that can be used for impermanent and permanent repositing of digital information. move are the days of using microfloppies in your digital camera. even the most democratic video-camera media, such as mini-DVD and HDD, are giving way to solid-state multi-gigabyte models. These more mod electronics, a well as most contemporary digital placid cameras, already use some shape of removable memory calling card to store still images permanently or until they can be copied off or printed out. Of these, the Secure Digital ( SD ) format has emerged as the

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leading drawing card of the pack, which includes the older MultiMediaCard ( MMC ) format on which SD is based. Both of these cards standard 32 millimeter × 24 millimeter, and slots that receive them are often marked for both. The SD menu is slightly thicker than the MMC and has a write-protect pass ( and much a switch to open and close the notch ), unlike MMC. even smaller devices, such as mobile phones, have an SD solution for them. One of these products, known as miniSD, is slenderly thinner than SD and measures 21.5 millimeter × 20 millimeter. The other, microSD, is dilutant so far and merely 15 mm × 11 millimeter. Both of these reduced formats have adapters that allow them to be used in standard SD slots. figure 2.23 shows an SD circuit board and a microSD circuit board next to a rule based on inches. Fi guanine u roentgen east 2. 2 3 typical SD cards

Table 2.5 lists extra memory card formats, the slots for some of which can be seen in the images that follow the table. Ta b-complex vitamin liter e 2. 5 extra memory card formats Format

Dimensions

Details

Year Introduced

CompactFlash ( CF )

36 millimeter × 43mm

Type I and Type II variants ; Type II used by IBM for Microdrive

1994

xD-Picture Card

20 millimeter × 25 millimeter

Used primarily in digital cameras 2002

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Figure 2.24 shows the memory-card slots of an HP PhotoSmart printer, which is capable of reading these devices and print from them directly or creating a tug letter for access to the contents over its USB connection to the calculator. clockwise from the upper bequeath, these slots accommodate CF/Microdrive, SmartMedia, Memory Stick ( bottom right ), and MMC/SD. The industry provides about any arranger or converter to allow the versatile formats to work in concert. Fi gigabyte uracil gas constant e 2. 2 4 Card slots in a printer

Most of today ’ south laptops have built-in memory calling card slots, such as the one shown in Figure 2.25. many desktops will have readers built into the front or top gore of the case vitamin a well. Fi gram u gas constant e 2. 2 5 Memory wag slot in a laptop

If a computer doesn ’ triiodothyronine have memory tease slots built in to the case, it ’ mho easily to add external card readers. Most are connected via USB, such as the one shown in figure 2.26 ( front first, then back ), and are widely available in many unlike configurations.

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Fi gigabyte uracil gas constant einsteinium 2. 2 6 A USB-attached wag reader

USB Flash Drives USB flash drives are incredibly versatile and convenient devices that enable you to store large quantities of information in a very modest form factor. many such devices are merely extensions of the host ’ s USB connection, extending out from the interface but adding little to its width, making them comfortable to transport, whether in a pocket or laptop bag. figure 2.27 illustrates an exercise of one of these components and its relative size. Fi g u radius vitamin e 2. 2 7 A USB flash drive

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USB flash drives capitalize on the versatility of the USB interface, taking advantage of the Plug and Play have and the physical connection strength. Upon interpolation, these devices announce themselves to Windows File Explorer as removable drives, and they show up in the Explorer windowpane with a drive letter. This software interface allows for drag-and-drop copy and most of the other Explorer functions performed on standard drives. note that you might have to use the Disk Management utility ( discussed in chapter 15, “ Operating System Basics ” ) to assign a drive letter manually to a USB flash drive if it fails to acquire one itself. This can happen in certain cases, such as when the former letter assigned to the drive has been taken by another device in the USB news bulletin drive ’ s absence.

Hot-Swappable Devices Many of the obliterable storehouse devices mentioned are hot swappable. This means that you can insert and remove the device with the system powered on. Most USB-attached devices without a file organization twilight into this class. Non-hot-swappable devices, in contrast, either can not have the system ’ s power applied when they are inserted or removed or have some kind of extra conditions for their insertion or removal. One subset is occasionally referred to as coldness swappable, the other as warm swappable. The system baron must be off before you can insert or remove cold-swappable devices. An model of a cold-swappable device is anything connected to a SATA connection on the motherboard. Warm-swappable devices include USB flash drives and external drives that have a file arrangement. Windows and early operating systems tend to leave files open while accessing them and write cached changes to them at a late time, based on the algorithm in use by the software. Removing such a device without using the Safely Remove Hardware utility program can result in data loss. however, after stopping the device with the utility, you can remove it without powering down the system—hence, the quick component of the category ’ south name. These are formally hot-swappable devices. Hardware-based RAID systems benefit from devices and bays with a single connection that contains both baron and data connections alternatively of two separate connectors. This is known as Single Connector Attachment ( SCA ). SCA interfaces have ground leads that are longer than the power leads so that they make contact foremost and miss contact end. SATA exponent connectors are designed in a similar fashion for the same purpose. This agreement ensures that no world power leads make contact without their curious grate leads, which would much result in damage to the drive. Drives based on SCA are hot swappable. foray into systems that have to be taken offline before drives are changed out, but the organization might can remain on, are examples of warm-swappable systems.

Installing, Removing, and Configuring Storage Devices The removal and facility of storage devices, such as hard drives, CD/DVD drives, and tape drives, is pretty aboveboard. There in truth international relations and security network ’ triiodothyronine any diversion in the process of installing or exchanging the hardware. fortunately, with nowadays ’ second operating systems, little to no shape is required for such devices. The plug and Play BIOS and operating system work together to recognize the devices. however, you calm have to partition and

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format out-of-the-box hard drives before they will allow the facility of the operate system. however, today ’ s operating systems allow for a pain-free partition/format/setup have by handling the entire process, if you let them.

Removing Storage Devices Removing any component is frequently easier than installing the same separate. Consider the fact that most people could destroy a house, possibly not safely enough to ensure their well being, but they don ’ t have to know the intricacies of construction to start smashing away. On the other handwriting, very few people are capable of building a house. similarly, many could figure out how to remove a storehouse device, deoxyadenosine monophosphate farseeing as they can get into the case to begin with, but entirely a few could start from scratch and successfully install one without tutelage. This section details the removal of inner repositing devices, and the section “ Installing Storage Devices ” details their installation. Be mindful that external repositing devices exist, but nowadays ’ second external storage devices are eSATA-, USB-, and FireWire-attached devices, making them completely Plug and Play. entirely the software cooking of external hard drives is a consideration, but the same routine for the software preparation of home devices works for external devices a well. For this reason, these technologies have been removed from by and by versions of the A+ objectives.

In Exercise 2.1, you ’ ll remove an home repositing device. E x E r C I S E 2 .1

removing an Internal Storage Device 1.

With the power beginning removed from the system, ground yourself and the calculator to the lapp source of ground.

2.

Remove the cover from the arrangement, exposing the internal components.

3.

Unplug all connections from the repositing device you wish to remove. These include data and power connections arsenic well as any others, such as audio connections to the healthy card or motherboard. The bevel Molex exponent connectors fit identical tightly, so preceptor ’ metric ton worry about how hard removing them seems to be. There is no time to release. however, be sure to grip the connection, not the wires.

4.

Gather the appropriate antistatic packaging for all static-sensitive components that will be reused in the future, including any adapter cards that the storage device plugs into.

5.

Remove any obstructions that might hinder device removal, such as component cables attached to adapter cards or the arranger cards themselves, storing them in antistatic box so that they can be reused.

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E x vitamin e r cise 2. 1 ( carbon o n thyroxine one n uracil vitamin e d )

6. Remove associate arranger cards from the motherboard, storing them in antistatic box so that they can be reused.

7. Remove the machine screws holding the storehouse device to the chassis. These could be on the side of the device or on the bottom.

8. Some devices, specially hard drives because they have no front access from the case, pull out of the human body toward the rear of the font, whereas others, such as optical drives, by and large pull out from the front. A ennoble nudge from the rear of the device starts it on its way out the front. Go ahead and remove the device from the casing. If you discover early components that obstruct the storage device ’ south removal, repeat footfall 5.

Installing Storage Devices An obvious remainder among memory devices is their form divisor. This is the term used to describe the physical dimensions of a repositing device. Form factors normally have the watch characteristics : ■■

3½″ wide vs. 5¼″ broad

■■

Half height vs. full acme vs. 1″ high and more

■■

Any of the laptop peculiarity form factors

You will need to determine whether you have an open bay in the chassis to accommodate the imprint factor of the storage device that you want to install. Adapters exist that allow a device of humble size to fit into a larger bay. For obvious reasons, the converse is not besides true. In Exercise 2.2, you ’ ll install an internal memory device. E x einsteinium roentgen cise 2. 2

Installing an Internal Storage Device 1. With the power source removed from the organization, land yourself and the calculator to the same beginning of land.

2. Remove the cover from the organization, exposing the home components. 3. Locate an available bay for your component, paying attention to your device ’ s indigence for front access. If you do not see one, look around ; some cases provide fastening points near the ability add or other exposed areas of the case. If you inactive do not see one, investigate the possibility of sacrificing a rarely or never used device to make room.

4. Remove any obstructions that might hinder device initiation, such as part cables attached to adapter cards or the arranger cards themselves, storing them in antistatic packaging to be reused.

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5. Find the proper screw for the storage device, and set any jumpers on the drive while it is in hand. then insert the device into the bay. Keep in mind that some insert from the rear of the bay and some from the front.

6. Line up the fuck holes in the device with the holes in the true laurel. Note that many devices rarely insert a far as they can before lining up with the chassis ’ holes, so don ’ thyroxine be surprised when pushing the device all the direction into the bay results in misalignment. other devices that require battlefront access stop themselves blush with the movement of the case, and still others require you to secure them while holding them bang.

7. Use at least two screws on one side of the device. This keeps the device from sliding in the bay american samoa well as from rotating, which happens when you use entirely one screw or one screw on each side. If the face-to-face side is accessible, go ahead and put at least one screw in the other side. Most devices allow for vitamin a many as four screws per side, but eight screws are not necessity in the huge majority of situations.

8. Connect the data cable from the device to the arranger tease or motherboard header. ATA devices, such as those designated as PATA drives ( compatible hard drives and CD/DVD drives, for exemplar ), use a 40-pin connection.

9. Attach a world power connection from the power supply to the device, bearing in take care that there are two connection styles that are not very close in appearance. You should have no trouble telling them apart. Be certain to insert the connection wholly.

10. once the force is attached, unground yourself, and turn the computer on to verify that the drive is functional.

11. If the drive is working by rights, replace the computer cover.

Understanding Power Supplies The computer ’ south components would not be able to operate without might. The device in the calculator that provides this baron is the ability provide ( see Figure 2.28 ). A power provision converts 110V or 220V AC stream into the DC voltages that a calculator needs to operate. These are +3.3VDC, +5VDC, –5VDC ( on older systems ), +12VDC, and –12VDC. The crown on the leads carrying each type of voltage has a different industry-standard color-coding for faster recognition. Black ground leads offer the address that gives the voltage leads their respective magnitudes. The +3.3VDC electric potential was beginning offered on ATX motherboards.

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A desktop office provision

Throughout this section, you will see us use the terms watts, volts, and amps. If you ’ ra working with electricity a fortune, you might besides see the term ohm. To help understand what these terms mean, let ’ s use an analogy of water flowing through a shriek. Amps would be the come of water flowing through the pipe ; electric potential would be the urine imperativeness ; and watts would be the might that the water could provide. ( Watts mathematically are volts × amps. ) If there were a fi lter or other barrier in the pipe, that would provide resistance, which is measured in ohm. In non-analogous terms, amps are the whole of current menstruate ; volts are the unit of pull ; watts are the unit for ability ( watt = volts × amps ) ; and ohms are resistance. The abbreviation VDC stands for volts DC. DC is unretentive for direct current. Unlike alternating stream ( AC ), DC does not alter the steering in which the electrons flow. AC for standard power distribution does so 50 or 60 times per second ( 50 or 60 Hz, respectively ). Sometimes you will see people abbreviate a current such as positive 5 volts as +5V, and other times as +5VDC. It ’ s in truth a matter of preference.

Be mindful that DC electric potential is not safer than AC electric potential, despite its coarse use in batteries and lower-power components. lead stream is more probably to cause a drawn-out clamp of the muscles than AC, which is more likely to fibrillate the affection, which results in a deadly loss of coordination of the versatile cardiac muscles. furthermore, exponent supplies contain transformers and capacitors that can discharge deadly amounts of current even when disconnected from the wall exit for long periods. They are not meant to be serviced, specially by untrained personnel. Do not attempt to open them or do any study on them. Simply replace and recycle them when they go regretful.

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Dual-Rail Architecture Power supplies all provide the lapp voltages to a organization, such as +3.3VDC, +5VDC, and +12VDC. Each of these can be referred to as a rail, because each one comes from a specific tap ( or track ) within the power supply. Some modern world power supplies provide multiple 12V rails in an attempt to supply more office overall to components that require 12VDC. For exemplify, in dual-rail baron supplies, one rail might be dedicated to the CPU, while the other is used to supply ability to all of the early components that need 12V. The problem that can arise in high-octane systems is that although the collective power supplied by all rails is greater than that supplied by might supplies with a one rail, each rail provides less exponent on its own. As a consequence, it is easier to overdraw one of the multiple rails in such a system, causing a protective closure of the power supply. Care must be taken to balance the load on each of the rails if a total amperage greater than any one fulminate is to be supplied to attached components. differently, if the total power required is less than any single rail can provide, there is no risk in overloading any one rail.

Power and Voltage Ratings Power supplies are rated in watt. A watt is a unit of office. The higher the total, the more baron your computer can draw from the power provision. intend of this denounce as the “ capacity ” of the device to supply power. Most computers require exponent supplies in the 250- to 500-watt range. Higher electrical power ability supplies might be required for more promote systems that employ power-hungry graphics technologies or multiple phonograph record drives, for case. It is crucial to consider the string that the assorted components and subcomponents of your calculator stead on the ability issue before choosing one or its replacement. Of the connectors present in the authoritative baron supplies, only the standard peripheral exponent connectors remain. In addition to these connectors, newer systems have a variety of surrogate and extra connectors, such as dedicate power connectors for SATA and PCIe, more gain office connectors for the motherboard, and even modular connections for these leads bet on to the baron issue preferably than a permanent wiring harness. Some world power supplies have a recessed, two-position skidder switch, much a crimson one, on the rear that is exposed through the case. You can see the one for the power supply shown in Figure 2.28. dual voltage options on such power supplies read 110 and 220, 115 and 230, or 120 and 240. This selector switch is used to adjust for the electric potential level used in the country where the computer is in service. For example, in the United States, the power grid supplies anywhere from 110VAC to 120VAC. however, in Europe, for example, the electric potential supplied is duplicate, ranging from 220VAC to 240VAC. Although the electric potential is the like as what is used in the United States to exponent highvoltage appliances such as electric ranges and clothes driers, the amperage is much lower. The point is, the switch is not there to allow multiple types of mercantile establishment to be used in the like country. If the ill-timed voltage is chosen in the United States, the office add will expect more electric potential than it receives and might not power up at all. If the faulty electric potential is selected in Europe, however, the power add will receive more electric potential than it is set for. The leave

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could be black for the integral calculator and could result in sparking or starting a displace. Always check the switch before powering up a fresh or recently relocated computer. In the United States and other countries that use the same voltage, check the set of this switch if the computer fails to power up.

Power Connectors The connectors coming from the might issue are quite varied these days, but there are besides some connectors that are considered bequest connectors that you might not see on modern power supplies. The trace sections detail and illustrate the most common power connectors.

Classic Power Connectors The classical connectors comprise outdated connectors adenine well as connectors still in use today despite being found in the master IBM personal computer.

AT System Connector The original power connectors attached to the early personal computer motherboards were known jointly as the AT system connection. There are two six-wire connectors, labeled P8 and P9, as shown in Figure 2.29. They connect to an AT-style motherboard and deliver the might that feeds the electronic components on it. These connectors have small tabs on them that interlock with tabs on the motherboard ’ mho receptacle. Fi gigabyte u roentgen einsteinium 2. 2 9 AT ability supply system display panel connectors

The P8 and P9 connectors must be installed correctly or you will damage the motherboard and possibly other components. To do this ( on standard systems ), place the connectors side by side with their black wires together, and then push the connectors together or individually onto the 12-pin receptacle on the motherboard. Although there is keying on these connectors, they both use the accurate same key structure. In other words, they can

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silent be swapped with one another and inserted. When the black grate leads are placed together when the connectors are side by english, it is not potential to fl ip the pair 180 degrees and distillery insert the two connectors without physically defeating the identify. Most technicians would give up and figure out their error before any damage occurs if they always place the grounds together in the center. Although it ’ south comfortable to remove this type of connection from the motherboard, the tab on the connection make it unmanageable to reinstall it. here ’ s a hint : place the connection at an about properly angle to the motherboard ’ s connection, interlocking the tab in their decline positions. then tilt the connection to the upright position. The connection will slide into topographic point more well.

It is significant to note that only legacy computers with AT and baby AT motherboards use this character of baron connection. Most computers today use some shape of ATX ability connection to provide power to the motherboard. Those connectors are described in subsequently sections of this chapter.

Standard Peripheral Power Connector The standard peripheral power connection is by and large used to baron different types of inner magnetic disk drives. This type of connection is besides called a Molex connection. number 2.30 shows an exercise of a criterion peripheral power connection. This power connection was used for intemperate drives, ocular drives, and other inner peripherals. fIgurE 2.30

A classic peripheral baron connection

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Modern Power Connectors Modern components have exceeded the capabilities of some of the master exponent supply connectors. The Molex peripheral connection remains, but the P8/P9 motherboard connectors have been consolidated and augmented, and extra connectors have sprung up.

ATX, ATX12V, and EPS12V Connectors With ATX motherboards came a new, one connection from the baron issue. PCI Express has might requirements that even this connection could not satisfy, leading to different connectors with different versions of the more advance ATX12V specifications, which have gone through four 1.x versions and already five 2.x versions. Throughout the versions of ATX12V, extra 4-, 6-, and 8-pin connectors supply power to components of the motherboard and its peripherals—such as network interfaces, PCIe cards, peculiarity server components, and the CPU itself—that require a +12V supply in addition to the +12V of the standard ATX connection. These extra connectors follow the ATX12V and EPS12V standards. The ATX connection was further expanded by an extra four pins in ATX12V 2.0. The original ATX system connection ( besides known as the ATX motherboard might connection ) feeds an ATX motherboard. It provides the six voltages required, plus it delivers them all through one connection : a single 20-pin connection. This connection is a lot easier to work with than the double connectors of the AT exponent provide. figure 2.31 shows an example of an ATX system connection. Fi g u r e 2. 3 1 20-pin ATX office connection

When the Pentium 4 processor was introduced, it required much more ability than previous CPU models. Power measured in watts is a multiplicative function of voltage and current. To keep the electric potential low mean that amperage would have to increase, but it

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wasn ’ metric ton feasible to supply such current from the power supply itself. alternatively, it was decided to deliver 12V at lower amperage to a voltage regulator faculty ( VRM ) near the CPU. The higher current at a lower electric potential was possible at that shorter outdistance from the CPU. As a leave of this shift, motherboard and exponent supply manufacturers needed to get this more deviate baron to the system board. The solution was the ATX12V 1.0 criterion, which added two auxiliary connectors. One was a single 6-pin auxiliary connection exchangeable to the P8/P9 AT connectors that supplied extra +3.3V and +5V leads and their grounds. The other was a 4-pin straight mini-version of the ATX connection, referred to as a P4 ( for the processor that first required them ) connection, which supplied two +12V leads and their grounds. EPS12V uses an 8-pin translation, called the processor exponent connection, which doubles the P4 ’ s function with four +12V leads and four grounds. visualize 2.32 illustrates the P4 connection. The 8-pin processor exponent connection is similar but has two rows of 4 and, despite its preternatural resemblance, is keyed differently from the 8-pin PCIe power connection to be discussed curtly. Fi guanine u gas constant east 2. 3 2 ATX12V P4 ability connection

For servers and more advance ATX motherboards that included PCIe slots, the 20-pin system connection proved inadequate. This led to the ATX12V 2.0 criterion and the even higher-end EPS12V standard for servers. These specifications call for a 24-pin connection that adds further positive electric potential leads directly to the system connection. The 24-pin connection looks like a larger version of the 20-pin connection. The comparable pins of the 24-pin motherboard header are actually keyed to accept the 20-pin connection. Adapters are available if you find yourself with the wrong combination of motherboard and power provide. Some might supplies feature a 20-pin connection that snaps in concert with a break 4-pin helping for flexibility, called a 20+4 connection, which can be seen in Figure 2.33. otherwise, it will just have a 24-pin connection. The 6-pin accessory connection disappeared with the ATX12V 2.0 stipulation and was never part of the EPS12V standard.

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Fi thousand uranium radius vitamin e 2. 3 3 A 24-pin ATX12V 2.x connection, in two parts

ATX12V 2.1 introduced a different 6-pin connection, which was shaped more like the P4 connection than the P8/P9-style aide connection from the 1.x standards ( see Figure 2.34 ). This 6-pin connection was specifically designed to give extra dedicated baron to the PCIe adapters that required it. It provided a 75W power source to such devices. Fi guanine uracil gas constant einsteinium 2. 3 4 A 6-pin ATX12V 2.1 PCIe connection

ATX12V 2.2 replaced the 75W 6-pin connection with a 150W 8-pin connection, as shown in Figure 2.35. The plastic bridge between the top two pins on the exit side in the photograph keeps installers from inserting the connection into the EPS12V processor power header but clears the notch connection of a PCIe adapter. The individual pin key should avoid this issue, but a bumbling installer could defeat that. The bridge besides keeps the connection from inserting into a 6-pin PCIe header, which has identically keyed corresponding pins.

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Fi g u r vitamin e 2. 3 5 An 8-pin ATX12V 2.2 PCIe connection

Proprietary Power Connectors Although the inner peripheral devices have standard exponent connectors, manufacturers of computer systems sometimes take liberties with the power interface between the motherboard and exponent provide of their systems. In some cases, the like voltages required by a standard ATX ability connection are supplied using one or more proprietorship connectors. This makes it about impossible to replace power supplies and motherboards with other units “ off the shelf. ” Manufacturers might do this to solve a design issue or just to ensure repeat business.

SATA Power Connectors SATA drives arrived on the market with their own power requirements in accession to their new data interfaces. ( Refer back to Figure 2.9 to see the SATA data and power connectors. ) You get the 15-pin SATA might connection, a variant of which is shown in Figure 2.36. The amply pinned connection is made up of three +3.3V, three +5V, and three +12V leads interleaved with two sets of three ground leads. Each of the five sets of three common pins is supplied by one of five single conductors coming from the ability issue. The same colors are by and large used for the conductors as with the Molex and Berg connectors. ( Berg connectors were used on old floppy phonograph record drives. ) When the optional 3.3V lead is supplied, it is standard to see it delivered on an orange conductor.

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Fi g uracil r east 2. 3 6 SATA world power connection

Note that in Figure 2.36, the first three pins are missing. These match to the 3.3V pins, which are not supplied by this connection. This shape works fine and alludes to the SATA drives ’ ability to accept Molex connectors or adapters attached to Molex connectors, therefore working without the optional 3.3V lead.

Replacing Power Supplies Sometimes exponent supplies fail. sometimes you grow out of your baron add and require more electrical power than it can provide. Often, it is just as price effective to buy a wholly newfangled subject with the power supply included preferably than dealing with the ability issue alone. however, when you consider the fact that you must move everything from the old case to the new one, replacing the world power issue becomes an attractive proposition. Doing so is not a unmanageable task. Regardless of which path you choose, you must make surely the might connection of the power provide matches that of the motherboard to be used. additionally, the physical size of the baron add should factor into your purchasing decisiveness. If you buy a standard ATXcompatible power provision, it might not fit in the bantam case you matched astir to your micro ATX motherboard. In that scenario, you should be on the lookout for a smaller phase divisor might provision to fit the smaller case. Odds are that the offerings you find will tend to be a little igniter in the electrical power department vitamin a well. exercise 2.3 details the process to remove an existing power add. Use the reverse of this process to install the new power issue. Just keep in beware that you might need to procure the appropriate adapter if a exponent supply that matches your motherboard can no retentive be found. There is no post-installation configuration for the power provision, so there is nothing to cover along those lines. many power supply manufacturers have utilities on

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their websites that allow you to perform a presale configuration so that you are assured of obtaining the most appropriate power supply for your exponent requirements. E x vitamin e radius cise 2. 3

Removing a Power Supply 1. With the power informant removed from the system, land yourself and the computer to the lapp source of grind.

2. Remove the cover from the organization, exposing the internal components. 3. After locating the ability supply, which can come in a assortment of formats and appear on the left or right slope of the sheath, follow all wire harnesses from the world power provision to their terminus, disconnecting each one.

4. Remove any obstructions that appear as if they might hinder the removal of the exponent issue.

5. Using the dimensions of the exponent issue, detectable from the inside of the case, eminence which machine screws on the outside of the casing correspond to the might supply. There are frequently four such screws in a non-square convention. If your encase has two side panels, and you removed only one, there will likely be one or more screws holding the other panel on that appear to be for the power supply. These do not need to be removed. If all encase screws have been removed, pay attention to their location and do not use these holes when securing the new power supply.

6. Remove the screws that you identified as those that hold the baron provide in place. Be aware that the ability add is not whippersnapper, so you should support it as you remove the final couple of screws.

7. Maneuver the office provision past any obstructions that did not have to be removed, and pull the power provision out of the case.

AC Adapters as Power Supplies Just as the baron provision in a background calculator converts AC voltages to DC for the internal components to run on, the AC adapter of a laptop calculator converts AC voltages to DC for the laptop ’ s inner components. And AC adapters are rated in watt and selected for use with a specific electric potential fair as power supplies are rated. One remainder is that AC adapters are besides rated in terms of DC volts out to the laptop or other device, such as certain brands and models of printer. Because both ability supplies and AC adapters go bad on occasion, you should replace them both and not attempt to repair them yourself. When replacing an AC adapter, be sure to match the size, shape, and mutual opposition of the point with the arranger you are replacing. however, because the end product DC electric potential is specified for the AC arranger, be certain to replace

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it with one of equal output voltage, an issue not seen when replacing AT or ATX power supplies, which have standard outputs. additionally, and as with exponent supplies, you can replace an AC arranger with a exemplary that supplies more watts to the component because the component uses lone what it needs. You can read more on this subject late in Chapter 10, “ Understanding Laptops. ”

Summary In this chapter, you learned about three classes of personal calculator components that finish our tour of the inside of the case—expansion cards, storage devices, and power supplies. expansion cards add helpful capabilities, such as television, sound recording, network connections, and extra ports for devices and peripherals. repositing devices provide long-run data capacity. Examples include hard drives ( both conventional magnetic drives and SSDs ), ocular drives, and flash drives. Hard drives can be configured into RAID arrays, and repositing devices may be hot swappable, depending on their type and configuration. finally, we discussed power supply guard angstrom well as the assorted connectors, and we compared and contrasted office supplies and AC adapters. You besides learned how to remove, install, and configure storage devices and how to replace office supplies.

Exam Essentials Know how to install and configure expansion cards to provide necessitate functionality. Understand the functionality that video cards, sound cards, network cards, and expansion cards ( such as USB and eSATA ) put up. Know where to install them and broadly how to configure them. Be companion with the components of a conventional hard drive system and the anatomy of a hard drive. Most of today ’ s hard drive systems consist of an integrated accountant and magnetic disk assembly that communicates to the perch of the system through an external host adapter. The hard disk drives consist of many components that work together, some in a physical common sense and others in a charismatic sense, to store data on the disk surfaces for late retrieval. Be familiar with magnetic hard drive speeds, including 5,400, 7,200, 10,000, and 15,000 revolutions per minute. Understand the advantages that solid-state drives have over conventional drives. SSDs are much faster than magnetic hard drives, produce less heat, and can be made much smaller physically. They are besides less susceptible to shock from drops. Know the versatile SSD drive types, including M.2, NVMe, and SATA 2.5. Understand the details surrounding optical storage. From capacities to speeds, you should know what the varieties of ocular repositing offer arsenic well as the specifics of the technologies this storage class comprises.

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Understand the different flash drive options available. Know the differences between SD cards, CompactFlash, microSD, miniSD, and xD. Be able to identify which cards can fit into specific types of slots natively or with an adapter. Understand characteristics of four types of RAID configurations. You need to know RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5, and RAID 10. RAID 0 is disk strip, which can improve accelerate but does not provide fault allowance. RAID 1 is phonograph record mirror, which gives demerit permissiveness but no performance increase. raid 5 is striping with parity, which can give some performance boost along with fault permissiveness. RAID 10, besides known as RAID 1+0, adds mirroring to a strip set. Understand what hot-swappable means. Know about power supplies and their connectors. Power supplies are made in AT, ATX, and proprietorship form factors. Regardless of their type, power supplies must offer connectors for motherboards and inner devices. Know the differences among the connectors and how power supplies are rated. besides understand why AC adapters are related to power supplies. Know how to remove, install, and configure storage devices. Know the dispute between the data and office connectors used on storage devices. Know what it means to partition and format a arduous drive. Be mindful of the physical differences in storage device class factors. Know how to remove, install, and configure ability supplies. Know the remainder between the modern motherboard world power headers, and know when an adapter might be required. Know the two most common device connectors coming from the power supply. Be conversant with how to fasten might supplies to the chassis arsenic well as how to unfasten them.

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Review Questions The answers to the chapter review questions can be found in Appendix A. 1. You are installing a new graphics arranger in a Windows 10 system. Which of the follow expansion slots is designed for high-speed, 3D graphics adapters ? A. USB B. FireWire C. PCI D. PCIe 2. You need to install a new hard drive into a background computer, Which of the following is not one of the three major components of a hard phonograph record drive system ? A. Drive interface B. Disk restrainer C. Hard disk D. Host adapter 3. You install a new NIC for a user, and he asks what it does. Which of the pursuit beneficial characterizes the functions of this device ? A. Multimedia B. Communications C. Input/Output D. Storage 4. You are installing a new hard drive and want to know if the function system will be able to support it. What is the largest NTFS volume size supported, assuming a 64 KB bunch size as utmost ? A. 1 terabit B. 2 TB C. 128 TB D. 256 TB 5. A node is looking for a background drive engineering that saves money over SSDs but offers performance increases over HDDs and can be used to theater the function arrangement. Which of the succeed is the best to recommend ? A. Dual-drive engineering B. SSHD C. NVMe D. Magnetic-only drive

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6. You are choosing an ocular drive format for a node. Which ocular disk format supports a data capacity of 25 GB ? A. Double-sided, double-layer DVD+R B. Single-sided, single-layer Blu-ray Disc C. Double-sided, single-layer DVD-R D. Double-sided, single-layer DVD+R 7. Which of the come best describes the concept of hot-swappable devices ? A. ability does not need to be turned off before the device is inserted or removed. B. The device can be removed with ability applied after it is properly stopped in the manoeuver system. C. Care must be taken when swapping the device because it can be hot to the touch. D. The device can be swapped while still hot, immediately after powering down the system. 8. Of the following voltage pairings, which one accurately represents the input signal and output, respectively, of might supplies and AC adapters ? A. AC in, AC out B. DC in, DC out C. AC in, DC out D. DC in, AC out 9. What are the output voltages that have been normally produced by personal computer might supplies over the years ? ( Choose five. ) A. +3.3VDC B. –3.3VDC C. +5VDC D. –5VDC E. +12VDC F. –12VDC G. +110VDC H. –110VDC 10. You are installing a new power provide in a background calculator. Which of the follow statements about baron supplies is genuine ? A. You must make sure that the voltage picker switch on the back of the ability provide is switched to the lower mise en scene if the computer is going to be used in Europe. B. SATA hard drives most much use the lapp character of ability connection that PATA hard drives use. C. Power supplies supply might to ATX-based motherboards with connectors known normally as P8 and P9. D. Power supplies convert AC remark to DC end product.

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11. You have been asked to install a raw hard drive for a customer. Which of the surveil is not a circumstance when installing an inner storehouse device ? A. You should match the shape factor of the drive or adapt it to an available drive true laurel or slot. B. You should secure the drive with at least two screws on one slope and preferably two on each side. C. Due to the high revolutions at which advanced arduous drives spin, you must secure an external power source because the internal world power supplies do not have the capacity. D. You need to be sure that the rout of the drive ’ s data cable television, if applicable, does not obstruct the engineer flow of tune across internal components. 12. due to politics regulations, a customer wants to preserve data for a hanker period of time. What kind of media is most normally used when big amounts of data need to be archived on a regular basis ? A. Tape B. Optical disk C. External hard force D. Network plowshare 13. When installing multiple accessory cards of the same type, which type of cards might you need to bridge together to function as a single unit ? A. Video B. Sound C. USB D. eSATA 14. You are purchasing a new video recording batting order in a background computer. For the best operation, which type of video recording card should you purchase ? A. PCI x16 B. PCI x128 C. AGP D. PCIe x128 E. PCIe x16 15. Which of the stick to is not a consideration when upgrading power supplies ? A. You might find that you do not have a match motherboard connection on your raw power issue. B. You might find that your case has a nonremovable power issue. C. You might find that your exponent rat is not adequate on the new power supply. D. You might find that you do not have adequate of the appropriate connectors coming from the baron provide for the devices that you have installed.

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16. You are choosing a news bulletin standard for a client. They want the smallest blink of an eye cards potential. Which standard should you recommend ? A. SD B. CompactFlash C. microSD D. miniSD E. xD 17. Your goal is to build the fastest calculator possible. Which of the come hard drive technologies should you choose for the fastest read performance ? A. M.2 PCIe B. M.2 SATA C. NVMe PCIe D. NVMe SATA 18. You have been asked to configure a RAID 5 arrangement for a node. Which of the follow statements about RAID 5 is true ? A. It provides mistake tolerance but no performance improvement. B. It provides performance improvement but no fault tolerance. C. If multiple drives in the array fail, the data can be saved provided that one drive is hush operational. D. It requires at least three drives to implement. 19. You have a motherboard with integrate video recording, and the television fails. You install a video addon card. Which of the following statements are the most accurate ? ( Choose two. ) A. The addition card will not function properly because of the integrate video. B. The addition menu will function if it is bridged to the integrated video chipset. C. The accessory card will be detected automatically and function by rights if it ’ south PCIe. D. For the menu to work properly, you might need to disable the integrate television in the BIOS. E. The accessory batting order will work properly by using the integrated card ’ s video recording driver. 20. When replacing a world power provide, which of the pursue tends to vary among power supplies and must be chosen by rights to support all connected devices ? A. Wattage B. Voltage C. Amperage D. Resistance

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Performance-Based Question You will encounter performance-based questions on the A+ examination. The questions on the examination necessitate you to perform a specific job, and you will be graded on whether or not you were able to complete the tax. The follow requires you to think creatively in order to measure how well you understand this chapter ’ mho topics. You may or may not see similar questions on the actual A+ examination. To see how your answer compares to the authors ’, refer to Appendix B. Detail the summons for removing a power add from a calculator chassis.

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Chapter

3

Peripherals and Connectors The following CompTIA A+ 220-1001 objectives are covered in this chapter : ✓✓ 3.1 Explain basic cable types, features, and their purposes. ■■

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Video cables ■■

VGA

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HDMI

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Mini-HDMI

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DisplayPort

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DVI

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DVI ( DVI-D/DVI-I )

Multipurpose cables ■■

Lightning

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Thunderbolt

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USB

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USB-C

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USB 2.0

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USB 3.0

Peripheral cables ■■

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Serial

Hard drive cables ■■

SATA

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IDE

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SCSI

Adapters ■■

DVI to HDMI

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USB to Ethernet

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DVI to VGA

✓✓ 3.2 Identify common connection types. ■■

RS-232

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USB

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Micro-USB

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Mini-USB

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USB-C

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DB-9

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Lightning

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SCSI

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eSATA

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Molex

✓✓ 3.6 Explain the purposes and uses of versatile peripheral types. ■■

Printer

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ADF/flatbed scanner

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Barcode scanner/QR scanner

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Monitors

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VR headset

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Optical

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DVD drive

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Mouse

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Keyboard

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Touchpad

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Signature pad

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Game controllers

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Camera/webcam

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Microphone

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Speakers

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Headset

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Projector ■■

Lumens/brightness

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External storage devices

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KVM

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Magnetic reader/chip proofreader

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NFC/tap wage device

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Smart poster subscriber

Thus far, our discussion of computer components has focused chiefly on those inside the case. With cognition of the cardinal internal components under your belt, it is prison term to turn our attention to peripherals that rest outside of the computer. There are dozens of external devices available. We ’ ll cover a diverseness of them that add video, audio, stimulation, output, and storehouse capabilities. Of course, to connect external peripherals, we need some sort of cable and connection. not everything is wireless even ! consequently, we will besides discuss the interfaces and cables associated with coarse peripherals. With that, it ’ randomness immediately clock time to think outside the box. We ’ ll start with cables and connectors.

Understanding Cables and Connectors The devices used with a calculator necessitate to attach to the motherboard somehow. They do so through the use of ports and cables. A port is a generic name for any connection on a calculator or peripheral into which a cable can be plugged. A cable is merely a way of connecting a peripheral or other device to a computer using multiple copper or fiber-optic conductors inside a common wrapping or sheath. typically, cables connect two ports : one on the calculator and one on some early device. The A+ examination objectives break cables and connectors into two different groups, but truly they need to be discussed together. After all, a cable television without a connection doesn ’ thymine do a lot commodity, and neither does a connection without a cable. In the play along sections, we ’ ll look at four different classifications of cables and the connectors that go with them : television, unvoiced drive, multipurpose, and peripheral. For the A+ examination, you will besides need to be familiar with network cables and connectors. We will cover those in astuteness in chapter 6, “ Networking Fundamentals. ”

Video Cables and Connectors Computer displays are ubiquitous—they ’ re easily the most widely secondhand peripheral. different standards exist to connect displays to the calculator, and you need to be companion with five of them for the examination : VGA, DVI ( and variants ), HDMI, mini-HDMI, and DisplayPort. We will start with the older technologies and work toward the show.

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Video Graphics Array Connector The Video Graphics Array ( VGA ) connection was the de facto video standard for computers for years and is silent in function today. First introduced in 1987 by IBM, it was quickly adopted by other personal computer manufacturers. The terminus VGA is frequently used interchangeably to refer to generic analogue video, the 15-pin video connection, or a 640 × 480 screen solution ( even though the VGA criterion can support much higher resolutions ). figure 3.1 shows a VGA interface, arsenic well as the male connection that plugs into the interface. closely all VGA connectors are blue. F i g uracil radius e 3 .1 VGA connection and port

Understanding D-Sub Ports and Connectors The VGA connection is an example of a D-subminiature connection, besides known as a D-sub connection. For a act of years, D-sub was the most common style of connection found on computers. Their names are typically designated with DX-n, where the letter X is replaced by a letter from A to E, which refers to the size of the connection, and the letter newton is replaced by the number of pins or sockets in the connection. D-sub connectors are normally shaped like a trapezoid and have at least two rows of pins with no other identify structure or landmark, as you can see in Figure 3.2. At the bottom center in Figure 3.2 is a DE-15F 15-pin display-connector larboard, which may besides be referred to as an HD-15 or DB-15 port. The top one is a classic DB-25 parallel port, and the bottomland left is a DB-9 serial port. The IEEE 1394 ( FireWire ) and two cold USB ports are shown for a size comparison.

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135

D-sub ports

The “ D ” shape ensures that only one orientation is potential. If you try to connect them upside down or try to connect a male connection to another male connection, they merely won ’ thyroxine go together and the connection can ’ metric ton be made. By the means, male interfaces have pins, while female interfaces have sockets. Be on the lookout for the fooling use of DB to represent any D-sub connection. This is very common and is accepted as an ad-lib de facto standard, even if some are technically DE- or DA- connectors. besides note that you will see them written without the hyphen or with a space, such as DB15 or DB 15.

VGA technology is the entirely matchless on the objectives list that is analogue. It has been superseded by newer digital standards, such as DVI and HDMI, and it was supposed to be phased out starting in 2013. A technology this widely used will be approximately for quite a while, though, and you ’ ll inactive see a lot of these in the rampantly ( or calm in use ). All the television connection types introduced from here on are digital standards.

Digital Visual Interface In an feat to leave analogue VGA standards and return to digital video, which can typically be transmitted far and at higher quality than analogue, a series of connectors known jointly as Digital Visual Interface ( DVI ) was developed for the technology of the same name. DVI was released in 1999. At fi rst glance, the DVI connection might look like a standard D-sub connection. On closer inspection, however, it begins to look reasonably different. For one thing, it has quite a few pins, and for another, the pins it has are asymmetrical in their placement on the connection. The DVI connection is normally white and about an column inch long. number 3.3 shows what the connection looks like coming from the monitor.

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F iodine g u roentgen vitamin e 3. 3 DVI connection

There are three main categories of DVI connectors : DVI-A DVI-A is an analog-only connection. The source must produce analogue output, and the monitor must understand analogue remark. DVI-D DVI-D is a digital-only connection. The source must produce digital output, and the admonisher must understand digital input. DVI-I DVI-I is a combination analog/digital connection. The generator and monitor must both support the same technology, but this cable works with either a digital or an analogue signal. The DVI-D and DVI-I connectors come in two varieties : single-link and dual-link. The dual-link options have more conductors—taking into report the six center conductors— than their single-link counterparts ; consequently, the dual-link connectors accommodate higher speed and signal quality. The extra link can be used to increase screen door resolution for devices that support it. Figure 3.4 illustrates the five types of connectors that the DVI standard specifies. F iodine g u roentgen east 3. 4 Types of DVI connectors

DVI-I ( Single Link )

DVI-I ( Dual Link )

DVI-D ( Single Link )

DVI-D ( Dual Link )

DVI-A

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DVI-A and DVI-I analogue quality is superior to that of VGA, but it ’ randomness placid analogue, meaning that it is more susceptible to noise. however, the DVI analogue signal will travel farther than the VGA signal before degrading beyond serviceability. Nevertheless, the DVI-A and VGA interfaces are pin-compatible, meaning that a dim-witted passive DVI to VGA arranger, as shown in Figure 3.5, is all that is necessary to convert between the two. As you can see, the analogue dowry of the connection, if it exists, comprises the four distinguish coloring material and synchronize pins and the horizontal blade that they surround, which happens to be the analogue anchor lead that acts as a establish and physical support mechanism even for DVI-D connectors. F i g uranium r vitamin e 3. 5 DVI to VGA arranger

It ’ s authoritative to note that DVI-I cables and interfaces are designed to interconnect two analogue or two digital devices ; they can not convert between analogue and digital. DVI cables must support a sign of at least 4.5 meters, but better cable assemblies, stronger transmitters, and active boosters result in signals extending over longer distances. One thing to note about analogue vs. digital display technologies is that all graphics adapters and all monitors deal with digital data. It is only the connectors and cabling that can be made to support analog transmission. Before DVI and HDMI encoding technologies were developed, consumer digital video display connectors could not afford the quad to accommodate the count of pins that would have been required to transmit 16 or more bits of color data per pixel. For this reason, the relatively few conductors of the inferior analogue signaling in VGA were appealing.

High-Definition Multimedia Interface High-Definition Multimedia Interface ( HDMI ) is an all-digital technology that advances the work of DVI to include the same dual-link resolutions using a criterion HDMI cable television but with higher motion-picture frame rates and digital audio good on the same connection. HDMI was introduced in 2002, which makes it appear kind of old in technology years, but it ’ s a big, fast, dependable connection that will credibly be about for respective years to come. HDMI cabling besides supports an optional Consumer Electronics Control ( CEC ) feature that allows transmission of signals from a remote-control unit to control multiple devices without classify cable to carry infrared signals. HDMI cables, known as Standard and High Speed, exist today in the consumer space. Standard cables are rated for 720p resolution angstrom well as 1080i, but not 1080p. high

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Speed cables are capable of supporting not only 1080p, but besides the newer 4K and 3D technologies. number 3.6 shows an HDMI cable television and port. F i g uranium roentgen vitamin e 3. 6 HDMI cable and port

In June 2006, rewrite 1.3 of the HDMI specification was released to support the sting rates necessity for HD DVD and Blu-ray disk. This version besides introduced support for “ deep discolor, ” or color depths of at least one billion colors, including 30-, 36-, and 48-bit discolor. however, not until interpretation 1.4, which was released in May 2009, was the High Speed HDMI cable initially required. With version 1.4 came HDMI capability for the controlling system—the television, for instance—to relay Ethernet frames between its associate components and the Internet, alleviating the motivation for each and every component to find its own access to the LAN for Internet access. Both Standard and High Speed cables are available with this Ethernet channel. Each device connected by such a cable must besides support the HDMI Ethernet Channel stipulation, however. extra advances that were beginning seen in adaptation 1.4 were 3D support, 4K resolution ( but only at a 30 Hz refresh rate ), an increased 120 Hz refresh pace for the 1080 resolutions, and an Audio Return Channel ( ARC ) for televisions with built-in tuners to send audio back to an A/V recipient without using a separate output signal cable. interpretation 1.4 besides introduced the anti-vibration

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Type-E locking connection for the automotive-video diligence and cables that can besides withstand shaking american samoa well as the hot/cold extremes that are common in the automotive populace. Version 2.0 of HDMI ( 2013 ) introduced no new cable requirements. In other words, the existing High Speed HDMI cable is amply capable of supporting all raw version 2 enhancements. These enhancements include increasing the 4K freshen pace to 60 Hz, a 21:9 theatrical widescreen aspect ratio, and 32-channel audio. note that 7.1 environment sound comprises lone eight channels, supporting the more graphic Rec. 2020 discolor space and multiple video and audio streams to the same end product device for multiple users. Version 2.0a, released in 2015, chiefly added high active range ( HDR ) video, but it does not require any modern cables or connectors. The most recent version ( as of this compose ) is HDMI 2.1, released in November 2017. interpretation 2.1 specifies a new cable type called 48G, which provides for 48 Gbps bandwidth. 48G cables are backward compatible with older HDMI versions. You can besides use older cables with 48G-capable devices, but you just won ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate get the fully 48 Gbps bandwidth. HDMI 2.1 besides provides for 120 Hz refresh rates for 4K, 8K, and 10K video recording, and supports enhanced Audio Return Channel ( eARC ), which is needed for object-based sound recording formats, such as DTS : x and Dolby Atmos. even though the HDMI connection is not the lapp as the one used for DVI, the two technologies are electrically compatible. HDMI is compatible with DVI-D and DVI-I interfaces through proper adapters, but HDMI ’ mho audio and remote-control pass-through features are lost. additionally, 3D video recording sources work merely with HDMI. number 3.7 shows a DVI to HDMI arranger between DVI-D and the Type-A 19-pin HDMI interface. Compare the DVI-D interface to the DVI-I interface of Figure 3.5, and note that the ground blade on the DVI-D connection is narrower than that of the DVI-A and DVI-I connectors. The DVI-D receptacle does not accept the early two plugs for this reason, a well as because the four analogue pins around the blade have no sockets in the DVI-D receptacle. F one g uracil roentgen e 3. 7 DVI to HDMI arranger

Unlike DVI-D and, by extension DVI-I, DVI-A and VGA devices can not be driven passively by HDMI ports directly. An HDMI to VGA adapter must be active in nature, powered either outwardly or through the HDMI interface itself. HDMI cables should meet the bespeak requirements of the latest specification. As a solution, and as with DVI, the maximal cable length is slightly variable star. For HDMI, cable television distance depends heavily on the materials used to construct the cable. passive voice cables tend to extend

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no farther than 15 meters, while adding electronics within the cable television to create an active translation results in duration deoxyadenosine monophosphate farseeing as 30 meters.

Mini-HDMI There are multiple versions of HDMI connectors in the marketplace. The standard connection that you ’ re probably used to seeing, and the one shown in Figure 3.6 and Figure 3.7, is the 19-pin Type-A connection. The Type-A connection and the 29-pin Type-B connection were specified in HDMI version 1.0 and haven ’ t changed a lot since then. Type-B connectors were intended for higher-resolution products but are not used in the marketplace nowadays. HDMI adaptation 1.3 specified a smaller 19-pin Type-C connection for portable devices. The Type-C connection, besides referred to as a mini-HDMI connection, is compatible with the Type-A connection, but it calm requires an arranger due to its smaller size. HDMI adaptation 1.4 specified two more interfaces : Type-D and Type-E. If Type-C is a mini-HDMI interface, then you might refer to the Type-D connection as micro-HDMI. figure 3.8 shows all five HDMI connectors. besides compatible with Type-A interfaces because they have the same 19 pins, Type-D interfaces require just a bare adapter for conversion. F one g uracil roentgen east 3. 8 HDMI connection types

By C0nanPayne – Based on file : HDMI Connector.jpg, CC0, hypertext transfer protocol : //commons.wikimedia.org/w/index

.php ? curid=58368257

The mini-HDMI and micro-HDMI connectors are most much used on smaller portable devices, such as tablets, smartphones, and digital cameras. As mention previously, the Type-E connection has a engage mechanism and is intended for consumption in automobiles or other environments that are susceptible to shaking, which could cause a connection and cable television to become abrupt.

DisplayPort DisplayPort is a royalty-free digital expose interface from the Video Electronics Standards Association ( VESA ) that uses less exponent than early digital interfaces and VGA. Introduced in 2008, it ’ randomness designed to replace VGA and DVI. To help ease the conversion, it ’ mho backward

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compatible with both standards, using an arranger. In summation, an adapter allows HDMI and DVI voltages to be lowered to those required by DisplayPort because it is functionally like to HDMI and DVI. DisplayPort cables can extend 3 meters, unless an active cable powers the footrace, in which sheath the cable television can extend to 33 meters. DisplayPort is intended chiefly for video, but, like HDMI, it can transmit audio and video simultaneously. trope 3.9 shows a DisplayPort larboard on a laptop adenine well as a connection. The DisplayPort connection latches itself to the receptacle with two bantam hooks. A push-button mechanism serves to release the hook for removal of the connection from the receptacle. Note the bevel key at the bottom-left corner of the port. digit 3.9

A DisplayPort port and cable

The DisplayPort standard besides specifies a smaller connection, known as the Mini DisplayPort ( MDP ) connection. The MDP is electrically equivalent to the life-size DP connection and features a bevel identify social organization, but it lacks the latch mechanism present in the DP connection. The MDP connection looks identical to a Thunderbolt connection, which we will cover in the “ Multipurpose Cables and Connectors ” section late in this chapter.

Hard Drive Cables and Connectors At the beginning of this chapter, we said that we were going to move outside the box and talk about external peripherals, cables, and connectors. For the most separate that ’ s true, but here we need to take a belittled diversion to talk about connecting unvoiced drives, most of which are internal. Some of this you already learned in chapter 2, “ Internal Expansion, Storage Devices, and Power Supplies, ” so this could feel like a review. Of naturally, there are SATA and PATA connectors, but we ’ ll besides throw in two new ones—SCSI and eSATA. ocular drives use the lapp connectors as hard drives.

Remember that all drives need some shape of connection to the motherboard so that the calculator can “ talk ” to the harrow drive. Regardless of whether the connection is built into the motherboard ( onboard ) or on an arranger card ( off-board ), internal or external, the criterion for the attachment is based on the repel ’ sulfur requirements. These connections are known as drive interfaces. The interfaces consist of circuitry and a port, or header.

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Serial Advanced Technology Attachment The most common hard drive connection used today is Serial Advanced Technology Attachment ( SATA ). number 3.10 shows SATA headers, which you have seen before, and a SATA cable. note that the SATA cable is flat, and the connection is keyed to fit into the motherboard heading in entirely one way. SATA data cables have a 7-pin connection. SATA office cables have 15 pins and are wider than the data connection. F one g u radius e 3 .1 0 SATA connectors and cable

The SATA we ’ ve discussed so far is internal, but there ’ s an external version a well, appropriately named external SATA ( eSATA ). It uses the same engineering, merely in an external connection. The port at the bottom center of Figure 3.11 is eSATA. It entered the market in 2003, is largely intended for heavily campaign use, and can support up to 15 devices on a single bus. F i g u gas constant e 3 .11 eSATA

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Table 3.1 shows some of the eSATA specifications. TA bel lambert einsteinium 3 .1

eSATA specifications

Version

Year

Speed

Names

Revision 1.0

2003

1.5 Gbps

SATA I, SATA 1.5Gb/s

Revision 2.0

2005

3.0 Gbps

SATA II, SATA 3Gb/s

Revision 3.0

2009

6.0 Gbps

SATA III, SATA 6Gb/s

You will normally see the third gear generation of eSATA ( and SATA ) referred to as SATA 6 or SATA 6Gb/s. This is because if they called it SATA 3, there would be confusion with the second generation, which had transfer speeds of 3.0 Gbps. An matter to fact about eSATA is that the interface does not provide power, which is a big negative compared to its contemporaneous high-speed serial counterparts. To overcome this limitation, there is another eSATA port that you might see, called power over eSATA, eSATA+, eSATAp, or eSATA/USB. It ’ s basically a combination eSATA and USB port. Since the port is a combination of two others, neither sanctioning body formally recognizes it ( which is probably why there are so many names—other companies call it what they want to ). human body 3.12 shows this port. farad one g u radius e 3 .1 2

USB over eSATA

You can see that this port is slenderly unlike from the one in name 3.11, and it ’ s besides marked with a USB icon next to the eSATA one. On the commercialize, you can purchase cables that go from this port to an eSATA device and provide it with might via the eSATAp port. eSATA will probable start becoming disused thanks to USB 3.0, which we will talk about in the “ Multipurpose Cables and Connectors ” section late in this chapter.

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Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment Prior to SATA, the most democratic intemperate drive connection was Integrated Drive Electronics ( IDE ), which has now been renamed to Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment ( PATA ). There is no dispute between PATA and IDE, other than the name. digit 3.13 shows PATA connectors on a motherboard next to a PATA cable. Refer back to chapter 2, Figure 2.9 to see a direct comparison of SATA and PATA connectors on a hard drive. F one g u roentgen e 3 .1 3 PATA connectors and cable

PATA drives use a 40-pin flatcar data cable, and there are a few things to note about it. First, there is an off-colored stripe ( frequently red, pink, or blue ) along one border of the cable to designate where pivot 1 is. On a PATA drive, pin 1 is constantly on the edge nearest the world power connection. The second thing to note is that there are three connectors—one for the motherboard and two for drives. PATA technology specifies that there can be two drives per cable, in a primary and secondary ( or master and slave ) shape. The basal drive will be attached to the other end of the cable, and the secondary, if connected, will use the middle connection. In addition, the driveway itself may need to be configured for master or slave by using the jumper blocking on the campaign. Most PATA drives will auto-configure their status based on their position on the cable television, but if there is a conflict, they can be manually configured. Power is supplied by a 4-pin power connection known as a Molex connection. ( Refer to Chapter 2, Figure 2.30. ) If you have a PATA drive and a SATA-supporting exponent supply ( or frailty versa ), you can buy an adapter to convert the ability to what you need. The lapp holds true for data connectors as well.

Small Computer System Interface A third type of hard drive connection is called Small Computer System Interface ( SCSI ). The acronym is pronounced “ scuzzy, ” even though the original architect intended for it to be called “ sexy. ” The most coarse use is for storehouse devices, but the SCSI standard can be used for other peripherals as well. You won ’ thymine see many SCSI interfaces in home

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computers—it ’ s more much found in servers, dedicated memory solutions, and high-end workstations. early versions of SCSI used a analogue bus interface called SCSI Parallel Interface ( SPI ). Starting in 2005, SPI was replaced by Serial Attached SCSI ( SAS ), which, as you may guess, is a serial bus topology. If you compare SCSI to other popular drive interfaces at the time, SCSI was generally faster but more expensive than its counterparts, such as IDE.

SCSI Parallel Interface Although it ’ south basically disused now, you might find some details of SPI interesting. The first standard, ratified in 1986, was an 8-bit bus that provided for data transfers of 5 Mbps. Because it was an 8-bit busbar, it could support up to seven devices. ( The motherboard or expansion card header was the eighth. ) Each device needed a unique ID from 0 to 7, and devices were attached in a daisy chain manner. A exterminator ( basically a big resistor ) needed to be attached to the end of the chain ; otherwise, the devices wouldn ’ t function. In 1994, the 8-bit version was replaced by a 16-bit translation that supported up to 15 devices and had a remove speed of 320 Mbps. Compared to the 100 Mbps supported by IDE at the time, you can see why people wanted SCSI ! SPI had different connectors, depending on the standard. 50-pin, 68-pin, and 80-pin connectors were normally used. design 3.14 shows two 50-pin Centronics connectors, which were common for many years. figure 3.15 shows a exterminator, with the acme binding removed then that you can see the electronics. F iodine g uranium radius e 3 .1 4 Two 50-pin SCSI connectors

By Smial at German Wikipedia – own function, CC BY-SA 2.0 delaware, hypertext transfer protocol : //commons.wikimedia.org/w/index

.php ? curid=1009512

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F iodine g u r e 3 .1 5 A SCSI exterminator

By Adamantios – own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, hypertext transfer protocol : //commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php ? curid=6116837

Serial Attached SCSI Of the newer SCSI implementations, the one you will most likely meeting is SAS. For case, as we mentioned in chapter 2, most 15,000 revolutions per minute intemperate drives are SAS drives. From an architectural point of view, SAS differs greatly from SPI, starting with the fact that it ’ s consecutive, not parallel. What they do share is the use of the SCSI command computer architecture, which is a group of commands that can be sent from the control to the device to make it do something, such as write or retrieve data. A SAS system of intemperate drives plant much like the SATA and PATA systems you ’ ve already learned about. There ’ s the restrainer, the drive, and the cable that connects it. SAS uses its own terminology, though, and adds a part called an expander. here are the four components of a SAS system : Initiator Think of this as the control. It sends commands to target devices and receives data spinal column from them. These can be integrated or an addition tease. Each instigator can have a direct connection to 128 devices. target This is the device, typically a hard drive. It can besides be multiple difficult drives functioning in a RAID array. Service Delivery Subsystem The military service delivery subsystem transmits information between an instigator and a prey. Often this is a cable, but it can besides be a server backplane ( where multiple devices connect ). Expander An expander is a device that allows for multiple initiators to be combined into one service delivery subsystem. Through the use of expanders, one instigator can support up to 16,256 devices.

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Figure 3.16 shows a SAS cable television and connection. It ’ s slightly wider than a SATA ability and data connection together. The other end of a cable such as this might have an identical SAS connection or a mini-SAS connection, or it might pigtail into four SATA or mini-SAS connectors. F one g u roentgen e 3 .1 6 A SAS connection

By Adamantios – own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, hypertext transfer protocol : //commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php ? curid=6117374

Table 3.2 lists SAS standards and maximum throughput. Ta b-complex vitamin liter east 3. 2 special air service standards and speeds Standard

Year

Throughput

SAS-1

2005

3 Gbps

SAS-2

2009

6 Gbps

SAS-3

2013

12 Gbps

SAS-4

2017

22.5 Gbps

SAS offers the adopt advantages over SPI : ■■

No exterminator is required.

■■

Up to 16,256 devices can be connected to a individual system.

■■

Each SAS device has its own link to the control, so there are no issues with contention ( when multiple devices try to use the same connection at the lapp clock, causing interference ).

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SAS provides faster data transfer speeds than SPI. SAS devices are compatible with SATA 2.0 and higher—SATA drives can be connected to SAS controllers.

With the invention of super-fast M.2 and NVMe hard drives, which you learned about in chapter 2, it ’ second hard to say what the future of SAS is. Most likely, SAS will continue to have a stead in corporate environments with large-scale storage solutions, while the others will provide leading-edge speed for the workstation environment, peculiarly among laptops and smaller devices.

Multipurpose Cables and Connectors Some of the cables we ’ ve discussed thus far can serve multiple purposes. For example, HDMI can transmit audio adenine well as television, and SCSI supports more than equitable hard drives. For the most part, though, we associate HDMI with video and SCSI with storage devices. Unlike HDMI and SCSI, the cables and connectors in this department are specifically designed to connect a variety of devices. For example, person may have a USB hub with a wireless shiner, network tease, Lightning cable ( to charge an iPhone ), and flash tug all attached at the lapp time. Those four devices serve very unlike purposes, but they all share the USB connection in coarse. We ’ ll begin with the highly popular USB and then discuss Lightning and Thunderbolt connectors.

Universal Serial Bus Universal Serial Bus ( USB ) cables are used to connect a across-the-board assortment of peripherals to computers, including keyboards, shiner, digital cameras, printers, scanners, hard drives, and network cards. USB was designed by several companies, including Intel, Microsoft, and IBM, and is presently maintained by the USB Implementers Forum. USB engineering is fairly square. basically, it is designed to be Plug and Play— merely plug in the peripheral and it should work, provided that the software is installed to support it. many standard devices have drivers that are built into the common operating systems or automatically downloaded during facility. More complex devices come with drivers to be installed before the part is connected. USB host controllers can support up to 127 devices, which is accomplished through the function of a 7-bit identifier. The 128th identifier, the highest address, is used for broadcasting to all endpoints. realistically speaking, you ’ ll credibly never get close to this maximum. even if you wanted to try, you won ’ metric ton find any computers with 127 ports. alternatively, you would plug in a device known as a USB hub ( shown in Figure 3.17 ) into one of your calculator ’ sulfur USB ports, which will give you respective more USB ports from one original larboard. Understand that a hub counts as a device for addressing purposes. Hubs can be connected to each other, but interconnection of host controllers is not allowed ; each one and its connected devices are isolated from other host controllers and their devices. As a consequence, USB ports are not considered networkable ports. Consult your organization ’ south software documentation to find out if your USB ports operate on the like host accountant.

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F one g uranium r e 3 .17 A 4-port USB hub

Another courteous feature of USB is that devices can draw their power from the USB cable, so you may not need to plug in a separate power cord. This international relations and security network ’ thymine universally dependable, though, as some peripherals still require external power.

USB Standards Even though USB was released in 1996, the first base wide used standard was USB 1.1, which was released in 1998. It was pretty slow—only 12 Mbps at full rush and 1.5 Mbps at depleted speed—so it was truly merely used for keyboards, mouse, and printers. When USB 2.0 came out in 2000 with a faster transfer pace of 480 Mbps ( called Hi-Speed ), television devices were possible. The newer USB 3.0, 3.1, and 3.2 standards have increased throughput even further. table 3.3 lays out the specifications and speeds for you. Ta b fifty e 3. 3 USB specifications Specification

Release Year

Maximum Speed

Trade Name

Color

USB 1.1

1998

12 Mbps

Full-Speed

White

USB 2.0

2000

480 Mbps

Hi-Speed

Black

USB 3.0

2008

5 Gbps

SuperSpeed

Blue

USB 3.1

2013

10 Gbps

SuperSpeed+

Teal

USB 3.2

2017

20 Gbps

SuperSpeed+

n/a

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The USB 1.x and 2.x specifications didn ’ triiodothyronine recommend a specific color for the ports, but when USB 3.0 was released, the USB Implementers Forum suggested that the ports and cable connectors be colored blue sky, to signify that they were capable of handling higher speeds. Device manufacturers are not required to follow the color-coding outline, so you may see some inconsistency. A crimson or yellow USB port means it ’ s adequate to of charging a connect device, even if the personal computer is sleeping or shut down. As of the time of this publish, there was no color specified for USB 3.2. Most USB 3.2 devices are expected to use a USB Type-C connection anyhow.

USB Cables and Connectors In order to achieve the full amphetamine of the specification that a device supports, the USB cable needs to meet that specification a well. In other words, USB 1.x cables can not provide USB 2.0 and 3.x performance, and USB 2.0 cables can not provide USB 3.x performance. differently, the connected device will have to fall back to the utmost version supported by the cable television. This is normally not an publish, except for the lose performance, but some highperformance devices will refuse to operate at abridge levels. note that all specifications are capable of Low Speed, which is a 1.5 Mbps performance standard that has existed since the beginning of USB time. Throughout most of its history, USB has relied upon a small cortege of standard connectors. The two broad classifications of connectors are designated Type-A and Type-B connectors, and there are micro and mini versions of each. A standard USB cable has some form of Type-A connection on the end that plugs into the computer or hub, and some form of Type-B or proprietorship connection on the device end. figure 3.18 shows five USB 1.x/2.0 cable connectors. From left to right, they are as follows : ■■

Micro-USB

■■

Mini-USB

■■

Type-B

■■

Type-A female

■■

Type-A male

F iodine g u roentgen e 3 .1 8 Standard USB connectors

By Techtonic ( edited fromUSB types.jpg ) [ public domain ], via Wikimedia Commons

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Small imprint gene devices, including many smartphones and smaller digital cameras, use a micro-USB or mini-USB connection, unless the manufacturer has developed its own proprietorship connection. Micro-USB connectors ( and modified ones ) are popular with many Android call manufacturers. In 2014, a raw connection named USB Type-C ( or merely USB-C ) was developed. USB-C is designed to replace Type-A and Type-B, and, unlike its predecessors, it ’ second reversible. That means no more florida ipping the connection over respective times to figure out which room it connects. Type-C cables will besides be able to provide more ability to devices than authoritative cables were. figure 3.19 shows a Type-C connection and a Type-A connection. f one g uracil roentgen e 3 .1 9

USB Type-C ( peak ) and Type-A ( bottom )

One point of confusion for many is dissociating the connection type from the standard. Because USB 3.1 and USB-C were both released around the same time, people much think that they are one in the same—but they ’ re not. USB 3.1 can be implemented using classic A and B connectors, and USB 2.0 can work over a Type-C connection.

USB was designed to be a short-distance technology. As such, USB cables are limited in length. USB 1.x and 2.0 can use cables up to 5 meters long, whereas USB 3.x can use cables up to 3 meters long. In addition, if you use hubs, you should never use more than five hubs between the system and any component. Despite the apparently locked-up logic of USB connectivity, it is occasionally necessary to alter the interface type at one end of a USB cable. For that reason, there are a diverseness of simple, passive converters on the marketplace with a USB interface on one side and a USB or different interface on the other. Along with adapters that convert USB Type-A to USB Type-B, there are adapters that will convert a male connection to a female one. In addition, you can

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convert USB to a batch of other connection types, such as USB to Ethernet ( shown in Figure 3.20 ), USB to SATA, USB to eSATA, USB to PS2, USB to serial, and a variety of others. F one g uranium radius einsteinium 3. 2 0 Kensington USB to Ethernet arranger

USB Power As mentioned previously, USB ports provide power to devices plugged into them. typical power for impound USB devices is 5V. The utmost stream ( amps ) and electrical power will depend on the connected device and USB standard being used. All USB ports are besides able of functioning as charging ports for devices such as tablets, smartphones, and chic watches. The charging standard, called USB Battery Charging, was released in 2007. USB Power Delivery ( PD ) was developed in 2012. technically, they are different standards, but in rehearse, USB ports are able of supporting both standards at the lapp time. table 3.4 outlines some of the versions and the maximal might that they provide. Ta bacillus lambert einsteinium 3. 4 USB power standards Standard

Year

Maximum Power

USB Battery Charging 1.0

2007

5V, 1.5A ( 7.5W )

USB Battery Charging 1.2

2010

5V, 5A ( 20W )

USB Power Delivery 1.0

2012

20V, 5A ( 100W )

USB Power Delivery 2.0 ( specified practice of Type-C connectors but alone up to 15W )

2014

5V, 3A ( 15W )

USB Power Delivery 3.0

2015

20V, 5A ( 100W )

A smartphone or pill typically needs a minimum of about 7.5 watts to charge properly. The Battery Charging 1.0 standard was good enough, but not for larger devices.

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For case, about 20 watts is required to world power a humble laptop computer, and standard 15-inch laptops can require 60 watts or more. With USB PD, one USB port can now provide enough ability for a laptop a good as a small printer. Because of the capabilities of USB PD, it ’ s possible that in the next few years you will see devices up to laptop size lose their standard AC exponent ports and adapters—they may merely have a USB-C port rather. To get the full moon capabilities of USB PD, you need to use a USB-C larboard and cable. For more information on USB, check out www.usb.org.

Lightning Introduced in 2012 with the iPhone 5, the Lightning connection is Apple ’ s proprietorship connection for iPhones and iPads. It ’ s an 8-pin connection that replaced Apple ’ s previous 30-pin pier connection. A standard Lightning cable has a USB Type-A connection on one end and the Lightning connection on the other, as shown in Figure 3.21. It ’ s not keyed, meaning that you can put it in with either edge improving. farad one g uranium gas constant einsteinium 3. 21

Lightning cable

Lightning cables defend USB 2.0. You will fi north dakota cables that are USB-C to Lightning, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as versatile Lightning adapters, such as those to HDMI, DisplayPort, audio, and Lightning to female USB Type-A ( so you can plug a USB device into an iPad or iPhone ). There are rumors that Apple may do away with the Lightning connection in its 2019 iPhone acquittance and alternatively use USB-C. The lapp rumors have persisted since the iPhone 8 was released in 2017, and it seems that Apple has fiddling cause to move away from its proprietorship connection.

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Thunderbolt Where there ’ mho lightning, there ’ sulfur boom, correctly ? Bad joke attempts aside, in computer circles Lightning connectors don ’ t have a lot to do with Thunder ( gobble ). Thunderbolt, created in collaboration between Intel and Apple and released in 2011, combines PCI Express 2.0 x4 with the DisplayPort 1.x technology. While it ’ sulfur primarily used for video ( to replace DisplayPort ), the connection itself can support multiple types of peripherals, much like USB does.

Thunderbolt Standards Because Thunderbolt includes a separate I/O function from the DP video technology, it is rated for office and remove rates in the like way as technologies such as USB and eSATA. Both of the initial versions of Thunderbolt, v1 and v2, operate at 20 Gbps of aggregate bandwidth. The v2 put up does therefore with more tractability by combining the two 10 Gbps channels alternatively of allowing each one to perform as either only impart or only receive. Each Thunderbolt interface provides a total of 18V and 9.9W of world power to the one or more impound peripherals. Thunderbolt 3 was released in 2015 and doubles the bandwidth to 40 Gbps. It supports PCIe 3.0 and DisplayPort 1.2, meaning that it can support double 4K displays at 60 Hz or a one 4K display at 120 Hz.

Thunderbolt Cables and Connectors The most coarse Thunderbolt cable is a copper, powered active cable extend a far as 3 meters, which was designed to be less expensive than an active translation of a DisplayPort cable of the lapp distance. There are besides optical cables in the specification that can reach arsenic far as 60 meters. Copper cables can provide power to attached devices, but ocular cables can ’ thymine. additionally, and arsenic is the case with USB, Thunderbolt devices can be daisy-chain and connect via hub. Daisy chains can extend six levels bass for each accountant interface, and each interface can optionally drive a classify monitor, which should be placed alone on the restrainer ’ s interface or at the end of a range of components attached to the interface. visualize 3.22 shows two Thunderbolt 2 interfaces following to a USB port on an Apple MacBook Pro. Note the standard lightning-bolt insignia by the port. Despite its bantam size, the Thunderbolt port has 20 pins around its connection bar, like its larger DisplayPort cousin. Of course, the functions of all the pins do not directly represent between the two interface types, because Thunderbolt adds PCIe functionality. F one g u roentgen east 3. 2 2 Two Thunderbolt 2 interfaces

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Thunderbolt 3 uses standard USB-C connectors, as shown in Figure 3.23. F iodine g uranium gas constant e 3. 2 3 Two Thunderbolt 3 interfaces

By Amin – own bring, CC BY-SA 4.0, hypertext transfer protocol : //commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php ? curid=67330543

Converters are available that connect Thunderbolt connectors to VGA, HDMI, and DVI monitors. active converters that contain chips to perform the conversion are necessary in situations such as when the technology is not immediately pin-compatible with Thunderbolt— as with VGA and DVI-A analogue monitor inputs, for case. active converters are merely slenderly more expensive than their passive counterparts but hush alone a fraction of the cost of Thunderbolt hub. One other advantage of active connectors is that they can support resolutions of 4K ( 3840 × 2160 ) and higher.

Choosing the right Connection Technology After reading about multipurpose connectors, you can see that you have several feasible choices if you need to choose a engineering. So, which one do you choose ? A few factors to consider are compatibility, price, and future needs. First, think about compatibility. There are two vectors of this. The first one is compatibility with devices. What do you need to hook up ? If it ’ second basic devices such as a keyboard and a printer, then USB is the right way to go. It ’ mho plenty flying and cheap. If you need a considerable come of external storehouse at lightning-fast speeds, then Thunderbolt is probably a better choice, although USB 3.1/3.2 and eSATA can besides meet your needs. ( then it might come down to cost. ) The second compatibility vector is with your existing hardware. If you are looking to

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get in touch devices to your existing calculator, what types of connectors do you have ? That could make the decision for you, unless you ’ re in the commercialize for a newfangled organization american samoa well. price can besides be a retainer. USB is broadly the cheapest, although since USB 3.1 and 3.2 are relatively raw, those devices will be more expensive than older ones. last, think about future expansion needs. Is this for your home office and you aren ’ thymine plan on adding extra devices for another five years or so ? then this international relations and security network ’ t a big cope. But if you ’ rhenium work in a small occupation environment that is growing quickly, you will want to think about future hardware needs and the speeds at which those devices need to run. many people are asking which one will win, Thunderbolt or USB ? It ’ s besides early to tell, and very, possibly there shouldn ’ thymine be one achiever. Both technologies are capital, and there ’ s probably a put for both moving forward.

early Peripheral Cables and Connectors The huge majority of peripherals that you will encounter use one of the connection types we ’ ve already discussed in this chapter. however, there ’ s the off gamble that you will run into some others, and that ’ s what this department is for. Think of this as the random grab cup of tea of things you might see. If nothing else, it ’ mho cognition that you can impress your friends and kin with at your following social event.

Serial Ports Of all the connectors and cable types in this department, this is the one that ’ s a CompTIA A+ examination objective. We ’ ve talked a bite about consecutive ports and serial transmissions already, but here we ’ ll attend at ports and connectors. Remember that earlier USB came along approximately 20 years ago, serial ports were considered dense and inferior to parallel ports. still, serial enjoyed use among peripherals that didn ’ t need to transfer information at high speeds, such as mice, modems, network management devices, and even printers. name 3.24 shows a 9-pin consecutive larboard. It ’ s the one marked “ Serial, ” and it ’ s besides the only male connection on the back of the personal computer. F iodine g uracil roentgen e 3. 2 4 several peripheral ports

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As you might expect, a serial cable attaches to the serial port. figure 3.25 shows a female DB-9 serial connection. To make things more confuse, sometimes you will hear people refer to the image in Figure 3.25 as an RS-232 cable or connection. even though the terms are much used interchangeably, there is a technical dispute. F i g u r e 3. 2 5 DB-9 series connection

If you ’ ll recall from earlier in the chapter, DB-9 refers to a particular character of D-sub connection that has 9 pins. RS-232, on the early hand, is a communications standard for consecutive transmittance. In other words, systems may communicate with each other using RS-232 over a DB-9 connection. But RS-232 can besides be used on early types of consecutive cables vitamin a well, such as DB-15 or DB-25. Generally talk, if person asks for an RS-232 serial cable, they mean a DB-9 cable with female connectors. But it ’ sulfur always best to confirm. RS-232 did have a few advantages over USB—namely, longer cable length ( 15 meters vs. 3–5 meters ) and a better electric resistance to electromagnetic interference ( EMI ). inactive, USB has made oldschool serial ports closely disused. About the entirely fourth dimension they are used today is for management devices that connect to servers or network routers with no keyboard and proctor installed.

FireWire When FireWire ( IEEE 1394 ) was standardized in 1995, it was going to be “ the adjacent bad matter ” in computing. It was very fast for the time ( 400 Mbps ) and easy to use. Like USB, FireWire could provide power to attached devices. Up to 63 FireWire devices could be managed by one restrainer. Before its death, FireWire supported speeds of 3.2 Gbps and was used for video recording american samoa well as high-speed connections to external unvoiced drives. ultimately, though, it lost out to USB and video recording standards such as DVI and has basically been disused since around 2007. In Figure 3.24, the FireWire port is above two USB ports and is check 1394.

Audio/Video Ports Audio ports are pretty standard on PCs and laptops, and they haven ’ triiodothyronine changed a lot in a few decades. There are besides several video recording connectors around that pre-date the ones presently in function today such as DVI and HDMI.

Analog Sound Small, 1/8″ ( 3.5 millimeter ) analogue sound jacks have been around for a few decades, and they still look and work the lapp today as they did back then. The plug provide left- and

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right-channel stereophonic sound recording by making contact with their peak, rings ( if they have any ), and sleeve. While an older system might have had only one jack, newer PCs and phone cards may have a six-jack frame-up capable of 8-channel audio, besides known as 7.1 surround heavy. human body 3.26 shows an exercise of a six-jack connection. early soundcards may have three connectors : a green one for stereo audio output, a blue one for line-in ( used for cheaper melodious devices ), and a tap one for a microphone. Most laptops and smaller devices will just have a single jack, which allows for the connection of a couple of speakers or headphones. F i g u gas constant vitamin e 3. 2 6 Sound tease jacks

RCA The RCA jack ( shown in Figure 3.27 ) was developed by the RCA Victor Company in the late 1940s for use with its phonographs—the original record players. today, you may use RCA jacks and connectors to transmit both audio and video information, although this technology has been supplanted by HDMI.

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F one g u radius e 3. 2 7 An RCA jack ( female ) and RCA chew ( male )

RCA jacks are considered coaxial because the out round conductor and the center field pin that jointly make up the unbalance single transmit/receive match have the same axis of rotation—that is, co-axial. An RCA laborer and cable carry either audio or television, not both simultaneously. consequently, you normally see them implemented in sets of threes : left sound recording ( white ), right field audio ( red ), and video ( yellow ).

Component Video When analogue technologies outside the VGA region are used for broadcast video, you are generally able to get better-quality video by splitting the loss, k, and blasphemous components in the bespeak into different streams proper at the reservoir. The engineering, known as component television, performs a signal-splitting function like to RGB separation. however, unlike RGB separation, which requires full-bandwidth crimson, green, and blue signals arsenic well as a fourth pathway for synchronization, the most popular execution of part video uses one decompress signal and two compressed signals, reducing the overall bandwidth needed. These signals are delivered over wheedle, either as loss, green, and blue color-coded RCA plug or similarly coded BNC connectors, the latter being seen by and large in broadcastquality applications. The decompress bespeak is called luma ( Y ), which is basically the colorless adaptation of the master sign that represents the “ brightness ” of the source feed as a grayscale image. The component-video source besides creates two compress color-difference signals, known as Pb and Pr. These two chrominance ( saturation, for inadequate ) signals are besides known as B – Y and R – Y, respectively, because they are created by subtracting out the luma from the aristocratic and red source signals. It might make smell, then, that the analogue engineering presented here is most often referred to and labeled as YPbPr. A digital version of this engineering,

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normally found on high-end devices, replaces analog ’ mho Pb and Pr with Cb and Cr, respectively, and is most much labeled YCbCr. design 3.28 shows the three RCA connectors of a component-video cable television. visualize 3.28

A component-video cable

By Evan-Amos – own work, public knowledge domain, hypertext transfer protocol : //commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php ? curid=11339108

As a slenderly technical aside, luma is a gamma-correcting, nonlinear display concept related to but not equivalent to luminosity, which is a linear, non-gamma-corrected measure of easy saturation. Display devices perform nonlinear gamma decompression, which means a complementary nonlinear gamma compaction ( correction ) must have been performed by the vector for the leave effigy to be displayed by rights. Thus luma, not luminosity, is the appropriate condition when discussing part video recording. furthermore, although Y is normally used to represent luma, it actually stands for luminosity. As a result, if you ever see a reference to Y ’ PbPr or Y ’ CbCr, the Y-prime refers correctly to luma. The more common, however less correct, Y is used here to refer to luma.

Note that the forfeit discussion did not mention a green component-video signal. In fact, the frequently green-colored tip in the component-video cable carries the luma. There is no need for a discriminate green color-difference bespeak. basically, the luma signal is used as a colorless map for the detail of the trope. The receiving display device adds the luma signal from the Y contribute bet on to the blue and red color-difference signals that were received on the Pb and Pr leads, copy compressed versions of the broad blue and red generator signals.

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Whatever details in the luma adaptation of the prototype have weak representation in the blue and red versions of the prototype are inferred to be green. consequently, you can conclude that by providing one full bespeak ( Y ) and two compressed signals ( Pb and Pr ) that are related to the full signal ( Pb = B – Y and Pr = R – Y ), you can transmit approximately the same information as three fully signals ( R, G, and B ) but with less bandwidth. Incidentally, part video recording is capable of transmitting HD television at wax 1080p ( 1920 × 1080, progressive-scan ) solution. however, the output device is at the mercifulness of the video recording generator, which much is not manufactured to push 1080p over part outputs.

Composite Video When the preceding component-video technologies are not feasible, the death refer standard, composite video recording, combines all luma and saturation leads into one. composite video recording is sincerely the bottom of the analog-video barrel. however, the National Television System Committee ( NTSC ) signal received by over-the-air antennas or by cable-TV feeds is composite video, making it a very coarse video signal. unfortunately, once the four signals are combined into one, the display equipment has no way of faithfully splitting them back out, leading to less than optimum quality but great cost efficiency. Composite television is implemented as a single yellow RCA jack, which is the one shown in Figure 3.27. While distillery reasonably decent in video choice, composite video recording is more susceptible to undesirable television phenomenon and artifacts, such as aliasing, traverse color, and dot crawl.

PS/2 ( Keyboard and Mouse ) At one clock time, the most democratic connectors for keyboards and mice were polish connectors called Personal System/2 ( PS/2 ) connectors. The PS/2 connection ( there are two on the impart in Figure 3.24 ) is a smaller 6-pin mini-DIN connection. many PCs included a PS/2 keyboard connection a well as a PS/2 mouse connection correct above it on the motherboard. The keyboard connection was colored purple, and the mouse one fleeceable. The ends of the keyboard and mouse cables would be purple and green a well. today, the PS/2-style connection has been replaced by the USB port. If you do run into a keyboard or mouse with a PS/2 connection, or a motherboard with a PS/2 port, you can buy a PS/2-to-USB arranger to make them work with more current hardware.

Understanding Uses of Peripheral Devices Peripheral devices add much-needed functionality to computers, beyond the congress of racial equality components. Having a debauched processor and terabytes of hard drive space is big, but it doesn ’ thyroxine complete the mental picture. Users need the ability to input data and well see and use the end product that

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the central processing unit generates. Of run, the types of devices that can input or receive end product are quite change. In the keep up sections, we are going to break peripheral devices into four categories : ■

Video

Audio

Input and end product

Storage

We realize that video recording and audio are indeed input or output signal devices, but because they are more speciate, we will cover them individually. After this incision, you will have a thoroughly understand of purposes of and uses for several park peripheral devices, angstrom well as how they connect to a personal computer.

Video Devices The primary method acting of getting information out of a computer is to use a calculator television display. Display systems convert computer signals into text and pictures and display them on a TV-like riddle. As a matter of fact, early personal computers used television screens because it was childlike to use an existing display technology than to develop a new one. The most common video device used is a monitor, and we ’ ll discuss them in depth. We will besides cover projectors, cameras and webcams, virtual reality headsets, and ocular devices.

Monitors Most display systems work the lapp manner. First, the computer sends a signal to a device called the television arranger —an expansion display panel installed in an expansion bus slot or the equivalent circuitry integrated into the motherboard—telling it to display a particular graphic or fictional character. The adapter then renders the character for the display ; that is, it converts the single teaching into several instructions that tell the display device how to draw the graphic and sends the instructions to the display device based on the connection engineering between the two. The primary differences after that are in the type of video adapter you are using ( digital or analogue ) and the character of display ( LCD, plasma, OLED, and so forth ). many monitors sold nowadays are touch screens. touch screen engineering converts stimulation of some sort, which are generated by actually touching the screen, to electric impulses that travel over consecutive connections to the calculator system. These input signals allow for the replacement of the sneak, both in terms of movement and in clicking. With onscreen keyboards, the external keyboard can be retired vitamin a well. This engineering is used extensively with smartphones, tablets, and Internet of Things ( IoT ) devices, such as car information systems, security systems, and smart thermostats. many laptops today have touch screens as well. The technology has invaded the personal computer market, excessively, but has however to wholly dominate it. It ’ sulfur probably just a matter of time, though.

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Types of Monitors The inaugural monitors built for PCs used the same technology as televisions of the time, which were based on the cathode beam tube ( CRT ). The details behind how a CRT worked are beyond the oscilloscope of this book, but what you should know is that CRTs were very bulky and heavy to move. Unlike monitors and TVs of today, which have relatively flat profiles, CRTs could be a infantry or more deep. They besides largely used VGA connectors, with newer models having a DVI-A connection. It ’ s rare to see a CRT monitor in use today. stream monitors are based on LCD, plasma, or OLED engineering. Liquid Crystal Display First used with portable computers and then adapted to desktop monitors, liquid quartz glass displays ( LCDs ) are based on the concept that when an electric stream is passed through a semi-crystalline liquid, the crystals align themselves with the stream. When transistors are combined with these liquid crystals, patterns can be formed. Patterns can then be combined to represent numbers or letters. LCDs are relatively lightweight and consume far less power than the CRTs they replaced. LCDs can use VGA, DVI, or HDMI connections, depending on the monitor. Liquid crystals produce no luminosity, so liquid crystal display monitors need a lighting generator to display an image. Traditional LCDs use a fluorescent bulb backlight to produce light. Most liquid crystal display today use a panel of light-emitting diodes ( LEDs ) alternatively, which consume less energy, run cool, and alive longer than fluorescent medulla oblongata. consequently, when you see a monitor advertised as an LED monitor, it ’ s in truth an LCD monitor with LED backlighting. Plasma The word plasma refers to a cloud of ionize ( charged ) particles—atoms and molecules with electrons in an mentally ill state. This electric asymmetry is used to create light from the changes in energy levels as they achieve counterweight. Plasma display panels ( PDPs ) create barely such a defile from an inert flatulence, such as neon, by placing electrodes in front of and behind sealed chambers wax of the gas and gasified mercury. This technology of running a current through an inert gasoline to ionize it is shared with neon signs and fluorescent bulb. Because of the discharge of easy that this process produces, plasma displays have more in park with bequest CRTs than they do with LCDs. In fact, as with CRTs, phosphors are responsible for the creation of light in the tad of the three primary colors—red, greens, and blue ( RGB ). In this case, the pixels produce their own faint ( no backlight is required with plasma displays ), besides a sport shared with CRTs. PDPs were victor to LCDs for many years for two reasons. One, they produced smootherflowing images, due to a review rate about 10 times higher than LCDs. Two, they had a deep black coloring material. In an LCD, the backlight can not be wholly blocked by the liquid crystal, which produces darkness hues that are more grey than bootleg. LCDs backlit with LEDs, however, are able to dim selective areas or the entire image wholly. Because of the relative cost-effectiveness to produce PDPs of the same size as a given LCD panel, plasma displays historically enjoyed more popularity in the larger-monitor market. That advantage is all but gone today, resulting in more LCDs being sold nowadays than plasma displays. organic Light-Emitting Diode Organic light-emitting diode ( OLED ) displays, unlike LED displays, are actually the image-producing parts of the display, not equitable the light source. In much the same way as a plasma cell places an excitable material between two electrodes,

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OLEDs are collected cells that use the lapp principle to create faint. An organic lightemitting compound forms the heart of the OLED, and it is placed between an anode and a cathode, which produce a current that runs through the electroluminescent compound, causing it to emit light. An organic light-emitting diode, then, is the combination of the compound and the electrodes on each side of it. The electrode in the back of the OLED cell is normally opaque, allowing a full-bodied black display when the OLED cell is not illuminated. The front electrode should be transparent to allow the emission of light from the OLED. If thin-film electrodes and a flexible compound are used to produce the OLEDs, an OLED display can be made elastic, allowing it to function in novel applications where other display technologies could never work. Because of the slender, lightweight nature of the panels, OLED displays can both replace existing big full-color LED signs, like the ones you might see in Las Vegas or even at your local car trader ’ randomness fortune, and carve out modern markets, such as integration into clothing and multimedia advertisements on the sides of buses to replace and improve upon the static ads that are normally seen. Because OLEDs create the double in an OLED display and supply the light source, there is no need for a backlight with its extra office and space requirements, unlike in the case of LCD panels. additionally, the line proportion of OLED displays exceeds that of LCD panels, regardless of backlight generator. This means that in dark surroundings, OLED displays produce better images than do LCD panels. The exponent to drive an OLED display is, on average, less than that required for LCDs. Generally talk, OLED monitors are the highest-quality monitors you will find on the market nowadays.

Adjusting Display Settings Although most monitors are mechanically detected by the operate on system and configured for the best quality that they and the graphics adapter support, sometimes manually changing display settings, such as for a new monitor or when adding a new arranger, become necessary. Let ’ s start by defining a few important terms : ■■

Refresh pace

■■

Resolution

■■

Multiple displays

Each of these terms relates to settings available through the operational organization by way of display-option settings. refresh Rate The refresh rate—technically, the vertical scan frequency—specifies how many times in one second the double on the riddle can be completely redrawn, if necessary. Measured in screen draws per moment, or hertz ( Hz ), the review rate indicates how much campaign is being put into checking for updates to the displayed prototype. For LCD screens, the review rate is broadly fixed and not an adjustment to be made. LCD televisions that support 120 Hz freshen rates are common, but it ’ second easy to find those rated for 60 Hz, 240 Hz, and 480 Hz arsenic well. For calculator monitors, you might be able to select among multiple refresh rates because you ’ re in control of the circuitry driving the review pace, the graphics adapter. Higher refresh rates translate to more fluid video recording movement. Think of the refresh rate as how much a confirmation is made to see if each pixel has been altered by the source. If a pixel

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should change before the adjacent freshen, the monitor is unable to display the change in that pixel. Therefore, for gaming and home-theater systems, higher refresh rates are an advantage. The review rate is selected for the monitor. Nevertheless, the review rate you select must be supported by both your graphics arranger and your monitor because the adapter drives the monitor. If a monitor supports lone one refresh rate, it does not matter how many unlike rates your adapter supports—without overriding the defaults, you will be able to choose lone the one common refresh rate. It is important to note that as the resolution you select increases, the higher subscribe refresh rates begin to disappear from the choice menu. If you want a higher refresh rate, you might have to compromise by choosing a lower resolution. exert 3.1 shows you where to change the refresh rate in Windows 10. e adam e gas constant carbon i s e 3 .1

Changing the Refresh Rate in Windows 10 1. Right-click a blank part of the Desktop. 2. Click Display Settings, as shown in Figure 3.29. F iodine g u r e 3. 2 9 Display Settings

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E x e gas constant carbon i s e 3 .1 ( hundred oxygen n t one n u e five hundred )

3. Click the Advanced Display Settings connect, as shown in Figure 3.30. You will see the solution, freshen rate, and early expose information. F one g uracil radius vitamin e 3. 3 0 Advanced Display Settings

4. Click the Display Adapter Properties for Display 1. A window will appear, alike to the one shown in Figure 3.31. F i g u gas constant einsteinium 3. 3 1 Monitor and video recording arranger properties

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5.

167

Click the Monitor check, as shown in Figure 3.32. Any available review rates will be shown in the Screen Refresh Rate drop-down box.

6.

Select the desire screen refresh pace from the drop-down menu.

number 3.32

7.

Monitor yellow journalism

Click OK to accept the changes.

There are two things to note : ■

Your proctor may only support one freshen rate. This is pretty coarse for LCD monitors. Just because a refresh pace appears in the properties dialog box, it does not mean that the associated admonisher will be able to handle that rate.

Consider keeping the Hide Modes That This Monitor Can not Display determine box selected, to avoid choosing a refresh rate not supported by your hardware.

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Resolution Resolution is defined by how many software picture elements ( pixels ) are used to draw the screen. An advantage of higher resolutions is that more information can be displayed in the like screen area. A disadvantage is that the same objects and text display at a higher resoluteness appear smaller and might be harder to see. Up to a sharpen, the lend crispness of higher resolutions displayed on high-quality monitors compensates for the negative aspects. The resolution is described in terms of the visible image ’ randomness dimensions, which indicate how many rows and column of pixels are used to draw the sieve. For exemplar, a resolution of 1920 × 1080 means 1920 pixels across ( column ) and 1080 pixels down ( rows ) were used to draw the pixel matrix. The video technology in this case would use 1920 × 1080 = 2,073,600 pixels to draw the screen. resolution is a software setting that is common among CRTs, LCDs, and projection systems, a well as early display devices. Setting the solution for your monitor is reasonably aboveboard. If you are using an LCD, for best results you should use the monitor ’ s native resolution, which comes from the placement of the transistors in the hardware display matrix of the monitor. For a native resolution of 1680 × 1050, for case, there are 1,764,000 transistors ( LCDs ) or cells ( PDPs and OLED displays ) arranged in a grid of 1680 column and 1050 rows. Trying to display a resolution other than 1680 × 1050 through the operate system tends to result in the admonisher interpolating the solution to fit the differing number of software pixels to the 1,764,000 transistors, much resulting in a aberration of the picture on the screen. Some systems will scale the visualize to avoid distorted shape, but others will try to fill the screen with the image, resulting in distortion. On affair, you might find that increasing the resolution beyond the native resolution results in the necessitate to scroll the Desktop in arrange to view early portions of it. In such instances, you can not see the integral Desktop all at the same time. The proctor has the last give voice in how the bespeak it receives from the adapter is displayed. Adjusting your display settings to those that are recommended for your proctor can alleviate this scroll effect. To change the resolution in Windows 10, right-click the Desktop and choose Display Settings ( like in Exercise 3.1 ). There is a pull-down menu for solution. Click it and choose the resoluteness you want, as shown in Figure 3.33.

Understanding Uses of Peripheral Devices

F iodine g uracil radius e 3. 3 3 Adjusting the resoluteness in Windows 10

Some adapters come with their own utilities for changing settings such as the review rate and resolution. For example, Figure 3.34 shows a screen from the NVIDIA Control Panel. On it, you can change both the resolving power and the freshen rate. other settings are available using the menu on the leftover.

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F iodine g uranium radius e 3. 3 4 The NVIDIA Control Panel

Understanding Aspect Ratios The terminus aspect proportion refers to the relationship between the horizontal and vertical pixel counts that a monitor can display. For exercise, old square-ish CRTs were shaped to support a display that conformed to 4:3 ratios, such as 800 × 600 or 1024 × 768. If you divide the inaugural count by 4 and multiply the result by 3, the merchandise is equal to the second total. additionally, if you divide the first number by the irregular count, the result is approximately 1.3, the same as 4 ÷ 3. Displays with a 16:10 expression proportion have measurements that result in a dividend of 16 ÷ 10 = 1.6. When LCD monitors first gear became popular, they had wide screens and most supported a 16:10 ratio. Because the ATSC ( Advanced Television Systems Committee ) standard for widescreen television aspect ratios is 16:9 ( 1.778 ), computer monitors are trending more toward this lapp aspect ratio. As a result, the once-popular 1920 × 1200, 16:10 resolution is now less common than the 1920 × 1080, 16:9 resolving power. If you have a monitor that supports one and you try to set it to the other, the trope may look squished or stretched, or the proctor may not display at all.

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Multiple Displays Whether regularly or just on occasion, you may find yourself in a position where you need to use two monitors on the lapp calculator simultaneously. For example, you may need to work in multiple spreadsheets at the lapp meter, and having two monitors makes it much easier. Or, if you are giving a presentation and would like to have a donor ’ s opinion on your laptop ’ south LCD but need to project a skid show onto a screen, you might need to connect an external projector to the laptop. Simply connecting an external display device does not guarantee that it will be recognized and shape mechanically. You might need to change the settings to recognize the external device, or adjust options such as the resolution or the device ’ s virtual orientation course with respect to the built-in expose. exercise 3.2 guides you through this march. When you have dual displays, you have the option to extend your Desktop onto a second monitor or to clone your Desktop on the second monitor. To change the settings for multiple monitors in Windows 10, follow the steps in Exercise 3.2, after ensuring that you have a second monitor attached. exert 3.2

Changing the Settings for Multiple Monitors 1. Right-click a lacuna fortune of the Desktop. 2. Click Display Settings to open the Display Settings window. If a second monitor has been detected, you will see a screen like to the one shown in Figure 3.35. otherwise, you will need to scroll down and click the Detect button in the Multiple Displays section. F one g uranium gas constant vitamin e 3. 3 5 Multiple displays detected

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E x vitamin e r cytosine i s vitamin e 3. 2 ( continue five hundred )

Notice that the second proctor is highlighted. If you were to change settings such as scale, settlement, or orientation, it would affect the monitor that ’ mho highlighted.

3. Scroll down in Display Settings. Under the Multiple Display settings, you will have options to show an image on only one of the monitors, duplicate the displays, or extend the displays.

4. Choose Extend These Displays, as shown in Figure 3.36. F i g u roentgen vitamin e 3. 3 6 Extending the displays

5. scroll back up to the area where you see the two monitors. Click and hold the second monitor, and drag it about. Notice that you can place it above, below, left, or veracious of the first monitor. This will affect some expose features, including where you need to move the mouse cursor to get it to appear on the second monitor.

6. Move the second monitor to be above the first monitor, and close Display Settings. 7. Move your shiner until you get the cursor to appear on the second screen. 8. ( Optional ) Open Display Settings and configure the second proctor to be in the position you want it to be relative to the beginning monitor.

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Projection Systems Another major class of display device is the video projection organization, or projector. A portable projector can be thought of as a condense video expose with a light system that projects the double onto a screen door or early flat surface for group viewing. Interactive egg white boards have become democratic over the by decade to allow presenters to project an image onto the board as they use virtual markers to draw electronically on the expose prototype. distant participants can see the skid on their system a well as the markups made by the presenter. The presenter can see the lapp markup because the display panel transmits them to the calculator to which the projector is attached, causing them to be displayed by the projector in real clock time. To accommodate using portable units at variable distances from the projection airfoil, a focus mechanism is included on the lens. other adjustments, such as anchor, trapezoid, and pincushion, are provided through a menu system on many models angstrom good as a room to rotate the image 180 degrees for ceiling-mount applications.

Brightness Projection systems are required to produce a ignite visualize and display it many feet away from the system. The built-in challenge to this paradigm is that ambient light tends to interfere with the visualize ’ s projection. One solution to this problem is to increase the luminosity of the image being projected. This brightness is measured in lumens. A lumen ( lumen ) is a unit of quantify for the entire amount of visible light that the projector gives off, based entirely on what the human eye can perceive and not on inconspicuous wavelengths. When the rated luminosity of the projector in lumens is focused on a larger area, the lux—a derivative of lumens measuring how much the projector lights up the surface on which it is focused— decreases ; as you train the projector on a larger surface ( far away ), the lapp lumens produce fewer lux. The predate discussion however, projection systems are rated and chosen for purchase based on lumens of brightness, normally once a maximum supported solution has been chosen. sometimes the brightness is even more of a selling point than the maximal settlement that the system supports because of the chosen environment in which it operates. therefore, this is the denounce that must be used to compare the capabilities of projection systems. Some loose guidelines can help you choose the right projector for your application. Keep in thinker that television versus inactive image projection requires more lumens, and 3D end product requires roughly doubly the lumens of 2D projection. additionally, use of a full-screen ( 4:3 aspect proportion ) projector arrangement in a business environment versus a widescreen ( 16:9 ) home theater projector requires approximately double the lumens of output at the low end and lone 1.3 times at the high goal. For example, if you are able to completely control the ignite in the room where the projection organization is used, producing short to no ambient light, a projector producing a little as 1,300 lumens is adequate in a home dramaturgy environment, while you would need one producing around 2,500 lumens in the function. however, if you can only get rid of most of the ambient easy, such as by closing blinds and dimming command processing overhead time lights, the

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arrangement should be able to produce 1,500 to 3,500 lumens in the home field and 3,000 to 4,500 lumens in the position. If you have no control over a very good unhorse area, you ’ ll need 4,000 to 4,500 lumens in the home dramaturgy and 5,000 to 6,000 lumens in the business setting. These measurements assume a filmdom size of around 120″, careless of aspect proportion. By room of comparison, a 60W standard light bulb produces about 800 lumens. Output is not analogue, however, because a 100W light bulb produces over doubly, at 1,700 lumen. however, you couldn ’ triiodothyronine get away with using a standard 100W incandescent medulla oblongata in a projector. The color production is not pure enough and constantly changes throughout its operation due to deposits of carbon black from the burn of its tungsten filament during the production of unhorse. High-intensity acquit ( HID ) lamps, like the ones found in protrusion systems, do more with less by using a smaller electrical discharge to produce far more visible light. A strong quartz glass bedroom holds the filament in a projector lamp and can be seen inside the knocked out bulb. It contains a metallic halide ( where the son halogen comes from ) gas that glows bright white when the tungsten filament lights up. Depositing the carbon black on the inside of the projector light bulb is avoided by using a chemical process that attracts the carbon black created back to the fibril where it once again become separate of the fibril, extending its life and reducing changes in lightly output. Expect to pay well more for projector bulb than for standard bulb of a comparable electrical power. The metal halide gases used in projector medulla oblongata are more expensive than the noble gases used in standard light bulb. Add to that the fact that the bulb itself might have to be handmade and you can understand the need for higher price.

Cooling Down Although it doesn ’ t take long for the fan to stop running on its own, this is a phase that should never be skipped to save time. With projector bulb being one of the priciest consumables in the populace of technology, doing then may cost you more than a variety in your travel arrangements. See the sidebar titled “ Burning Up ” for some perspective.

Burning Up A boyfriend teacher carried his own portable projector with him on the road. At the end of a week ’ sulfur class, he would power down the projector and get his laptop and other goodies packed away. Just before running forbidden of the door, he would unplug the projector and pack it up. As with many instructors, this gentleman ’ second presentations increased in density and distance as he became more and more comfortable with the substantial. Over meter, his presentation had been running late and later each Friday good afternoon, edging him ever closer to his airline deviation time. He admitted that he had gotten into the habit of yanking the ability punch for his projector from the wall and promptly stuffing the unit into the carrying case before darting out the doorway. It ’ sulfur no wonder then that a few months after he started this behavior, his projector failed catastrophically. Replacing the medulla oblongata was not the solution.

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One caution with projectors is that you must never pull the electrical plug from the wall socket until you hear the internal fan cut off. There is enough remainder heat generated by the projector medulla oblongata that damage to the electronics or the bulb itself ( discoloration or outright failure ) can occur if the fan is not allowed to remove adequate heat before it stops running. Without a connection to an electrical wall socket, the fan stops immediately. The electronics have the appropriate flat of estrus shielding that the fan removes enough heat during normal operation to avoid damage to the shielded components.

Webcams Years ago, owing to the retain growth in the Internet ’ randomness popularity, video camera–only devices known as webcams started their wax in popularity. today, anyone who does a clean measure of moment message, whether master or personal, has likely used or at least been introduced to webcams, frequently used in conjunction with messaging drug user interfaces. Webcams make big security devices a good. Users can keep an center on loved ones or property from anywhere that Internet access is available. Care must be taken, however, because the security that the webcam is intended to provide can backfire on the user if the webcam is not set up properly. Anyone who happens upon the web interface for the device can control its actions if there is no authentication enabled. Some webcams provide a abstemious that illuminates when person activates the television camera. however, it is possible to decouple the camera ’ randomness process and that of its idle. closely every laptop produced today has a webcam built into its bezel. An exercise is shown in Figure 3.37—this one has a light and two microphones built in following to it. If a arrangement doesn ’ thymine have a built-in television camera, a webcam connects directly to the calculator through an I/O interface, typically USB. Webcams that have built-in wired and wireless NIC interfaces for direct network attachment are prevailing as well. A webcam does not have any collected commemorate mechanism. Its sole purpose is to transfer its capture video directly to the host calculator, normally for far transportation over the Internet—hence, the term web. F one g uracil r e 3. 3 7 An integrated webcam

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VR Headset Virtual reality ( VR ) is being touted as the next frontier in electronic bet on. To experience VR, a user dons a pair of VR goggles or a VR headset, which displays images conclusion to their eyes and blocks out all other clean. The images create a 3D world that the exploiter can navigate. VR headsets got their beginning in 2012, when the newly formed Oculus company started a Kickstarter project to develop the Oculus VR. early prototypes showed great promise, and in 2014 Facebook purchased Oculus. The Oculus Rift ( shown in Figure 3.38 ) hit the markets in 2016 and was democratic enough that Oculus had product shortages. today, respective companies make VR headsets to compete with Oculus, including Sony, Samsung, Google, and HTC. F iodine g uranium r e 3. 3 8 Oculus Rift

By Evan-Amos – own influence, populace knowledge domain, hypertext transfer protocol : //commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php ? curid=62084228

There are two common types of VR headsets—those that connect to a computer or gambling system and those that use a smartphone as the shield. Computer-based headsets have a fairly high hardware necessity, by and large due to the intensive video serve that takes place. For case, the Rift recommends a minimal of an Intel Core i3-6100 or AMD Ryzen 3, FX4350 CPU, 8 GB+ RAM, a GeForce GTX 960, HDMI 1.3, one USB 3.0 port, two USB 2.0 ports, and Windows 10. The Oculus itself has two OLED displays providing 1080 × 1200 resoluteness per eye at a 90 Hz freshen rate and integrated headphones for 3D audio. It besides has embedded sensors that allow for positional and rotational track, which can detect the position of a wearer ’ s head within a millimeter. about all systems besides come with a hand-held game control, either a proprietary one or something such as an Xbox One game restrainer, to allow users to interact with the plot. Smartphone-based VR headsets are basically a head strap with a phone aircraft carrier and blinders on the sides to block out light. Users snap their telephone into the carrier wave, which they place on their head. It provides similar effects to an Oculus, but the quality is broadly regarded as inferior to PC-based systems.

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Business applications are being developed for VR vitamin a well. For model, storehouse employees could use VR to navigate through shelves to learn the layout of a fresh store, or engineers could inspect their designs in three dimensions. early applications, such as aesculapian and other types of hands-on train, are easily within reach.

Optical Glasses and Headsets It ’ s unvoiced to think of any computer product that has generated more controversy in late years than Google Glass. Some see the glasses-mounted computer as an perplex technical measure fore, while others view it as a highly intrusive engineering that should be permanently banned. The idea that Google pushed was relatively benign. The company wanted to produce a clothing calculator that enhanced the user experience without the drug user having to think about the device or become distracted by it. frankincense, it created a device that basically has the functionality of a smartphone ( without the ability to make cellular calls itself ) but that was belittled enough to be worn on an eyeglasses inning. Users see an augment reality ( AR ) projected display a few inches from their face that was equivalent to looking at a 25″ screen from about 8 feet away. There ’ mho a touch launching pad on the english of the device that lets users scroll through menu and make selections. other inputs can be made by voice instruction through a microphone or other built-in sensors, such as the accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, proximity detector, and ambient lighter detector. Oh, and it has a camera mounted on it. Yes, it ’ s the television camera that caused the controversy. calculate 3.39 shows Google Glass being worn. Google besides produced a version that fits onto prescription glasses frame. F one g u roentgen e 3. 3 9 Google Glass

“ Google Glass detail ” by Antonio Zugaldia. Licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons—

hypertext transfer protocol : //commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File : Google_Glass_detail.jpg

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Table 3.5 outlines some of the technical specifications of the original Google Glass. Ta b l e 3. 5 original Google Glass spectacles Feature

Specification

Release date

To “ Glass Explorers ” in April 2013

Weight

1.51 oz

Operating organization

Glass OS

CPU

OMAP 4430 Dual Core

RAM

2 GB

Storage

16 GB, 12 GB useable

Display

Prism projector at 640 × 360 pixels, which appears the same as a 25 ” screen viewed from 8 feet

Camera

5MP, 720p HD video

Connectivity

802.11b/g, Bluetooth, micro-USB

Many complained that the device, with its mounted camera, is an invasion of privacy. In theory, the wearer could take pictures or record video recording without other people knowing about it. ( By default, turning on television recording lights up features on Glass, making it reasonably obvious that the wearer is recording. But non-users don ’ thyroxine inevitably know this, and in hypothesis an app could be created to disable the lights. ) indeed, an app was created that allowed wearers to take pictures by good winking. several establishments in the United States posted signs prohibiting Google Glass from being worn inside, such as restaurants, movie theatres, and casinos. In some countries, the device can be considered illegal spy equipment. Apps could be created to identify faces ( imagine walking down the street and seeing a sum stranger, but then seeing their name pop up attached to their Facebook profile ) or track finger movements to steal passwords or ATM PINs. In addition to privacy concerns, there are base hit concerns. For example, wearing Google Glass while driving an car could be considered a condom gamble, much like using a smartphone while driving. Another safety concern could be for users, who on occasion have reportedly been accosted for wearing the device. With all of the potential ramifications, many experts in the technical school industry wonder if a product like Glass will ever receive mainstream toleration. On the incontrovertible side, Glass and exchangeable products may be more take for commercial applications. For exercise, surgeons have used it on a specify footing during operations. Glass has besides been used to help children with autism learn to understand emotions and facial

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expressions. finally, commercial manner of speaking drivers, law enforcement personnel, military personnel, manufacturing supervisors, and journalists can use it to enhance their effectiveness. Google Glass Enterprise Edition 2.0 was released in 2017, intended by and large for business applications. While it upgrades the Wi-Fi to support 802.11a/b/g/n/ac and doubles the memory space to 32 GB, most of the other specifications remain the lapp as the original. early companies have created exchangeable wearable smart glasses angstrom well, such as EyeTap, Golden-i, Microsoft HoloLens, Vuzix, and the Epson Moverio.

Audio Devices Audio devices, true to their name, produce sound by plugging into a sound poster. many sound cards nowadays are integrated into a device ’ south motherboard, but some computers placid have classify audio expansion cards. Audio devices can provide output, such as through speakers or headphones, or remark with a microphone. Speakers and headphones generally connect with a 1/8″ ( 3.5 millimeter ) audio connection, as shown in Figure 3.40. audio jacks were shown in Figure 3.26. Most audio connectors will have two thinly black bands engraved on them, which separates the connection into three parts : the point, band, and sleeve. Because of this, sometimes you will see these connectors referred to as TRS connectors. The point provides leave audio ; the first ring above the black groove ( the surround ) provides right audio ; and the sleeve is the labor. You ’ ll notice that the connection in Figure 3.40 has three black bands, providing four connections and making it a TRRS connection. The fourth one is for the microphone. F i g u r e 3. 4 0 1/8″ audio connection

Headsets that provide sound recording and a microphone are popular for audio conferencing calls and video bet on. A sample headset is shown in Figure 3.41. This model connects via USB, as do most headsets. volume controls and a microphone dumb are located on the correctly earphone.

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F iodine g u roentgen east 3. 41 A USB headset

Although discussed throughout this chapter, the microphone has however to be formally defined, a definition that is at once technical and simple. Microphones convert sound waves into varying electrical signals. The solution can be recorded, transmitted, or altered in a assortment of ways, including amplification. When installing a microphone, you must match its connection with an available one on the calculator. mod choices include the classical analogue pink TRS connection and USB. Wireless versions besides exist, but their receiver might still be connected to a standard I/O interface. alternatively, the microphone could be paired with a built-in Bluetooth transceiver, headphones, or headset. Configuring a microphone on a personal computer is most frequently performed through the Recording tab key of the Sound applet in Control Panel. Options include setting the levels and choosing enhancements, such as noise suppression and echo cancellation. Specialized applications may besides have home configuration for the microphone, passing most details of the configuration back to the operate system.

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Input and Output Devices An input device is one that transfers information from outside the computer system to an inner repositing location, such as system RAM, video recording RAM, blink of an eye memory, or disk storehouse. Without remark devices, computers would be unable to change from their default boot-up state. An end product device does the opposite of an remark device. That is, it takes information that ’ s stored in RAM or another localization and spits it back out somewhere for the exploiter to do something with it. We ’ ve already report monitors, which are the most common output device. The other major type of output device is a printer. Further, some devices are capable of managing both remark and end product. frequently, when discussed in concert, input and output are abbreviated as I/O.

The follow sections detail different classes of input signal and output devices, including a hub of sorts that is used for switching between the most common of these devices. We will besides demonstrate the similarities shared by these devices equally well as their differences. Installation considerations will be presented where allow. The follow devices are covered in the subsequent sections : ■

Keyboard

Mouse

Touch pad

Signature pad

Game restrainer

Barcode or QR scanner

Magnetic or chip reviewer

NFC/tap give device

Printer

Scanner

KVM switch

Keyboard The keyboard is well the most popular stimulation device, so much so that it ’ second more of a necessity. very few users would even think of beginning a computing session without a working keyboard. Fewer hush would even know how. The U.S. English keyboard places keys in the same orientation course as the QWERTY typewriter keyboards, which were developed in the 1860s. Wired keyboards are about always attached via USB. Wireless keyboards will much have a USB dongle that is attached to the calculator but can besides use Bluetooth. In addition to the standard QWERTY layout, modern computer keyboards frequently have distinguish cursor-movement and numeral keypads. The numeral keys in a row above

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the rudiment keys send scan codes to the computer that are different from those sent by the numeral computer keyboard. At the discretion of the programmer, any given application might require the use of alone one of the two sets of numeral keys or allow the use of either. The IBM PC/AT keyboard had alone 84 keys, lacking separate cursor-movement keys. These functions were superimposed on the numeric computer keyboard alone. The Num Lock key had to be toggled to switch between cursor motion and the numeral computer keyboard. The 101-key keyboard did include these separate keys but silent kept the Num Lock musical arrangement a well, and the popular 104-key Windows keyboard added Windows-specific keys to those 101 keys. Keyboards have besides added serve keys ( not to be confused with the common laptop key labeled Fn ), which are frequently placed in a row across the top of the keyboard above the numerical row. Key functionality can be modified by using one or more combinations of the Ctrl, Alt, Shift, and laptop Fn keys along with the normal QWERTY key. technically speaking, the keys on a keyboard complete individual circuits when each one is pressed. The completion of each circuit leads to a singular scan code that is sent to the keyboard connection on the computer arrangement. The calculator uses a keyboard accountant chip or function to interpret the code as the represent keystone sequence. The computer then decides what natural process to take based on the key sequence and what it means to the calculator and the active lotion, including simply displaying the quality printed on the cardinal. In summation to the layout for a standard keyboard, other keyboard layouts exist—some not closely as democratic, however. For example, without changing the order of the keys, an ergonomic keyboard is designed to feel more comfortable to users as they type. The distinctive human ’ south hands do not rest with the fingers straight down. ergonomic keyboards, consequently, should not place keys flat and along the same plane. To accomplish that goal, manufacturers split the keyboard down the center, angling keys on each side down from the center. Doing so fits the keys to the fingers of the hands when they are in a relaxed country. name 3.42 shows an exercise of an ergonomic keyboard. F iodine g uracil r vitamin e 3. 4 2 An ergonomic keyboard

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The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard, patented in 1936, was designed to reduce fatigue in the hands of typists by placing characters that are more normally used in the home row, among early physiologic enhancements. The standard QWERTY layout was designed to keep the hammers of a typewriter from becoming entangled, but typewriters are basically disused. Although the Dvorak keyboard makes legitimate sense, specially in abstemious of the historic refuse in manufacture and sales of the authoritative typewriter, the QWERTY keyboard remains prevailing. One reason why the Dvorak keyboard has failed to take over might be the personnel casualty of productivity to a touch-typist as they retrain on the new format.

Mouse Although the computer mouse was born in the 1970s at Xerox ’ s Palo Alto Research Center ( PARC ), it was in 1984 that Apple made the mouse an integral part of the personal computer with the introduction of the Macintosh. In its most basic form, the mouse is a hand-fitting device that uses some form of motion-detection mechanism to translate its own physical planar motion into onscreen cursor motion. many variations of the sneak exist, including trackballs, tablets, touch pads, and pointing sticks. visualize 3.43 illustrates the most recognizable form of the mouse. F one g uracil roentgen east 3. 4 3 A computer shiner

The motion-detection mechanism of the original Apple sneak was a simple ball that protruded from the bottom of the device so that when the bottom was placed against a flat surface that offered a rebuff total of friction, the mouse would glide over the airfoil but

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the ball would roll, actuating two rollers that mapped the linear bowel movement to a cartesian plane and transmitted the results to the software interface. This method of apparent motion detection remains available today, although it ’ s reasonably unpopular. Later technologies used ocular receptors to catch LED inner light reflected from particularly made surfaces purchased with the devices and used like a sneak pad. A mouse launching pad is a limited surface that improves mechanical mouse grip while offering identical little resistance to the mouse itself. As optical science advanced for the mouse, lasers were used to allow a sharper image to be captured by the mouse, providing more sensitivity in motion detection. Certain surfaces don ’ thymine lend themselves well to standard laser-mouse functionality, but a higher resolution interpretation exists that can tied track across the open of looking glass. The shiner today can be wired to the calculator arrangement or connected wirelessly. A wired mouse typically uses a USB port, which besides provides world power. radio receiver versions will have a USB dongle or get in touch via Bluetooth. They are powered with batteries, and the ocular varieties deplete these batteries more promptly than their mechanical counterparts. The final topic is one that is relevant for any shiner : buttons. The number of buttons that you need your mouse to have is dependent on the software interfaces you use. For the Macintosh, one button has constantly been sufficient, but for a Windows-based calculator, at least two are recommended—hence, the term right-click. nowadays, the mouse is normally found to have a wheel on exceed to aid in scroll and other peculiarity movement. The wheel has even developed a click in many models, kind of an extra button underneath the wheel. Buttons on the side of the sneak that can be programmed for whatever the exploiter desires are more park today as well and can alarm the unsuspecting user the first time they grab such a mouse the wrong way. There are several variants on arrow devices, such as trackballs. A trackball is like an inverted sneak. Both devices place the buttons on the top, which is where your fingers will be. A mouse places its tracking mechanism on the bottom, requiring that you move the integral assembly as an analogue for how you want the cursor on the screen door to move. In contrast, a trackball places the trailing mechanism, normally a ball that is about one edge in diameter, on the top with the buttons. You then have a device that need not be moved about on the background and can work in besotted spaces and on surfaces that would be uncongenial with the use of a mouse. The better trackballs place the ball and buttons in such a configuration that your hand rests ergonomically on the device, allowing casual control of the onscreen cursor.

Touch Pad Most modern laptops have a built-in point device that can take the place of a sneak. touch pads are flat panels, which are most often positioned in the like airplane as the keyboard—between the spacebar and the user—often with buttons that supply the left- and right-clicks of the mouse. The user controls the onscreen arrow by tracing its path on the surface of the touch pad, some of which include a haptic click have that takes the position

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of the left-button snap. Some tint pads besides dedicate an edge to the right-click function. name 3.44 shows a laptop touch slog with three buttons. F one g u r vitamin e 3. 4 4 A laptop touch launching pad

Touch pads can be purchased as separate external devices for use with any calculator that has an available port, often USB. These function with laptops and desktops alike. Regardless of the details surrounding the touch pad, Windows offers one or more tabs dedicated to the contact pad in the Mouse applet in Control Panel for use in configuring the assorted settings for it. Tabs added by the manufacturer of the hardware much include advanced shape options, including those related to multitouch and motions. We will explore touch slog configuration options in chapter 10, “ Understanding Laptops. ”

Signature Pad At many medical offices, grocery stores, and early places of business, customers will be asked to sign receipts or documents. While some will have people sign a real number slice of composition, many businesses are moving to the use of electronic signature pads. A signature launching pad uses identical similar technology to a tint pad, in that touch on a flat surface is translated into electrical signals, which are sent to the central processing unit. touch pads frequently make practice of a stylus, which is a pen-like device. Others can simply track the convention of a signer ’ sulfur finger. generally speaking, the stylus-based models produce a more accurate representation of a person ’ second signature. If you ’ ve always tried signing a key signature pad with your index finger, it credibly looked nothing like your normal signature. An example of a stylusbased key signature diggings is shown in Figure 3.45.

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F i g uranium roentgen e 3. 4 5 A Topaz Systems signature pad

Picture courtesy of TopazSystems.com

Signature pads much attach via USB or through an Ethernet cable, although some series port models exist. Wireless models may support Bluetooth or Wi-Fi network connections.

Game Controller As long as there have been gaming applications for the personal computer, there have been standard and peculiarity controllers for some of those games. For the remainder, the keyboard and mouse could be or had to be used for controlling the game. Two popular types of controllers have been the generic joystick, a restrainer with one or more buttons and a pin of varying distance and cinch, and the often-proprietary game control. If you ’ ve played with a gaming console table such as an Xbox, PlayStation, or Wii, you are familiar with the latter. They normally have routine and directional buttons specific to the gaming console table in consumption, and more recently contain motion sensors. Through the years, standardized personal computer connections have included the DA15 game port, besides known as the stick port, the RS-232 larboard, and the USB port. figure 3.46 shows a pumped-up stick ( called a Nunchuk, in Wii parlance ) connected through the radio restrainer for the Nintendo Wii video recording game cabinet.

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F iodine g uranium radius east 3. 4 6 A proprietorship ( Nintendo Wii ) gamepad

Barcode or QR Scanner A barcode scanner ( or barcode reviewer ) is a specify stimulation device normally used in retail and other industrial sectors that manage stock. The systems to which the reader connects can be thus specialize that they have no other stimulation device. Barcode readers can use LEDs or lasers as abstemious sources and can scan one- or two-dimensional barcodes. Barcodes encode simple information—strings of numbers or letters—based on telephone line widths.

Using a Barcode Reader in the VoIP Industry The VoIP industry relies on barcode readers to promptly scan in the MAC addresses of hundreds or thousands of desk sets from labels on their neatly stacked boxes before their deployment. Depending on the brand of equipment, the MAC addresses might be read in to populate a spreadsheet that is belated used as remark to the call management system during the designation of which directory numbers will be assigned to which physical devices. The same job done by pass could have untold issues caused by exploiter mistake.

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Barcode readers can connect to the horde system in a numeral of ways, but serial connections, such as USB, are reasonably common. If the system uses proprietorship software to receive the reader ’ s stimulation, the connection between the two might be proprietorship as well. classic software interfaces called for the proofreader to be plugged into the keyboard ’ south PS/2 connection using a rail-splitter, or “ bomber, ” which allows the keyboard to remain connect. The scanner converts all output to keyboard scans so that the system treats the input as though it came from a keyboard. For certain readers, radio communication with the host is besides possible, using infrared, radio frequency ( RF ), Bluetooth, or Wi-Fi. With today ’ s smartphone technology being what it is, the built-in cameras can act as scanners, and the scanning app can interpret what the camera sees. In this way, Universal Product Code ( UPC ) barcodes, Quick Response ( QR ) codes, and other 2D matrix barcodes can be input and processed. The smartphone can then use its Internet entree to launch the lotion associated with the text, such as a web browser or an e-mail node. A QR code is an encode prototype that allows the scanning application to decode large amounts of textbook. It can be used to represent elementary textbook or popular strings, such as a web site ’ mho URL, a phone count, a GEO location, an e-mail address, or an master of science message. figure 3.47 is a elementary QR code that will direct a QR-code lector app to the www.wiley.com web site. F one g u gas constant east 3. 4 7 A QR code

Magnetic or Chip Reader Magnetic stripes on plastic cards such as credit cards have been around for decades. More recently, credit card producers have been including an integrated circuit chip ( ICC ) in the cards angstrom well, both as a security precaution and a appliance mechanism. These chips contain a combination of RAM, ROM, PROM, and a 16-bit CPU. Most retailers will have a magnetic reader or chip lector to make it easy for their shoppers to complete credit- or debit-based transactions. A batting order with an ICC is shown in Figure 3.48. If you ’ ve always paid for anything with a accredit or debit card, then you will be familiar with a magnetic subscriber or a nick lector. The entirely confuse part is knowing if you need to slide or insert the calling card, based on what the retailer requires. Readers are besides made for smartphones and tablets, allowing department of commerce to happen anywhere a cellular connection can be made.

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F one g uranium gas constant einsteinium 3. 4 8 A fictile card with an ICC

Plastic cards with embedded chips can store more than fiscal information. They can store things such as an employee ID, which a computer system can link back to security permissions, or other employee information. Often you will hear these cards referred to as fresh cards. As more and more organizations discover the prize in multifactor authentication for access to their computing assets, chic card readers have become indispensable as an instrument of the “ something you have ” principle. For quite some prison term, the United States government and its military forces have relied on common access cards ( CACs ), which serve as ocular identification cards vitamin a well as chip-based fresh cards. Businesses may validate employees by using a bright card reviewer, which is basically the same car that you will see in a retail environment. It attaches to the arrangement internally or outwardly by USB or sometimes through a dedicated arranger. The subscriber provides ability for the chip that is embedded in the chic batting order.

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The chip on a fresh calling card may contain one or more public key infrastructure ( PKI ) certificates. Smart card readers used by the United States Department of Defense are able to access the CAC ’ s ICC in order to use an identification certificate in the chip to verify the identity of the holder. A PIN, however, may distillery be required to establish two-factor authentication. In other uses, card readers access digital-signature and encoding certificates to establish nonrepudiation and confidentiality for a exploiter during electronic exchanges of data.

NFC/Tap Pay Device At some point, person decided that having to swipe or insert a credit wag to buy something was way excessively much function. Why couldn ’ triiodothyronine people just wave their payment method acting in the general vicinity of the retailer to complete the transaction ? This is where NFC and rap pay up devices come into play. They are natural extensions of the bright cards discussed in the previous section. A tap pay device works on the concept of cheeseparing battlefield communication ( NFC ). The implant chip in the wag is activated by a radio receiver frequency signal when it comes within a certain distance of the reader—the maximal stove is normally about 3″. Depending on the execution, the drug user may need to actually tap their poster to the lector, or they may be able to just get it within range. The activate chip transmits the credit rating batting order number to the lector, which is connected to the retailer ’ s item of sale end to complete the transaction. This makes completing transactions faster than swiping or inserting a card. To improve security, some transactions require the drug user to enter a preset PIN. besides note that some countries limit the sum that can be spent using a tap pay or NFC device. The early thing that this engineering enables is the payment with smartphones. no long do shoppers have to carry around a credit card ! Apple Pay and Google Pay both give up users to enter credit card information into their phones, and then use the telephone to pay at an NFC or exploit yield concluding. Most of the time, authority is required using the touch detector on the phone to validate a fingerprint.

Printer Often immediately behind your monitor in output-device importance, the one or more printers that you have attached to your calculator become invaluable when you need to produce a hard copy for distribution or for inclusion body in a report, for exemplify. chapter 5, “ Installing and Configuring Printers, ” details the respective printer families, such as impact, thermal, inkjet, and laser, a well as the details involved in their facility, including connectivity and driver installation.

Scanner One of the earliest remark devices digression from the keyboard and mouse was the scanner. today, it ’ s reasonably unusual to find a stand-alone scanner. Most are integrated into a multifunctional printer or replicate machine. Like printers, scanners use USB, Wi-Fi, or Bluetooth to connect.

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Scanners use lighter to reflect off of a airfoil and measure the relative reflections of the unlike dots that make up the grid that the scanner is able to detect. The tight the grid ( the more dots per inch [ DPI ] supported ), the higher the resolution of the result image. Charge-coupled devices ( CCDs ) are a coarse choice in today ’ second scanners. CCDs convert the light they receive into electric impulses, which are then forwarded to the software producing the scan for farther march into an picture that is a fax of the original object being scanned. A flatcar scanner evokes the concept of a duplicator with the newspaper treat and printing mechanisms missing. This effigy is not far off, which is why copiers make fantastic scanners, equally long as they can produce a digital effigy file. It ’ second besides why multifunction devices are so fecund ; it takes identical small to outfit a printer with a scanner component to be used for input to the computer and as a fax-scanning device. Inbound faxes can be printed, or the like digital interface that the scanner uses can be used to transfer the persona electronically to software in the calculator. number 3.49 shows the top flatcar scanner dowry of a laser multifunction device that provides a way to print, scan, and facsimile. F one g u roentgen e 3. 4 9 A flatcar scanner

Many multifunctional printer/scanner combinations designed for the workplace have an automatic rifle document feeder ( ADF ) attached to the top. This allows a exploiter to place respective sheets of newspaper in the ADF and have them all copied or scanned at the same time. Contrast this with a flatbed scanner, which can scan lone one piece of newspaper at a time. figure 3.50 shows one of numerous brands of portable text file scanners. These handy little devices are barely more than a infantry long and can make short work of scanning

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anything from a clientele wag to a boast receipt to an 8.5″ × 11″ lodge pagination. The associate software that comes with these scanners performs optical fictional character recognition ( OCR ), and it can recognize the orientation of the text and reap pertinent information from the documents scanned to populate the inner database. From this database, you can produce reports for such purposes as expenses, invoice, and taxes. This exemplary besides offers the option to create a PDF during the scan rather. F one g uranium r einsteinium 3. 5 0 A portable document scanner

KVM Switch A KVM switch international relations and security network ’ t an remark or output device, per selenium, but it allows you to switch between sets of input signal and output signal devices. The KVM switch is named after the devices among which it allows you to switch. The initials stand for keyboard, video, and mouse. KVM switches come in a kind of models, with unlike connection types available. The determination of the switch over is to allow you to have multiple computers attached to the same keyboard, proctor, and shiner. You can use these three devices with only one system at a time. Some switches have a dial that you turn to select which organization attaches to the components, while others feature buttons for each system connected. common uses of KVM switches include using the same components alternately for a desktop calculator and a laptop dock station or having a server room with multiple servers but no need to interface with them simultaneously. calculate 3.51 shows an older, four-system VGA/USB switch with analogue audio switch deoxyadenosine monophosphate well. If DVI or other attachments are desired, adapters are required. The buttons on the front ( right slope of the double ) switch the common comfort connections among the four systems, alone three of which are presently attached. A maximal of one

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of the four LEDs beside the corresponding buttons is lit at a time—only for the system presently in control. F one g uranium gas constant e 3. 5 1 A KVM switch

Storage Devices We ’ ve already spent quite a bunch of time in this koran discussing storage options, such as ocular drives and hard drives. These devices are frequently inner to the event, but external options are available as well. Take optical drives, for case. In orderliness to save space on smaller laptop, manufacturers are removing ocular drives. If users want to play a Blu-ray or DVD movie, they will need to attach an external ocular drive. external ocular drives can be used for data backups american samoa well. These external drives will most likely connect via USB or eSATA. external storage drives can greatly enhance the storage capacity of a calculator, or they can provide network memory for respective users. A overplus of options is available, from one drives to multi-drive systems with respective terabytes of capacity. calculate 3.52 shows an external network-attached storehouse ( NAS ) device.

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F one g uranium radius e 3. 5 2 A network-attached storage device

“ NETGEAR ReadyNAS NV+ ” by PJ – own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons

Looking at Figure 3.52, you can see that this is a self-enclosed unit that can hold up to four hard drives. Some hold more ; some hold less. Nicer NAS systems enable you to hotswap hard drives and have built-in fault tolerance a well. In accession to the hardware, the NAS device contains its own operate organization, meaning that it acts like its own file server. In most cases, you can plug it in, do some very minor configuration, and have instant memory space on your network. ampere far as connectivity goes, NAS systems will connect to a personal computer through a USB or eSATA port, but that is chiefly so you can use that personal computer to run the shape software for the NAS. The NAS besides connects to the network, and that is how all of the network users access the repositing space.

Summary In this chapter, you learned about versatile cable and connection types, and the purposes and uses of peripheral types. First, you learned about video cables and connection types. Topics included the analogue VGA standard, vitamin a well as the digital standards HDMI,

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mini-HDMI, DisplayPort, and DVI. then, hard drive connections and cables related to SATA, IDE ( PATA ), and SCSI were covered. multipurpose cables are used for a kind of peripheral types and include the common USB, Lightning, and Thunderbolt connectors. finally, you learned about other cable and connection types, such as consecutive, FireWire, audio/ video, and PS/2. The moment department in the chapter focused on peripheral types. We broke them into four categories : video, audio, input/output, and memory. Video peripherals include monitors, projectors, webcams, VR headsets, and optical glasses, such as Google Glass. There aren ’ t many audio connectors, but most use the TRS connection you learned about. Input and output devices were the biggest category, covering keyboards, shiner, allude pads, signature pads, plot controllers, smart card readers, NFC/tap pay devices, printers, scanners, and KVM switches. last, the chapter ended with a quick reminder that storage devices and ocular drives can be external, and an example of an external network-attached storage ( NAS ) device.

Exam Essentials Recognize and understand different peripheral connectors and converters. expansion cards and motherboards have external connectivity interfaces. The interfaces have connectors that adhere to some classify of criterion for interconnecting with a cable television or external device. Knowing these specific characteristics can help you differentiate among the capabilities of the interfaces available to you. Understanding when to use an adapter to convert one connection to another is all-important to achieving connectivity among differing interfaces. Adapters you should know are DVI to HDMI, USB to Ethernet, and DVI to VGA. Recognize and be able to describe display connectors specifically. Although a type of peripheral connection, expose connectors are in a class all their own. Technologies continue to be developed to merge display and early peripheral functions, such as serial I/O, but the differences among the respective display interfaces are significant adequate for these connectors to warrant their own class. Types include VGA, HDMI, mini-HDMI, DisplayPort, and the assorted versions of DVI. Know the characteristics of cables used for peripheral attachment. Whether the connection is inner or external to the calculator organization, each cable used has specific characteristics, no matter their resemblance to others. Some cables that look similar to others support higher speeds or longer distances. Some have might components, while others are completely passive in nature. Knowing the specific cables that go along with the expansion cards and their interfaces is highly valuable and significant. Recognize and understand the aim of hard drive cables. The connectors you should recognize are SATA, IDE ( PATA ), and SCSI. They each connect hard drives or ocular drives. Know the assorted multipurpose cables and their connectors. Multipurpose cables include USB, Lightning, and Thunderbolt. USB has the largest diverseness of connectors, including USB-A and USB-B and their mini- and micro- versions, a well as the newer USB-C. USB cables besides can have proprietary connectors, such as Apple ’ s Lightning

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connection. Thunderbolt can use a proprietorship connection or USB-C. other connectors to know are DB-9, SCSI, eSATA, and Molex. Understand the purpose and use of video peripherals. Video peripherals are used to get television into or out of a computer. The most park video device is a monitor. Projectors besides end product television. Webcams provide video recording remark. Newer inventions include virtual reality ( VR ) headsets and augmented reality ( AR ) optical headsets. Understand the purpose and function of sound recording peripherals. sound recording peripherals are used to produce or input legal. Examples include speakers and headsets, and microphones for stimulation. Know what assorted input/output devices are used for. Be familiar with the basics such as keyboards and mouse. besides know the purposes for touch pads, signature pads, bet on controllers, barcode and QR code scanners, magnetic strip and chip readers ( including ache card readers ), and NFC/tap pay up devices. ultimately, be familiar with printers, scanners, and KVM switches. Understand external storage options. external storage options include hard drives and ocular drives, such as Blue-ray and DVD drives. Hard drives can be one drives or configured in a blend set, such as an external network-attached storage ( NAS ) appliance.

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Review Questions The answers to the chapter revue questions can be found in Appendix A. 1. Which of the following have been common methods to backlight an LCD monitor ? ( Choose two. ) A. RGB OLEDs B. LEDs C. Incandescent bulb D. Halogen bulbs E. Fluorescent bulbs 2. You are attaching an external hard drive to a computer with USB 2.0 ports. The exploiter is concerned about data transfer amphetamine. What is the maximal amphetamine of USB 2.0 ? A. 480 Mbps B. 5 Gbps C. 10 Gbps D. 20 Gbps 3. You are installing peripherals on a new calculator. Which of the following devices provides both input and output ? A. Webcam B. Projector C. Touch shield D. KVM switch 4. You are installing a successor monitor on a background calculator. Which of the following is on-key regarding a monitor ’ randomness refresh rate ? A. american samoa retentive as the graphics adapter can refresh the double at a particular rate, the attach monitor can accommodate that review pace. B. The freshen rate is normally expressed in MHz. C. The refresh rate is normally selected by using the controls on the front man control panel of the proctor. D. As you lower the resoluteness, the utmost refresh rate allowed tends to increase. 5. Which of the surveil connection types is typically not associated with hard drive use ? A. USB-C B. eSATA C. DB-9 D. SCSI

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6. You are concern in purchasing a new admonisher and detect the contrast proportion specification. What does that refer to ? A. The proportion of luminosity between the dark and lightest colors that can be displayed B. A condition that was used with LCDs but is not a valid specification for OLEDs C. The proportion of luminosity between two adjacent pixels D. A sport that changes based on the resolution setting 7. You are installing a newly video card that has an HDMI port. Which of the follow is true about HDMI cables ? ( Choose all that apply. ) A. They can transmit analogue or digital signals. B. They can transmit audio angstrom well as television. C. They are not used to connect to projectors. D. They can use HDMI or mini-HDMI connectors. 8.

Which of the follow display interfaces is equivalent to DisplayPort with PCIe added in ? A. Thunderbolt B. HDMI C. DVI D. VGA

9. What is the single, sterilize resolution of an LCD called ? A. Default resolution B. Refresh rate C. Burned-in resolution D. Native resolution E. Aspect ratio 10. How do you connect a DVI-A interface on a peripheral to a DVI-D interface on the calculator ? A. With a DVI-I cable B. With a cable that is terminated on one end with a DVI-A connection and on the other end with a DVD-D connection C. You wouldn ’ thymine interconnect those two interfaces. D. With a standard DVI cable 11. What kind of peripheral is used to read credit cards to initiate fiscal transactions ? ( Choose all that apply. ) A. Barcode reviewer B. Signature pad C. Magnetic reader D. Chip reviewer

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12. Why might you use a KVM switch ? A. You have multiple Ethernet devices that need to communicate with one another. B. You need to be able to switch the voltage supplied to a particular device. C. You have a printer that is not attached to the network but you want multiple computers to be able to print to it. D. You have more than one waiter and don ’ thyroxine want to buy certain external peripherals individually for each. 13. Which of the succeed connection types are adequate to of conducting ability and transmitting data ? ( Choose all that apply. ) A. Lightning B. Molex C. USB-C D. DB-9 E. micro-USB 14. You want to enhance your expose capabilities. Which of the be is possible to do with multi-monitor settings ? A. Connect multiple monitors to your computer alone by using a graphics arranger with two video interfaces. B. Cause two different Desktops to merge onto the lapp proctor. C. Connect two laptops together so they display the same Desktop. D. Display different parts of your Desktop on different monitors. 15. Which of the adopt is not an exemplar of a connection for a standard peripheral input device ? A. 1/8″ jack B. Molex C. D-sub D. USB 16. When purchasing a projector, which of the trace is the most authoritative characteristic to consider ? A. Aspect ratio B. Maximum resolving power C. Lumens D. Native resolution 17. A exploiter with an iPhone 7 needs to charge her device and asks you to bring a cable. Which of the following connection types should you ensure that the cable has ? A. Thunderbolt B. Lightning C. USB-C D. Micro-USB

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18. Which of the following resolutions is an case of a 16:10 aspect ratio ? A. 1280 × 1024 B. 1920 × 1200 C. 800 × 600 D. 2048 × 1536 19. What type of pointing device features a ball and buttons on the top and a flat, steady airfoil on the bottom ? A. mouse B. Touch diggings C. Trackball D. Track pad 20. VGA cables use what type of sign between the arranger and monitor ? A. Digital B. Analog C. Composite D. Compressed

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Performance-Based Question You will encounter performance-based questions on the A+ examination. The questions on the examination ask you to perform a specific job, and you will be graded on whether or not you were able to complete the tax. The adopt requires you to think creatively in arrange to measure how well you understand this chapter ’ south topics. You may or may not see exchangeable questions on the actual A+ examination. To see how your answers compare to the authors ’, refer to Appendix B. Looking at the back of a computer, you see the interfaces shown in the follow graphic. Which type of cables do you need to plug into each one ?

A

E

B

F

C

G

D

H

$ PNQ5* ” ¡ ” ¡ $ PNQMFUF4UVEZ ( VJEF ‘PVSUI & EJUJPO By 2VFOUJO % PDUFSBOE+PO # VIBHJBS $ PQZSJHIU¥CZ+PIO8JMFZ4POT *OD

Chapter

4

Custom PC Configurations The be CompTIA A+ 220-1001 objectives are covered in this chapter : ✓✓ 3.8 Given a scenario, choose and configure appropriate components for a custom-made personal computer shape to meet customer specifications or needs. ■■

■■

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Graphic / CAD / CAM plan workstation ■■

SSD

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High-end video

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Maximum RAM

Audio/Video editing workstation ■■

Specialized audio and television card

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Large, fast hard force

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Dual monitors

Virtualization workstation ■■

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Maximum RAM and CPU cores

Gaming PC ■■

SSD

■■

High-end video/specialized GPU

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High-definition phone card

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High-end cooling

Standard thick node ■■

Desktop applications

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Meets recommended requirements for selected OS

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Thin client ■■

Basic applications

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Meets minimal requirements for selected OS

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Network connectivity

Network attached repositing device ■■

Media streaming

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File sharing

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Gigabit NIC

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RAID array

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Hard drive

✓✓ 3.9 Given a scenario, install and configure common devices. ■■

Desktop ■■

Thin node

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Thick customer

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Account setup/settings

not all computers are right for every position. There are small Chromebooks that are ideal for portability and world wide web browse, but they would fail miserably when used for mathematical model of complex systems. Supercomputers that are up to the model tax would have to be wholly disassembled to be transported anywhere, and they would credibly break the bank for most home users. While these are extreme examples, dozens more exist that shine a light on the need for custom configurations to perform particular jobs. This chapter introduces you to some of the custom configurations, which have become so popular that they are equivalent to standards, enough so that they can be discussed in a finite way. Because of the situations in which you might find yourself, such concepts have become needed cognition for the A+ certified technician. For model, you might be given a list of requirements from a client and need to translate that into the optimum system for their needs. Or the A+ examination might give you a scenario with specifications, and you ’ ll want to determine the best answer. The follow specialize systems are covered in this chapter : ■■

Standard thick clients

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Graphic and CAD/CAM blueprint workstations

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Audio/video editing workstations

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Virtualization workstations

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Gaming PCs

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Thin clients

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Network-attached storage devices

Exploring Custom Configurations a much as computer systems have become specialized, their core components don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate differ dramatically in functionality from one type of system to the adjacent. For example, a hard drive is designed to store files, careless of whether it ’ s a small one in a pad or if it ’ sulfur in a gigantic and super-fast audio/video editing workstation. Because of this, you might feel like this chapter talks about much of the like hardware over and over, but that is by design. many hardware components are in multiple configurations ; the size and amphetamine of those components may differ among custom-made configuration types. Software is a lot the same ; an operate system provides an interface between other software applications and

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Custom PC Configurations

the hardware, careless of the device on which is it running. other types of hardware and software are therefore speciate that they only apply to a one custom-made shape from the former list. The take after types of hardware ( and software ) are discussed in the sections to come : ■

CPU enhancements

Video enhancements

Maximized RAM

Specialized sound recording

Specialized drives

NIC enhancements

Additional specialized devices or software ■

Enhanced cooling

Special chassis

Application specifics On the A+ examination, you may be given a scenario and asked to choose the right personal computer shape to meet customer needs. Each of the adjacent seven sections on different configurations gives you the information needed to choose the mighty configuration based on a given scenario. For exercise, if given a scenario where the user will be designing magazines, they will need a graphic or CAD/CAM workstation. Or, if the exploiter wants to store all of the family ’ mho important files in a central localization for all family members to access, they might consider a network-attached storage device.

Standard Thick Clients A standard thick client is not actually a custom shape ; it ’ s the standard configuration on which custom-made configurations are based. In other words, a compact client is a standard customer calculator organization. For most end-user scenarios, this is the type of node they need, unless they are performing speciate duties requiring supernumerary hardware or software. As a distinctive node computer, it must meet the commend requirements for the selected operational system equally well as be able to run standard background applications, such as a productiveness suite like Microsoft Office. Because it ’ s a customer, however, the ability to attach to a network and accept a configuration that attaches it to one or more servers is implied. Although most computers nowadays exhibit such capabilities, they can not be assumed. Each operating arrangement requires a minimal set of hardware features to support its initiation. Each extra desktop application installed requires its own set of features coincident with, or on top of, those required for the engage system. For case, 64-bit versions of the Windows 10 operate on system require 2 GB of RAM for facility and 20 GB of hard drive outer space. If you buy an application that besides requires 2 GB of RAM, you

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don ’ t need to install 4 GB total—the app can share RAM with the OS, although neither may run arsenic debauched as you ’ vitamin d want them to. ( More RAM is about always a good thing ! ) When it comes to heavily campaign space, though, it will most surely require adequate extra harddrive space to store its relate files. Keep in mind that minimum specifications are merely that—the minimal. All operational systems—Windows, macOS, Linux, and others—have published minimal specifications, but besides higher recommended specifications. It ’ s in your best pastime to even go beyond those, if possible. With any customer calculator, you will need to set up drug user accounts and any customize settings the drug user requires. Configuring user accounts is an objective in the CompTIA A+ 220-1002 examination, so we ’ ll cover how to do that in chapter 16, “ Operating System Administration. ” For now, know that each user that will operate that computer will need their own drug user account. Every drug user account has its own settings, so the environment can be tailored toward the individual as needed. multiple people could use the same username and password to log in, but that reduces individualization and creates security risks that you probably don ’ triiodothyronine want to deal with.

Graphic and CAD/CAM Design Workstations Some users will be designers of graphic capacity, such as posters, advertisements, magazines, product packaging, and early graphic media. Others will be engineers or architects designing homes or commercial buildings. Computers used by graphic purpose artists must process a constant flow of colors and detail shapes, the combination of which can put a strain on the magnetic disk subsystem, RAM, and video components. CAD/CAM systems can carry the interior designer ’ s vision from conception to design in a 100-percent digital fix. three-dimensional drawings are besides common with this technology. These designs drive or aid in the output of 3D models. such systems have been used for decades by professionals in the computer architecture, survey, and mastermind fields, a good as by purpose engineers in manufacture firms. The output of calculator numeral control ( CNC ) systems used in the fabrication process following the use of CAD/CAM workstations in the design phase is far different from displays on monitors or printouts. CNC systems take a set of tease instructions and render them into machine or tool movements. The leave is often a programmable cutting away of parts of the naked material to produce a finished product. Examples are automotive parts, such as metallic engine parts or wheel rims, crowns and other dental structures, and works of art from assorted materials. When faced with a scenario in which these types of users need a workstation, know that the systems used in the design of graphic content need a particular stress placed on the postdate three areas : ■■

Solid-state intemperate drives

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Video enhancements

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Maximized RAM

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Solid-State Hard Drives The fi les that are generated on graphic design and CAD/CAM systems are much quite big, and the users will often be saving and loading these fi les. For this reason, solid-state drives ( SSDs ) are recommended. They possess much faster learn and write times than conventional magnetic drives. Traditional drives might slow down the interior designer due to long fi lupus erythematosus save or load times.

Video Enhancements Possibly an obvious prerequisite for such systems, graphics adapters with better graphics processing units ( GPUs ) and extra RAM on board have the capability to keep up with the need of graphic design applications. such applications place an unacceptable load on the CPU and system RAM when specialized processors and adequate RAM are not portray on the graphics arranger. The video system is an area in which the best technology ( that is within the budget ) should be purchased. table 4.1 compares a typical television wag to a high-end one, and Figure 4.1 shows the face plate of the EVGA GeForce GTX 1070 Ti video calling card. Throughout this chapter we will show comparisons of hardware to demonstrate the differences between common hardware that you might find in a typical blockheaded customer and hardware found in higher-end configurations. We do this know that the moment we write down specification, newer and faster hardware will become available and prices will drop. That ’ sulfur precisely the nature of calculator hardware. sol, we ask that you take these comparisons for what they are—illustrations of a concept—and not at actual face respect or an endorsement of specific products. If you need to configure a customs arrangement, it should give you an idea of what to look for when researching hardware.

TA barn fifty einsteinium 4 .1

Video menu comparison

Specification

Typical Video Card

High-End Video Card

Name

AMD Radeon HD 5040

EVGA GeForce GTX 1070 Ti

Slot

PCIe x16

Dual-slot PCIe x16

Standard

PCIe 2.1

PCIe 3.0

Memory

1 GB DDR3

8 GB GDDR5

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Specification

Typical Video Card

High-End Video Card

Memory travel rapidly

900 MHz

8008 MHz

Interfaces

VGA, DVI, HDMI

DVI-I, HDMI, 3x DisplayPort

Maximum displays

1

4

Maximum digital resolution

2560 × 1600

7680 × 4320

Price

$ 40

$ 500

f one g u radius e 4 .1

EVGA GeForce GTX 1070 Ti interfaces

Table 4.1 references GDDR5 memory. The acronym stands for “ graphics duplicate data rate, ” which is memory specifically designed for television cards. Although there are some minor technical differences between GDDR5 and DDR5, you don ’ t need to worry about them for the A+ examination ( or in substantial life, for that matter, unless you design video cards ).

You may besides want to consider multiple PCIe x16 television adapters, which can might separate video displays or be bridged together to form one functional unit. Examples of this engineering are NVIDIA ’ s scalable Link Interface ( SLI ) and AMD ’ s CrossFire. Remember that the motherboard and applications must fully support these technologies for them to work by rights.

Maximized RAM Although such systems take advantage of enhance video subsystems, all applications inactive require CPUs to process their instructions and RAM to hold these instructions

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during process. Graphics applications tend to be particularly CPU and RAM hungry. Maximizing the sum of RAM that can be accessed by the CPU and operating system will result in better overall performance by graphic design workstations. The cost of RAM is among the most volatile of computer components. so much depends on the shape, speed, and trade name. And like everything else in computing, the cost drops dramatically over time. As an exercise, in 1994, the cost of RAM was about $ 100 per megabyte. As of the clock of writing this chapter, a quick sketch on-line shows that RAM goes for about $ 100– $ 125 per 8 GB. besides agent in the cost of a motherboard. Motherboards that support more random-access memory are probable to be more expensive than those that support less RAM. Before upgrading your RAM, always check to see which character of RAM is compatible with the motherboard, how many slots are available, and how the slot work together. For example, if there is an capable slot, you might be able to upgrade the sum organization RAM by just adding a modern stick ; in some cases, the new RAM must be precisely the lapp type as the existing RAM for them to work together. In other cases, you might need to remove the old RAM and replace it with new RAM. Check your documentation !

Audio/Video Editing Workstations Professionals who edit multimedia material command workstations that excel in three areas : ■

Video enhancements

Specialized audio

Specialized hard drives

The follow sections assume the consumption of nonlinear edit ( NLE ) schemes for video. NLE differs from linear editing by storing the video to be edited on a local drive rather of editing being performed in real meter as the source video is fed into the calculator. NLE requires workstations with much higher RAM capacity and magnetic disk space than does analogue editing. Although maximizing RAM is a benefit to these systems, doing so is considered secondary to the three areas of enhancement mentioned in the precede tilt.

Video Enhancements Although a high-performance video subsystem is a profit for computer systems used by audio/video ( A/V ) editors, it is not the most significant television enhancement for such systems. Audio/video editing workstations benefit most from a graphics arranger with multiple video interfaces that can be used simultaneously. These adapters are not rare, but it is still possible to fi north dakota high-end adapters with entirely one interface, which are not ideal for A/V editing systems. Having double monitors is a must. When editing multimedia content, or even generalize documents, it is imperative that editors have multiple views of the like or similar fi les. The editor program of such corporeal frequently needs to view unlike parts of the lapp fi lupus erythematosus. additionally, many A/V editing software suites allow, and often encourage or require, the editor to use

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multiple utilities simultaneously. For exercise, in video edit, many packages optimize their background agreement when multiple monitors are detected, allowing less horizontal scroll through the timelines used to control the master editing fi lupus erythematosus. The ability to extend the desktop across multiple monitors is valuable in such situations. To improve video-editing performance, insist on a graphics arranger that supports NVIDIA ’ s Compute Unified Device Architecture ( CUDA ) or OpenCL. CUDA is a parallel calculate architecture for breaking down larger serve tasks into smaller tasks and processing them simultaneously on a GPU. Open Computing Language ( OpenCL ) is a like cross-platform open standard maintained by the Khronos Group. Programmers can specify high-level function calls in a program speech with which they are more conversant rather of writing specific instructions for the firmware of the central processing unit at hand. The overall operation increase of macro-style application program interfaces ( APIs ) like these is an advantage of the technologies as well. The picture of 2D and 3D graphics occur much more promptly and in a more fluid manner with one of these technologies. CUDA is optimized for NVIDIA GPUs, while OpenCL is less specific, more universal, and possibly, as a leave, less ideal when used with the same NVIDIA GPUs that CUDA supports. furthermore, depending on the ocular quality of the content being edited, the professional ’ randomness workstation might require a graphics arranger and admonisher able of higher resolution than is promptly available in the consumer marketplace. If the accuracy of what the editor sees on the monitor must be as true to life as possible, a specialization monitor might be the best choice for the project. such monitors are expensive—they can easily be ten times the price of a standard monitor—but they provide the best resolution and color representation when compared to other high-quality monitors available nowadays.

Specialized Audio The most basic audio controllers in today ’ s computer systems are not very different from those in the master sound cards from the 1980s. They distillery use an analogue codec with a simple stereophonic arrangement. Editors of audio information who are expected to perform quality work often require six to eight channels of audio. many of nowadays ’ south motherboards come equipped with 5.1 or 7.1 analogue or digital audio. Although analogue audio is not entirely contrastive with choice exploit, digital sound recording is preferred. In some cases, an addition arranger supporting such audio might be required to support an A/V editing workstation. very commodity quality fathom cards can be found for under $ 100, compared with cheaper models around $ 20—there international relations and security network ’ t a huge remainder in price like there is with CPUs and video cards. Look for a menu with a higher sample rate ( measured in kilohertz [ kHz ] ) and higher signal-to-noise ratio proportion ( measured in decibels [ decibel ] ). Integrated motherboard sound recording will typically have about a 90 kilohertz sampling rate and an 85–90 decibel signal-to-noise ratio proportion ( SNR or S/N ). A good addition healthy tease can provide sample distribution of 190 kHz or more and an SNR of 115 dubnium or higher. The remainder is obtrusive, particularly in professional productions, which may be played at forte volumes.

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In addition to audio output, many A/V editors will require the ability to input custom music from an electronic melodious keyboard or other device. A term you will hear in relation to this is the musical legal document digital interface ( MIDI ) standard. Old sound cards would sometimes have a MIDI port, which was used to connect the melodious keyboard or early instrumental role to the calculator. MIDI ports use the round 5-pin DIN connection shown in Figure 4.2. Some fathom cards may have a DA-15 connection, which can be used for a MIDI device equally well ( or a stick ). number 4.3 shows a DA-15 port next to a few 1/8″ audio jacks on a sound card. Nowadays, digital musical instrumental role connections are much made via USB. Nonetheless, you will still see the term MIDI-compatible used with a bunch of digital musical devices. F iodine g uranium radius einsteinium 4. 2 5-pin MIDI ports and a cable

By : en : Pretzelpaws. trope : Midi_ports_and_cable.jpg, CC BY-SA 3.0, hypertext transfer protocol : //commons.wikimedia.org/w/

index.php ? curid=142551

F iodine g uranium r e 4. 3 Sound calling card with a DA-15 MIDI port

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Specialized Hard Drives Graphics editing workstations and early systems running drive-intensive NLE software benefit from uncoupling the drive that contains the engage arrangement and applications from the one that houses the media files. This greatly reduces the necessitate for multitasking by a single drive. With the data drive as the input source for video encode, consider using a third base drive as the output finish during the encode. If not, use the system drive for encoding output. Just remember to move the resulting files to the data drive once the encoding is complete. The organization drive is the hard drive that contains operating system files. A data drive can be a separate hard drive that equitable stores data, and not operating system files. Data and arrangement drives can be the same drive, or they can be split apart for better operation.

not only should you use separate drives for system and data fi les, you should besides make sure that the data drive is large and fast. SATA 6 Gbps drives that spin at 7,200 revolutions per minute and fast are recommended for these applications. SSDs can besides be considered because they ’ ra very fast, but their biggest limitation for A/V editing is lack of size. table 4.2 shows a comparison of five different internal heavily drive options. TA bel liter east 4. 2

Hard drive comparison

Standard Specification HDD

Large HDD

Standard SSD Large SSD

Fast SSD

Type

3.5″ SATA HDD

3.5″ SATA HDD 2.5″ SATA SSD 2.5″ SATA SSD NVMe M.2 SSD

Capacity

1 TB

8 TB

256 GB

2 TB

1 TB

RPM

7,200 revolutions per minute

7,200 revolutions per minute

Cost

$ 100

$ 500

$ 100– $ 120

$ 400– $ 500

$ 450

Editors can not afford delays and the non-real-time television playback caused by buffering due to ineffective hard-drive subsystems. If you decide to use an external hard drive, whether for convenience or portability, or because of the fact that an highly brawny laptop is being used as an A/V editing workstation, use an eSATA connection when possible. Doing so ensures that there will be no loss in performance over internal SATA drives due to conversion delays or slower interfaces, such as USB 2.0. For external arduous drives, Thunderbolt and USB 3.1/3.2 devices can be used excessively, as they provide similar performance to eSATA.

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If you can not find a drive that has the capacity you require, you should consider implementing RAID 0, phonograph record striping without parity bit. Doing so has two advantages : You can pay less for the total space you end up with, and RAID 0 improves take and compose speeds because multiple drives are active simultaneously. If you would besides like to add mistake tolerance and prevent data passing, go with RAID 5, which has much of the read/write benefit of RAID 0 with the add assurance that losing a individual drive won ’ triiodothyronine leave in data loss. RAID should be implemented in hardware when possible to avoid overtaxing the function system, which has to implement or help implement software RAID itself.

Virtualization Workstations Hardware virtualization is the core technology that enables defile computing. entire companies exist to provide software and algorithm of varying potency for the purpose of minimizing the hardware footprint required to implement multiple servers and workstations. Although virtualization as a engineering subculture is discussed in greater detail belated in this book, in this chapter we will investigate the alone requirements for the workstation that will host the guest operate systems and their applications. ( Virtualization is discussed in depth in chapter 9, “ Network Services, Virtualization and Cloud Computing. ” ) A typical practice character for a virtualization workstation might exist in a software exploitation environment. Developers might need to ensure that their programs work on different operating systems, and virtualization allows them to do that with one physical computer. Without getting into excessively a lot detail, virtualization allows for multiple guest OSs to run on the like computer at the lapp time, along with a host OS. Each virtual machine ( VM ) running on a host system appears to come along with its own resources. A quick spirit in the Device Manager utility of a guest operate system leads you to believe it has its own components and does not require or interfere with any resources on the host. This is not entirely true, however. The postdate list includes some of the more significant components that are shared by the host and all guest operating systems : ■■

CPU cycles

■■

System memory

■■

Drive storage space

■■

System-wide network bandwidth

Because of these requirements, virtualization workstations must exceed the specifications of criterion workstations in two primary coil areas : ■■

CPU enhancements

■■

Maximized RAM

Depending on the specific guest systems and processes that the workstation will host, it may be necessity to increase the arduous drive capacity of the workstation and possibly the count and speed of network cards vitamin a well. Because this is only a possibility, increased drive or network capacity is not considered a primary enhancement for virtualization workstations.

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CPU Enhancements Sometimes it ’ s a matter of how brawny a computer ’ south CPU is. At other times, having multiple lesser CPUs that can work independently on a issue of separate tasks is more important. many of today ’ mho PCs have either of these characteristics or a combination of both. however, there are adequate computers being produced that have neither. As a leave, it is necessity to gauge the aim of the machine when choosing the CPU profile of a computer. The best type of CPU for virtualization workstations is a multicore processor. This is because, with multiple cores, each core can execute instructions independently, which greatly speeds up the system ’ randomness operation. With today ’ south engineering, a quad-core central processing unit should be considered at a minimum. If the user has highly high needs, then a 16- or 18-core processor might be better, but besides consider that these CPUs will be fabulously expensive by comparison. When selecting a multicore processor, the amount of hoard is besides a identical crucial consideration. Each core should have a sufficient sum of L1 and L2 cache dedicated to it, and L3 cache will be shared among them. A 16-core processor with 40 MB of cache will greatly outperform a 16-core processor with lone a 16 MB cache.

besides remember from chapter 1, “ Motherboards, Processors, and Memory, ” that some processors have the ability to support hyperthreading, or multiple threads at once. An Intel Core i7 with four cores can support eight threads, whereas a quad-core Intel Core i5 can support only four threads. This could make a goodly difference in operation for processor-intensive applications. postpone 4.3 shows a comparison of a relatively modal processor to a high-end model. TA bel l einsteinium 4. 3

CPU comparison

Specification

Typical CPU

High-End CPU

Type

Intel Core i5-6400

Intel Core i9-7980XE

Cores

4

18

Threads

4

36

Base accelerate

2.7 GHz

2.6 GHz

Max turbo speed

3.3 GHz

4.2 GHz

Cache

6 MB

24.75 MB

Supported RAM

DDR4-2133/1866

DDR4-2666

Price

$ 200

$ 2000

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Because the physical server ’ s processor is shared by all operating systems running, virtual or not, it behooves you to implement virtual machines on a host with as many CPUs or CPU cores as possible. In virtualization, each core in a multicore central processing unit can be considered its own individual central processing unit and therefore impute duties individually by the VMs running on them. consequently, the more CPUs you can install in a workstation, each with a many cores as possible, the more dedicate CPU cycles you can assign to each virtual car.

Maximized RAM As you create a virtual machine, tied before a guest operate system is installed in the VM, you must decide how a lot RAM the guest system will require. The lapp minimal requirements for installing an operational system on a ceremonious car put on to the initiation of that operating arrangement on a virtual car. The RAM you dedicate to that VM is not used until the VM is booted. Once it is booted, though, that RAM is typically unavailable to the server operate system. As a leave, you must ensure that the virtualization workstation is equipped with enough RAM to handle its own needs angstrom well as those of all guests that could run simultaneously. As with a ceremonious system running a single function system at a meter, you broadly want to supply each VM with extra RAM to keep it humming along nicely. This accumulative RAM must be accounted for in the physical configuration of the virtualization workstation. In most cases, this will result in maximizing the sum of RAM installed in the computer. The maximum install RAM hinges on three primary constraints : ■■

The CPU ’ s address-bus width

■■

The operate system ’ s utmost support RAM

■■

The motherboard ’ s maximum subscribe RAM

The smallest of these constraints dictates the maximum RAM you will be able to use in the workstation. Attention to each of these limitations should be exercised in the excerpt of the workstation to be used to host guest operating systems and their applications. Considering the limitations of operate systems leads to preferring the consumption of server versions over node versions and the use of x64 ( 64-bit ) versions over x86 ( 32-bit ) versions.

What ’ south It Going to Take ? The folks at a medium-sized organization decided to try their hand at virtualization because the IT coach heard that they could save money on future infrastructure and “ go green ” at the lapp time. They already had all the waiter operating systems they needed ; they were presently installed on separate machines. The coach envisioned removing the KVM switch and having a single machine in the server board.

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The technician in charge did about everything right. He chose the company ’ s most brawny server and created five virtual machines. The hard drive was large enough that there was plenty of room for the host function system and the five VMs. The technician knew the minimum requirements for running each of the manoeuver systems and made certain that each VM was configured with batch of RAM. The quad-core CPU installed in the server was more than brawny adequate to handle each engage system. After a combination of clean installations and persona transfers into the VMs, the server was ready to test. The host booted and ran beautifully, as always. The first VM was started and was found to be accessible over the network. It served node requests and created a barely noticeable draw on performance. It was the second VM that sparked the realization that the director and technician missed a crucial point. The processor and the RAM settings for each individual VM were sufficient for the host and at most one VM, but when any second VM was added to the mix, the combine drain on the CPU and RAM was indefensible. “ What ’ s it going to take to be able to run these servers simultaneously ? ” the technician wonder. The solution was to replace the waiter motherboard with a model that supported a 16-core Intel i9 Extreme Edition central processing unit and to maximize the RAM based on what the fresh motherboard supported. The leave was an impressive system with five virtual servers, each of which displayed impressive performance statistics. Before long, the expense of the waiter was returned in office savings. finally, extra savings will be realized when the original physical hardware for the five servers would have had to be replaced.

Gaming PCs early video games designed for the personal computer market were able to run on the average end user ’ s calculator organization. As is true with all software, there is a push/pull relationship between PC-based games and the hardware they run on. Over clock, the hardware improved and challenged the producers of gaming software. Inspired by the possibilities, the programmers pushed the limits of the hardware, encouraging hardware engineers to create more room for software emergence. Today ’ second advanced PC-based gambling software can not be expected to run on an average system. Specialized gaming PCs, computers optimized for running advanced video recording games, fi ll a recess in the market, leading to a continually growing segment of the personal-computer market. Keep in mind that when we are talking about gaming systems, we ’ rhenium not talking about solitaire or free Internet games. closely every computer can do that. The games to which we ’ ra referring are the high-end, multiplayer games, such as the Call of Duty series, Final Fantasy, World of Warcraft, and respective others. In many newer games, the video timbre is practically cinema-like. Of course, this list will change over time as these titles historic period and new ones take their locate.

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Gaming enthusiasts often turn to specialized game consoles for the best performance, but with the correct specifications, a personal calculator can give modern consoles a function for their money, possibly even eclipsing their performance. If you encounter a scenario in which you need to build a gambling personal computer that will light up the eyes of the most difficult-toplease game, four areas of enhancement must be considered : ■

Hard drive enhancements

Video enhancements

Specialized audio

Enhanced cooling

Hard Drive Enhancements As we have stated before, SSDs are faster than conventional hard drives at recitation and writing data. In bet on, rush is frequently life, and in many instances the system will be using virtual memory in summation to the forcible memory in the computer. virtual memory is hard drive outer space used as impermanent memory, so transfers into and out of this space need to be arsenic flying as possible. therefore, SSDs are the way to go for gaming systems. not only are SSDs faster than HDDs, they run cool angstrom well. This is authoritative for a bet on calculator, which will likely have other high-end components that run hot and require extra cooling. An SSD won ’ triiodothyronine add excessively much to the excess estrus issues that gaming systems can have.

Video Enhancements Video games have evolved from text-based and simple two-dimensional graphics-based applications into highly building complex software that requires everything from real-time highresolution, high-defi nition rendering to cubic model. Technologies like NVIDIA ’ south SLI and ATI ’ second CrossFire are highly beneficial for such graphics-intensive applications. ( SLI was discussed in chapter 1. ) The best video connection is besides needed, therefore go with a video recording wag that supports the latest adaptation of HDMI. nobelium longer can gaming software trust by and large on the system ’ s CPU to process its code and deliver the end consequence to the graphics adapter for output to the monitor. Video cards for gaming systems basically require their own dedicated graphics processing unit of measurement ( GPU ). No longer can this software shop a screen or two at a time in the graphics adapter ’ randomness memory, allowing for television adapters with only a few hundred MB of RAM. Today ’ s gaming applications can be resource-hungry powerhouses capable of displaying fluid television at 40–60 frames per second. To keep up with such demands, the RAM installed on relatively decent graphics adapters has breached the 4 GB mark, a capacity not long ago reserved for basal arrangement memory. In fact, if users want to spend thousands of dollars on a video poster, they could get one with 12 GB or 16 GB RAM vitamin a well. In the same way that CUDA- and OpenCL-capable GPUs benefit workstations used for video edit, these same standards are essential in the worldly concern of modern gaming

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software. not all GPUs support these standards ; therefore, another sell point emerges for high-end graphics adapters. Of course, all the inner system enhancements in the universe are for naught if the monitor you choose can not keep up with the accelerate of the arranger or its resolutions and 3D capability. Quite a sting of caution must be exercised when comparison-shopping for an adequate gambling proctor.

Specialized Audio Today ’ s video recording games continue the genre of interactional multimedia spectacles. not alone can your video influence in both directions, using cameras to record the image or gesture of the player, your audio can american samoa well. It ’ sulfur extremely park to find a crippled shouting into a microphone boom on a headset as they guide their quality through the virtual universe of high-definition video and high-definition digital audio. A lesser sound recording control is not satisfactory in today ’ sulfur personal computer gambling populace. Technologies such as S/PDIF and HDMI produce high-quality, high-definition digital audio for the gambling fancier. Of class, HDMI provides for state-of-the-art digital video american samoa well.

Enhanced Cooling As mentioned earlier, the practices of speed junkies, such as modern personal computer gamers, can lead to a central processing unit ’ s early demise. Although a shorter life for an overclocked CPU international relations and security network ’ t a given, operators of such systems use standard and experimental cool methods to reduce the self-destructive effects of the increased heat output signal from the CPU. Refer binding to the incision “ CPU Cooling ” in Chapter 1 for more information on cooling techniques that give overclocked CPUs a crusade luck. Standard case fans can be identical inexpensive—you can get them for around $ 5 without much of a search, and high-end fans are around $ 50. Low-end melted cooling systems start off around $ 50 and can well run $ 400 or more. A liquid cooling organization is besides larger than a standard fan, indeed be certain that the case has enough room to accommodate it, if that ’ s the route you choose. nowadays ’ sulfur high-end graphics adapters come equipped with their own cool mechanisms designed to keep them by rights cooled under even extreme circumstances. however, the use of high-end adapters in advance ways leads to extra concerns. Graphics adapters that rob a second slot for their cool mechanism to have space to exhaust heated air through the backplane might be unwelcome in a smaller chassis that has only a single time slot to spare. besides, the gaming-PC builder ’ s decision to include two or more gang adapters ( television cards that are two expansion slots wide and take up two expansion slots but attached together as one whole ) in one organization ( SLI or CrossFire ) challenges the engineer cool circuit. When many boastfully adapters are placed in the way of cooler air out brought in through one end of the chassis for the purpose of replacing the warm internal breeze of the chassis, the overall ambient inner temperature increases. name 4.4 shows the inside of an NVIDIA gambling calculator that has a liquid cooling system in it. In Exercise 4.1, you will go denounce for a gambling system.

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F one g u roentgen einsteinium 4. 4 Gaming system with liquid cooling

E x e gas constant hundred one s e 4 .1

Shopping for a Gaming System 1. Go to your favorite electronics store web site. If you are unfamiliar with one, try www.bestbuy.com or www.frys.com.

2. Look at the excerpt of most democratic desktop PCs, and note the price stove. 3. Look for a gambling personal computer for under $ 1000. What is the best configuration you can get ?

4. immediately look for the best bet on computer offered. How much is the price difference ? What are the specifications versus the less expensive system ?

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Thin Clients In situations where an enterprise is concerned in saving ample amounts in infrastructure cost, flimsy clients can be used to achieve their finish. A thin customer is any machine that divests itself of all or most local storage and deviate levels of RAM and processing power without necessarily giving up all ability to process instructions and data. In the extreme, a thin client resembles a dumb terminal, which lone displays output to the monitor and relays input from the mouse and keyboard rear to the waiter. The elementary dispute between these ultra-thin clients and speechless terminals is that thin clients feature a true network association and contain adequate intelligence to locate the server before turning over processing manipulate. The branch of having clients with broken serve and storage capabilities is that there must be one or more servers with increased corresponding capacities. unfortunately, this leads to a single or centralize point of failure in the infrastructure that can impact productiveness to an unacceptable level. slender clients have no offline capability, requiring ceaseless network connectivity. Workforces that require employees to be independent or mobile with their computing might tilt away from flimsy clients as well, opting for laptops and like engineering. Some thinly clients will have local storage and be able of running basic applications, which are executed locally. These types of systems must, of course, be able to accommodate the memory and process needs of those applications and an operate system. thin node OSs can be very simple and designed specifically for a thin customer, such as Thinstation, Windows Internet of Things ( IoT, once Windows Embedded Standard ), and Lenovo Terminal Operating System ( LeTOS ), or they can be more robust, such as full versions of Windows. Simple sparse customer designs featuring flash-based repositing and small quantities of little form component RAM exist, reducing the need for such systems to resemble thick clients at all.

Network-Attached storage Devices You may encounter a scenario where you ( or a client ) want to have files accessible across a net connection but you don ’ triiodothyronine want to mess with a server operating system such as Windows Server or Linux. A network-attached storage ( NAS ) device might be the right solution. Network-attached storage devices are in many ways like a mini-server, except without the wax server operating system. They provide storage with one or more heavily drives, network entree ( of course ), and in most cases have their own processor, RAM, and operating system. rather of connecting a monitor and keyboard to a NAS, you manage them though an interface accessed from another computer on the network. In addition, because their chief purpose is to provide easily accessible net repositing ( they ’ re very network hard drives ), blame allowance considerations should be entertained.

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Fault tolerance differs from redundancy in that mistake tolerance seeks to retain handiness during the failure, whereas redundancy just ensures recoverability after the failure. redundancy, in the phase of a datum accompaniment, does not ensure the stay approachability of the data, but RAID, for model, seeks to do therefore. tied the most basic dwelling system should be backed up regularly to avoid entire data personnel casualty, but most of the time, the lend expense of defect allowance international relations and security network ’ metric ton worth it.

As you might imagine, there are a assortment of NAS options on the market ( Figure 4.5 ). Entry-level models with two drive bays can be bought for around $ 150, minus hard drives. On the nice side, table 4.4 shows some of the key specifications of a QNAP TVS-882BRT3 8-bay NAS enclosure. figure 4.5 enclosure )

TA bel fifty east 4. 4

QNAP TVS-882BRT3 8-bay NAS enclosure ( or just QNAP 8-bay NAS

QNAP 8-bay NAS specifications

Component

Specification

CPU

3.6 GHz Intel Core i7-7700 quad-core

RAM

32 GB DDR4 ( expandable to 64 GB )

Flash memory

512 MB

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Component

Specification

Hard drive trays

8 SATA 6 GB/s

M.2 slots

2 2242/2260/2280/22110 slots

Optical drive

1x Blu-ray campaign

Audio

2 microphones in, 2 built-in speakers, 1 3.5mm line out

Expansion slots

1 PCIe 3.0 x8, 2 PCIe 3.0 x4

Ports

4 Thunderbolt, 5 USB 3.0 Type-A, 4 RJ-45, 3 HDMI

Operating system

QTS 4.3 ( Linux )

RAID corroborate

RAID 0, 1, 5, 6, 10

Hot swappable drives

Yes

Data encoding

FIPS 140-2 AES 256-bit

You might look at table 4.4 and think that it looks reasonably a lot like a high-end computer, and you are right. While NASs can be built from the same components that go into today ’ s higher-performance systems, they are about always purchased as pre-built units. Attention needs to be paid to certain features, however. The follow list outlines the specifications a good NAS should provide : ■■

Media streaming capabilities

■■

File sharing services

■■

Gigabit NIC

■■

Hard drive enhancements

■■

RAID array

Media Streaming Capabilities A popular use for a NAS device is to stream music, photograph, and videos to other devices, including those that are not PCs. With Windows 7 and newer, you can enable media streaming services and configure the calculator to stream media. Of naturally, third-party applications and utilities are besides a possibility. You can prepare a Windows computer to stream media through Windows Media Player by accessing the media streaming configuration through the progress settings of the Network and Sharing Center in Control Panel. use 4.2 walk you through the process.

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Exercise 4.2

Configuring Windows 10 for Media Streaming 1. Open Control Panel. ( Click Start, type Control, and then click Control Panel when it appears under Best Match. )

2. In the upper-right corner where it says watch By, change it to Small Icons or large Icons. 3. Click the Network and Sharing Center applet to open it. 4. Click the Change Advanced Sharing Settings liaison in the bequeath human body, as shown in Figure 4.6. F one g u gas constant e 4. 6 Click the Change Advanced Sharing Settings connection.

5. Click the arrow to the right of All Networks, as shown in Figure 4.7, to expand that configuration part.

Thin Clients

F one g u gas constant e 4. 7 Changing sharing options

6. In the Media Streaming section, click the Choose Media Streaming Options connection. 7. If media streaming is not turned on, you will need to click the Turn on Media Streaming box ( shown in Figure 4.8 ) to proceed to step 8. F one g uracil r east 4. 8 Turning on media streaming

225

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E x e radius c one s east 4. 2 ( continue vitamin d )

8. In the Media Streaming Options dialogue, name your media library, and check the Allowed box for each calculator on the network that you want to be able to stream from the local personal computer. An exercise is shown in Figure 4.9. F i g u r e 4. 9 Media pour options

9. Click OK to leave the Media Streaming Options dialogue, and then close the Network and Sharing Center dialogue.

10. receptive Windows Media Player ( for model, Start ➢ Windows Media Player ) and switch to Library manner, if necessary. You can do this by using the power system icon with the arrow pointing left in now Playing mode, by pressing the Alt key and choosing View ➢ Library, or by pressing Ctrl+1.

11. Make sure pour is enabled by clicking Stream ➢ Turn On Media Streaming. This option is hidden if pour is already on.

12. Start Windows Media Player on one of the distant systems. 13. Scroll down, if necessary, in the leftover frame until you see early Libraries ( as shown at the buttocks of Figure 4.10 ).

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F one g uracil gas constant e 4 .1 0 Windows Media Player

14. Expand the outback library that you barely shared, and see if you can play music, watch television or recorded television, or view pictures.

File and Print Sharing Services In addition to the ability to stream files to remote machines, a NAS is expected to allow the inactive transfer of files to or from its hard drive or array. Streaming and file share are similar concepts, but streaming occurs in one direction from the NAS and does not affect the node ’ south file system. File sharing can go in both directions, and it adds to the client ’ randomness file system during downloads. The NAS acts as a depository for upload files that can then be downloaded from any other machine in the home network. The difference between a NAS and an enterprise server is that all clients in a family environment tend to have adequate access to the data storehouse on the NAS. Enterprise file servers have data stores that are isolated from users who do not have license to access them. print servers in the home and enterprise behave in a similar fashion. Each printer attached to the home server should be accessible to anyone on the home network. file and print share are available through classic file sharing in Windows and early operating systems.

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Gigabit NIC The NAS should be attached to a wired switch over port in an Ethernet switch or in the wireless access point. The network interface batting order ( NIC ) and the switch port should be adequate to of Gigabit Ethernet speeds. Providing such speed ensures that clients using 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet ports and across the radio receiver network will not create a bottleneck in their try to contribution the NASs resources. Running node NICs at gigabit speeds should be avoided, even though the capability is omnipresent. Running all devices on the network at gigabit speeds guarantees that each device that is attached will attempt to saturate the NASs gigabit interface with its own traffic.

Hard Drive Enhancements The primary aim of a NAS device is to store files, and frequently that means storing a large measure of files. For this reason, you should pay careful attention to the hard drives you choose. The priority in this case is for large storage capacity over speed. consequently, you will most likely choose ceremonious hard drives. There ’ randomness nothing wrong with choosing largecapacity SSDs if they are in the budget, but don ’ triiodothyronine sacrifice storehouse space for travel rapidly in a NAS system.

RAID Array Because some of the data stored on a NAS represents the only copy, such as data that is streamed to all clients or the data included in a all-important accompaniment of node systems, it must be protected from accidental loss. Because the data that comprises the stream content, shared data shop, and customer backup sets can become quite expansive, a boastfully storehouse capability is desirable. even a recoverable NAS outage results in data that is temporarily unserviceable by any client, so fault allowance should be included. RAID provides the answer to all these needs. When a hardware RAID solution is used in the NAS, the NASs operate system is not taxed with the arduous tax of managing the array, and extra RAID levels might besides be available. The RAID array can extend to many terabytes in size, many times the size of a one drive, and it should include hot-swappable drives so that it can be rebuilt on-the-fly while still servicing node requests during the loss of a individual drive.

Summary This chapter introduced you to seven custom configurations. The first gear is the standard thickly customer, which truly isn ’ thyroxine custom-made but it gives you a base of comparison for other types of workstations that you will encounter. Thick clients need to meet commend requirements for the selected OS and support the desktop applications needed by the user. When installing a midst client, you will likely need to set up exploiter accounts and configure custom settings for the exploiter. The six other systems are graphic and CAD/CAM design

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229

workstations, audio/video editing workstations, virtualization workstations, gaming PCs, reduce clients, and network-attached memory devices. You learned how some of these systems have identical specific needs, whereas others share common requirements for components not found in a standard background system. These needs include CPU enhancements, television enhancements, maximized RAM, specialized audio, specialize drives, NIC enhancements, enhanced cool, and specifics related to applications.

Exam Essentials Be able to describe graphic and CAD/CAM invention workstations and list their components. CAD/CAM workstations are designed to create blueprints and advanced designs. These workstations require specify hard drives, high-end video, and utmost RAM to be able to provide the performance required to allow effective graphic plan and model. Be able to describe audio/video editing workstations and list their components. If a exploiter wants to create high-quality audio or video recording files, they need an A/V workstation. A/V workstations call for speciate audio and video, large and fast hard drives, and multiple monitors to allow editors to play back their media smoothly while being able to see all the controls of their utilities and applications. Be able to describe virtualization workstations and list their components. Some users, particularly developers, can benefit from workstations that can host multiple operating systems at one fourth dimension, and virtualization is a engineering that enables this. Virtualization workstations need plenty of RAM and CPU cores to share among the guest operational systems while however allowing the host to run efficiently and error unblock. Be able to describe gaming PCs and list their components. For hard-core gambling enthusiasts, a gambling personal computer that makes use of high-performance SSDs and mighty GPUs to deliver the ultimate bet on know is required. Rounding out the experience is amazing sound product, which comes at the price of increase inflame product due to the faster-running components. As a result, enhanced cooling mechanisms must be employed. Be able to describe thin clients and list their components. thin clients are used in situations where costs are to be kept to a minimal but users still need to run applications like they would on a workstation. Because of this, reduce clients should still conform to the minimum requirements for the selected OS and be able to run basic applications. however, it is possible to go a step further and have the waiter run all software and feed the customer no more information than a dumb terminal would receive. The primary remainder is that it is fed over an Ethernet joining alternatively of a classic serial interface. Be able to describe a network-attached storehouse device and list its components. If multiple users on a dwelling or function network need to partake files or early resources, a NAS can be beneficial. A NAS is expected to support media streaming arsenic well as file sharing. To stay ahead of the client demand, the NAS should be connected to a Gigabit Ethernet interface. To ensure fault tolerance, RAID is recommended.

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Review Questions The answers to the chapter follow-up questions can be found in Appendix A. 1. You have been asked to set up a workstation for a raw graphic architect at your company. Which of the keep up is not a necessity for a graphic design workstation ? A. Fast hard drive B. Maximum RAM C. Powerful CPU D. High-end video 2. You have been hired as a adviser for a television editing company that needs all new workstations for its six editors. Which of the follow is required when constructing an A/V editing workstation ? A. Gigabit NIC B. Powerful processor C. Maximum RAM D. Fast hard drive 3. Danielle has been asked to configure virtualization at her company. She recommends that her coach buy multicore processors. What justification should she give as to why virtualization workstations require as many CPU cores as potential ? A. Each virtual machine has one or more cores installed directly in it. B. Each virtual machine makes use of actual CPU resources for processing instructions and data. C. Fault allowance dictates that if one CPU core fails, there should be one or more in cable to take its invest. D. Because each guest operating system runs in its own space, multiple cores are required to store the corporate data. 4. Your friend Joe plays video game tournaments online, and he read in an on-line forum that he should install multiple GPUs for better rush. You tell him that if he does that, he needs better cooling. Why is high-end cooling a prerequisite for gaming PCs ? A. multiple GPUs render more heat and can cause components to fail. B. Gaming controllers have components for haptic realism that generate copious amounts of heat. C. Digital audio cards generate more heat than analogue reasoned cards. D. Placing that many unvoiced drives in such a belittled outer space generates excessively much estrus.

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5. Marcus, a network technician, has been asked to build a virtualization workstation for his coach. Which of the following are not common requirements that Marcus should consider for this custom-made configuration ? ( Choose all that apply. ) A. Surround sound B. Maximum RAM C. Large, fast difficult drives D. Multiple CPU cores 6. Which character of arrangement plainly needs to meet recommend requirements for standard versions of operating systems and hold background applications ? A. Thin customer B. Thick customer C. Network-attached storage device D. Virtualization workstation 7. Which of the following descriptions most closely matches that of a thinly customer ? A. A high-resolution monitor, keyboard, and mouse B. A computer with a low-profile casing C. A laptop D. A dumb terminal with a NIC 8. You have recently installed a NAS in your home so that all your family members could partake media. You have a router and network cable that supports Gigabit Ethernet. Why should you equip a NAS with a Gigabit NIC ? A. All systems, including the NAS, should communicate at the same accelerate. B. The NAS should not be allowed to communicate at the higher speeds of the rest of the network or it will be overused. C. The NAS should exceed the communication travel rapidly of the clients to avoid a bottleneck. D. The engage system that a NAS runs is not compatible with Gigabit Ethernet. 9. An mastermind on your network is complaining that his CAD workstation is dull and he wants a GPU upgrade. Which of the follow reasons is justification for having a potent video wag in a CAD/CAM workstation ? A. entirely potent GPUs can stream graphic information efficiently. B. Manufacturing equipment is broadly faster than design equipment, which needs faster GPUs to keep up. C. On a CAD system, the CPU defers to the GPU for all system process requirements. D. The algorithm used in rendering graphics can be GPU-intensive.

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10. A video editor program at your company wants a second monitor, claiming that having only one admonisher limits her ability to work. Why do A/V editing workstations benefit from more than one monitor ? A. Their software much has adequate controls across their width that one proctor seems cramped. B. While one graphics adapter works on one rendering plan, the other can merely display a normal desktop. C. Once the edit is dispatch, the second admonisher is used to present the results to others on the team. D. Additional monitors are used for remote control collaboration among other editors. 11. You are configuring a virtualization workstation for your home plate use. Which of the play along is required for your newly system ? A. Multiple host operating systems B. Maximum RAM allowed C. File sharing services D. Multiple NICs 12. Robin has been asked to lead coach for new technicians at a local personal computer distributor specializing in gaming PCs. For which one of the following should she not recommend upgrade parts ? A. High-end cool B. A RAID range C. High-end television D. Better sound card 13. Which of the follow system types do not require a CPU enhancement of any sort ? ( Choose all that apply. ) A. A/V editing workstation B. Gaming PC C. Graphic design workstation D. Virtualization workstation 14. Maria is setting up a bet on personal computer and wants to know which type of video cables to purchase. Which of the trace is the commend video recording output engineering for a bet on personal computer ? A. DVI B. VGA C. HDMI D. YCbCr

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15. Which of the following is a common have of a standard thick client ? A. Has enhanced video capabilities B. Has a high-performance hard drive C. Has arsenic much RAM installed as possible D. Can run a full interpretation of Windows 16. Your network uses flimsy clients. A modern technician is amazed that the computers have no arduous drives and asks, “ If the manoeuver system is not resident on the customer, where is it found ? ” A. On a DVD inserted at bootup B. On a USB flash drive C. On the waiter for session-by-session customer manipulation D. Embedded in a flash faculty on the motherboard 17. Peter is configuring a NAS. Which of the play along should be his least-important precedence to include in his NAS ? A. File sharing B. Maximum RAM C. Gigabit NIC D. Media streaming E. RAID array 18. All of the following systems benefit from increased RAM except ( Choose two. ) A. Network-attached memory device B. Virtualization workstation C. Graphic design workstation D. Gaming personal computer 19. Which of the follow uses would not require a customs shape for a personal computer ? A. A calculator running Windows 10 with 1 terabyte of data and 250 GB of applications installed B. A computer running Windows IoT C. A design computer used to drive a lathe that makes automotive rims D. A calculator to replace a Blu-ray player and DVR 20. Which of the pursuit system types does not benefit from video recording enhancements ? A. CAD/CAM design workstation B. Network-attached repositing device C. A/V editing workstation D. Gaming PC

.

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Performance-Based Question You will encounter performance-based questions on the A+ examination. The questions on the examination command you to perform a specific undertaking, and you will be graded on whether or not you were able to complete the undertaking. The pursuit requires you to think creatively in order to measure how well you understand this chapter ’ south topics. You may or may not see similar questions on the actual A+ examination. To see how your answer compares to the authors ’, refer to Appendix B. List the steps required to stream video from one Windows 10 calculator to another in the lapp house. Assume that the two computers are members of the lapp network.

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Chapter

5

Installing and Configuring Printers The following CompTIA A+ 220-1001 examination objectives are covered in this chapter : ✓✓ 3.10 Given a scenario, configure SOHO multifunction devices/printers and settings. ■■

Use appropriate printer drivers for a given manoeuver system ■■

■■

■■

Duplex

■■

Collate

■■

Orientation

■■

Quality

Device sharing ■■

■■

■■

Configuration settings

Wired ■■

USB

■■

Serial

■■

Ethernet

Wireless ■■

Bluetooth

■■

802.11 ( a, bel, thousand, n, alternating current )

■■

Infrastructure vs. ad hoc

■■

Integrated print server ( hardware )

■■

Cloud printing/remote printing

Public/shared devices ■■

Sharing local/networked device via manoeuver system settings ■■

TCP/Bonjour/AirPrint

■■

Data privacy ■■

User authentication on the device

■■

Hard drive caching

✓✓ 3.11 Given a scenario, install and maintain respective print technologies. ■■

Laser ■■

Imaging barrel, fuser assembly, transfer belt, transfer roller, pickup rollers, separate pads, duplexing assembly

■■

Imaging march : march, charging, exposing, ­developing, transferring, fuse, and cleaning

■■

Maintenance : replace toner, apply care kit, ­calibrate, fairly

■■

Inkjet ■■

Ink cartridge, mark head, roller, self-feeder, duplexing ­assembly, passenger car, and belt

■■

Calibrate

■■

Maintenance : uninfected heads, replace cartridges, calibrate, clear jams

■■

Thermal ■■

Feed forum, heating component

■■

Special thermal paper

■■

Maintenance : Replace wallpaper, clean heating system component, remove debris

■■

Impact ■■

Print mind, decoration, tractor prey

■■

Impact paper

■■

Maintenance : Replace ribbon, replace print read/write head, replace wallpaper

■■

■■

Virtual ■■

Print to file

■■

Print to PDF

■■

Print to XPS

■■

Print to prototype

3D printers ■■

Plastic fibril

Let ’ s face it : No matter how much we try to get away from it, our society is dependant on newspaper. When we conduct commercial enterprise, we use different types of paper documents, such as contracts, letters, and, of course, money. And because most of those documents are created on computers, printers are inherently crucial. flush with electronic clientele being the norm in many situations, you will probable still have daily situations that require an antique hard copy of something. Printers are electromechanical output devices that are used to put information from the calculator onto newspaper. They have been around since the initiation of the computer. other than the expose monitor, the printer is the most popular peripheral purchased for a computer because a set of people want to have paper copies of the documents that they create. In this chapter, we will discuss the details of each major type of printing technology, including impact printers, inkjet printers, laser printers, thermal printers, and virtual printers. We ’ ll besides get into three-dimensional ( 3D ) printers, which are an entirely different output animal and have nothing to do with putting ink on wallpaper. They are thus unlike that it ’ s about a misnomer to call them printers. Unless we specifically talk about 3D printing, assume we mean the classic two-dimensional kind. Once we cover the unlike types, we ’ ll talk about install and configuring printers and fi nish up with a section on printer maintenance. Take special bill of the section on laser printers. The A+ exams test these subjects in detail, so we ’ ll cover them in depth.

Printer trouble-shoot is covered in chapter 14, “ Hardware and Network Troubleshooting. ”

Understanding Print Technologies and Imaging Processes Several types of printers are available on the market today. As with all other calculator components, there have been significant advancements in printer engineering over the years. Most of the time, when faced with the decision of purchasing a printer, you ’ re going to be weighing performance versus price. Some of the higher-quality technologies, such as coloring material laser

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print, are relatively expensive for the home drug user. other technologies are less expensive but don ’ triiodothyronine provide the lapp level of quality. In the adopt sections, you will learn about the assorted types of print technologies that you will see as a technician angstrom well as their basic components and how they function. specifically, we are going to look at five classifications of classic print : impact, inkjet, laser, thermal, and virtual, and then finish up with a primer on 3D printing.

Impact Printers The most basic type of printer is in the category known as an impact printer. Impact printers, as their name suggests, use some imprint of affect and an ink printer decoration to make an imprint on the newspaper. shock printers besides use a newspaper prey mechanism called a tractor feed that requires especial paper. possibly you ’ ve seen it before—it ’ second continuous feed newspaper with holes running down both edges. There are two major types of shock printers : daisy-wheel and dot- matrix. Each type has its own service and alimony issues.

Daisy-Wheel Printers The beginning type of shock printer to know about is the daisy-wheel printer. This is one of the oldest print technologies in function. These shock printers contain a rack ( called the daisy wheel because it looks like a daisy ) with raised letters and symbols on each “ petal ” ( see Figure 5.1 ). When the printer needs to print a character, it sends a signal to the mechanism that contains the bicycle. This mechanism is called the print head. The print head rotates the daisy wheel until the compulsory character is in place. An electromechanical hammer ( called a solenoid ) then strikes the back of the petal containing the character. The character pushes up against an ink decoration that ultimately strikes the newspaper, making the impression of the requested character. Fi gigabyte uracil r e 5 .1 A daisy-wheel printer mechanism Platen

Ribbon Solenoid

Printhead

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Daisy-wheel printers were among the first types of impact printer developed. Their amphetamine is rated by the numeral of characters per second ( hertz ) they can print. The earliest printers could print lone two to four characters per second base. aside from their poor people speed, the chief disadvantage of this type of printer is that it makes a lot of noise when printing—so much so, in fact, that special enclosures were developed to contain the noise. There is besides no concept of using multiple fonts ; the font is whatever the character on the steering wheel looks like. The daisy-wheel printer has a few advantages, of course. first, because it is an impingement printer, you can print on multipart forms ( like carbonless receipts ), assuming that they can be fed into the printer by rights. sometimes, you will hear this type of newspaper referred to as impact newspaper. second, it is relatively cheap compared to the price of a laser printer of the same vintage. ultimately, the print quality is easily clear ; the grade of quality was given a name : letter quality ( LQ ). today, LQ might refer to quality that ’ s better than an old-school typewriter ( if you ’ re conversant with them ) but not up to inkjet standards.

Dot-Matrix Printers The other character of impingement printer to understand is the dot-matrix printer. These printers work in a manner similar to daisy-wheel printers, but alternatively of a spin, character-imprinted roulette wheel, the photographic print capitulum contains a row of pins ( short, sturdy stalks of hard wire ). These pins are triggered in patterns that form letters and numbers as the photographic print capitulum moves across the paper ( see Figure 5.2 ). Fi gigabyte u radius east 5. 2 formation of images in a dot-matrix printer

Printhead Direction of movement

The pins in the print head are wrapped with coils of electrify to create a solenoid and are held in the rest position by a combination of a small magnet and a give. To trigger a particular personal identification number, the printer restrainer sends a signal to the print head, which energizes the wires around the appropriate print wire. This turns the print wire into an electromagnet, which repels the print peg, forcing it against the ink ribbon and making a dot on the composition. The arrangement of the dots in column and rows creates the letters and numbers that you see on the page. name 5.2 illustrates this process.

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The chief disadvantage of dot-matrix printers is their picture quality, which can be quite inadequate compared to the quality produced with a daisy wheel. Dot-matrix printers use patterns of dots to make letters and images, and the early dot-matrix printers used alone nine pins to make those patterns. The output signal quality of such printers is referred to as blueprint quality — good chiefly for providing your initial text to a correspondent or redact. Each letter looked bleary because the dots were spaced equally far as they could be and still be perceived as a letter or image. As more pins were crammed into the print head ( 17-pin and 24-pin models were finally developed ), the quality increased because the dots were closer in concert. Dotmatrix engineering ultimately improved to the point that a letter printed on a dot-matrix printer was about indistinguishable from daisy-wheel output. This grade of quality is known as near letter choice ( NLQ ). Dot-matrix printers are noisy, but the print wires and print head are covered by a plastic dust cover, making them quieter than daisy-wheel printers. They besides use a more efficient printing technology, so the print amphetamine is faster ( typically starting around 72 hertz ). Some dot-matrix printers ( like the Epson DFX series ) can print at close to a page per second ! last, because dot-matrix printers are besides impact printers, they can use multipart forms. Because of these advantages, dot-matrix printers quickly made daisy-wheel printers obsolete. Most impingement printers have an option to adjust how close the print heading rests from the ribbon. indeed if your printing is excessively light, you may be able to adjust the print fountainhead closer to the ribbon. If it ’ second besides benighted or you get daub print, you may be able to move the print head spinal column.

Inkjet Printers One of the most democratic types of printers in use today is the inkjet printer. As oppose to impact printers, which strike the page, these printers spray ink on the page to form the persona. Inkjet printers typically use a reservoir of ink, a pump, and a nozzle to accomplish this. Older inkjet printers were messy, noisy, and ineffective, but the technology is good enough now that you see batch of photograph printers using inkjet technology. You might besides hear these types of printers referred to as bubble-jet printers, but that term is copyrighted by Canon. You can think of inkjets as spraying droplets of ink in a identical high-definition dot-matrix pattern, although printer manufacturers would likely scoff at the comparison to an older technology. In the postdate sections, you will learn the parts of an inkjet printer a well as how inkjet printers work.

Parts of a typical Inkjet Printer Inkjet printers are simple devices. They contain very few parts ( even fewer than dot-matrix printers ) and, as such, are cheap to manufacture. It ’ randomness common nowadays to have a $ 40 to $ 50 inkjet printer with print quality that rivals that of basic laser printers.

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The printer parts can be divided into the follow categories : ■■

Print head/ink magazine

■■

Head carriage, knock, and stepper motive

■■

Paper feed mechanism

■■

Control, interface, and office circuitry

Why So Cheap ? The cost of inkjet printers is pretty low—one would think that the printer companies make very little money on them ( which is true ). then why do they price them therefore low ? The answer is that printer companies make the huge majority of their profits off of ink cartridge sales. They figure that if they can get you into their printer, you will buy their ink refills—which is true—so you are then a captive consumer. Ink cartridges are very cheap to produce and have a high profit margin.

Print Head/Ink Cartridge The first separate of an inkjet printer is the one that people see the most : the print head. This partially of a printer contains many small nozzles ( normally 100 to 200 ) that spray the ink in little droplets onto the page. many times, the print head is separate of the ink cartridge, which contains a reservoir of ink and the print head in a removable package. Most color inkjet printers include multiple print heads. Either there will be one for the total darkness cartridge and one for the color one, or there will be one for each of the CMYK ( cyan, magenta, jaundiced, and total darkness ) print inks. The print magazine must be replaced as the ink add runs out. Inside the ink cartridge are several little chambers. At the top of each chamber are a metallic element denture and a metro leading to the ink issue. At the penetrate of each bedroom is a little pinhole. These pinholes are used to spray ink on the page to form characters and images as patterns of dots, similar to the way a dot-matrix printer works but with much higher solution. There are two methods of spraying the ink out of the cartridge. Hewlett-Packard ( HP ) popularized the first method : When a particular chamber needs to spray ink, an electric signal is sent to the heat element, energizing it. The elements heat up promptly, causing the ink to vaporize. Because of the expanding ink vaporization, the ink is pushed out of the pinhole and forms a bubble. As the vaporization expands, the burp finally gets large enough to break off into a droplet. The rest of the ink is pulled back into the bedroom by the surface tension of the ink. When another drop needs to be sprayed, the march begins again. The second method acting, developed by Epson, uses a piezoelectric component ( either a little perch or a unit that looks like a miniature brake drum head ) that flexes when energized. The outward flex pushes the ink from the beak ; on the return, it sucks more ink from the reservoir.

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When the printer is done printing, the print head moves second to its care station. The sustenance station contains a little suction pump and ink-absorbing embroider. To keep the ink flowing freely, before each print cycle, the sustenance station pulls ink through the ink nozzles using vacuum suction. The pad absorbs this rout ink. The place serves two functions : to provide a place for the print head to rest when the printer international relations and security network ’ thyroxine printing and to keep the print head in working club.

Head Carriage, Belt, and Stepper Motor Another major part of the inkjet printer is the head carriage and the consociate parts that make it move. The mark headway carriage is the component of an inkjet printer that moves back and forth during impression. It contains the physical arsenic well as electronic connections for the print head and ( in some cases ) the ink reservoir. trope 5.3 shows an model of a head carriage. Note the clips that keep the ink cartridge in place and the electronic connections for the ink cartridge. These connections cause the nozzles to fire, and if they aren ’ triiodothyronine kept clean, you may have printing problems. Fi g u roentgen e 5. 3 A print drumhead baby buggy ( holding two ink cartridges ) in an inkjet printer

The stepper centrifugal and belt make the print steer carriage motion. A stepper drive is a precisely made electric motor that can move in the like very small increments each time it is activated. That room, it can move to the lapp situation ( s ) time after time. The motive that makes the print head baby buggy move is besides much called the carriage motor or carriage stepper motor. figure 5.4 shows an exemplar of a stepper motor.

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Fi guanine uranium gas constant east 5. 4 A carriage stepper centrifugal

In addition to the centrifugal, a belt is placed around two modest wheels or pulleys and attached to the print steer carriage. This belt, called the carriage belt, is driven by the baby buggy motive and moves the print point bet on and forth across the page while it prints. To keep the mark drumhead baby buggy aligned and stable while it traverses the page, the passenger car rests on a humble metallic stabilizer stripe. calculate 5.5 shows the stabilizer measure, carriage belt, and pulleys. Fi gram u gas constant einsteinium 5. 5 Stabilizer measure, carriage knock, and pulleys in an inkjet printer Pulley

Stabilizer bar

Belt

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Paper Feed Mechanism In summation to getting the ink onto the wallpaper, the printer must have a means to get the paper into the printer. That ’ sulfur where the composition feed mechanism comes in. The composition feed mechanism picks up paper from the newspaper drawer and feeds it into the printer. This component consists of several smaller assemblies. First are the pickup rollers ( see Figure 5.6 ), which are several rubber rollers with a slightly flat position ; they rub against the paper as they rotate and feed the paper into the printer. They work against modest cork or rubber patches known as centrifuge pads ( see Figure 5.7 ), which help keep the rest of the paper in place so that alone one sheet goes into the printer. The pickup rollers are turned on a shaft by the pickup stepper motive. Fi gigabyte uranium roentgen e 5. 6 Inkjet tone arm rollers

Fi gigabyte uracil radius e 5. 7 Inkjet centrifuge pads

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Clean tone arm rollers ( and other condom rollers ) with mild soap and water, not with alcohol. Alcohol can dry out the rollers, making them brittle and ineffective.

sometimes the newspaper that is fed into an inkjet printer is placed into a paper tray, which is merely a small fictile tray in the front of the printer that holds the paper until it is fed into the printer by the composition tip mechanism. On smaller printers, the newspaper is placed vertically into a paper self-feeder at the spinal column of the printer ; it uses graveness, in combination with feed rollers and centrifuge pads, to get the newspaper into the printer. No real rhyme or reason dictates which manufacturers use these different parts ; some models use them, and some preceptor ’ metric ton. generally, more expensive printers use paper trays because they hold more newspaper. figure 5.8 shows an case of a newspaper tray on an inkjet printer. figure 5.8

A composition tray on an inkjet printer

The fi nal parts of the wallpaper feed mechanism are the composition feed sensors. These components tell the printer when it is out of paper a well as when a paper fix has occurred during the paper feed serve. figure 5.9 shows an model of a paper feed detector. Being able to identify the parts of an inkjet printer is an important skill for an A+ campaigner. In Exercise 5.1, you will identify the parts of an inkjet printer. For this exercise, you ’ ll need an inkjet printer.

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calculate 5.9

Installing and Configuring Printers

A paper feed detector on an inkjet printer

Many of the exercises in this chapter require printer hardware. If you don ’ t have the proper hardware on which to exercise, you can find many helpful videos online showing how to identify parts and install and perform maintenance on printers. Sites such as ifixit.com and youtube.com are dear places to start. e ten einsteinium r C I s einsteinium 5 .1

Identifying the Parts of an Inkjet Printer 1.

Unplug the inkjet printer from the power generator and the computer.

2.

Open the lead cover to expose the inner photographic print mechanism.

3.

Locate and identify the composition tray.

4.

Locate and identify the newspaper fertilize detector.

5.

Locate and identify the pickup roller ( sulfur ).

6.

Locate and identify the centrifuge embroider ( second ).

7.

Locate and identify the print capitulum, baby buggy assembly, and knock.

8.

Locate and identify the ink cartridge ( second ).

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Control, Interface, and Power Circuitry The final component group is the electronic circuitry for printer control, printer interfaces, and printer baron. The printer control circuits are normally on a minor tour board that contains all the circuitry to run the stepper motors the way the printer needs them to work ( back and away, lode newspaper and then stop, and thus on ). These circuits are besides creditworthy for monitoring the health of the printer and for reporting that information back to the personal computer. The second exponent component, the interface circuitry ( normally called a port ), makes the physical association to whatever signal is coming from the computer ( USB, serial, network, infrared, etc. ) and besides connects the physical interface to the control circuitry. The interface circuitry converts the signals from the interface into the datum stream that the printer uses. The last set of circuits the printer uses is the power circuits. basically, these conductive pathways convert 110V ( in the United States ) or 220V ( in most of the rest of the global ) from a standard rampart mercantile establishment into the voltages that the inkjet printer uses, normally 12V and 5V, and distribute those voltages to the other printer circuits and devices that need it. This is accomplished through the practice of a transformer. A transformer, in this case, takes the 110V AC current and changes it to 12V DC ( among others ). This transformer can be either home ( incorporated into the body of the printer ) or external. Either design can be used in today ’ south inkjets, although the integrated design is preferred because it is simple and doesn ’ triiodothyronine show the bulky transformer.

The Inkjet Printing Process Before you print to an inkjet printer, you must ensure that the device is calibrated. calibration is the work by which a device is brought within functional specifications. For example, inkjet printers need their print heads aligned so that they print evenly and don ’ thyroxine print funny-looking letters and unevenly spaced lines. The process is separate of the initiation for all inkjet printers. Printers will typically run a calibration routine every time you install raw ink cartridges. You will only need to manually initiate a calibration if the impression alignment appears off. Just as with early types of print, the inkjet printing process consists of a set of steps that the printer must follow in order to put the datum onto the page being printed. The take after steps take place whenever you click the Print button in your darling software ( like Microsoft Word or Google Chrome ) : 1.

You click the Print button ( or similar ) that initiates the printing procedure.

2.

The software from which you are printing sends the data to be printed to the printer driver that you have selected. The function and habit of the printer driver are discussed belated in this chapter.

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3. The printer driver uses a page-description language to convert the data being printed

into the format that the printer can understand. The driver besides ensures that the printer is ready to print. 4. The printer driver sends the data to the printer via whatever connection method acting

is being used ( USB, network, consecutive, and so on ). 5. The printer stores the received data in its onboard photographic print fender memory.

A print cushion is a modest measure of memory ( typically 512 KB to 16 MB ) used to store print jobs as they are received from the print computer. This fender allows respective jobs to be printed at once and helps printing to be completed promptly. 6. If the printer has not printed in a while, the printer ’ s control circuits activate a clean

cycle. A cleanse cycle is a specify of steps the inkjet printer goes through to purge the mark heads of any dried ink. It uses a especial sucking cup and sucking carry through to pull ink through the print mind, dislodging any dry ink or clearing stay passageways. 7. once the printer is ready to print, the control circuitry activates the paper feed motive.

This causes a sheet of paper to be fed into the printer until the paper activates the paper feed detector, which stops the feed until the print head is in the right put and the leading boundary of the wallpaper is under the print forefront. If the newspaper doesn ’ t reach the paper feed detector in a pin down total of time after the stepper drive has been activated, the Out Of Paper light is turned on and a message is sent to the calculator. 8. Once the paper is positioned by rights, the print steer stepper centrifugal uses the print head

knock and carriage to move the print head across the page, small by little. 9. The drive is moved one little step, and the print promontory sprays the dots of ink on the

newspaper in the blueprint dictated by the control circuitry. typically, this is either a form of black dots or a pattern of CMYK inks that are mix to make colors. 10. then the hoofer drive moves the print head another minor pace ; the process repeats all

the manner across the page. This process is so agile, however, that the entire series of starts and stops across the page looks like one smooth motion. 11. At the end of a pass across the page, the composition feed stepper drive advances the page a

minor amount. then the print head repeats gradation 8. 12. Depending on the model, either the photographic print head returns to the beginning of the occupation and

prints again in the lapp guidance only or it moves back across the page so that printing occurs in both directions. This work continues until the page is finished. 13. once the page is finished, the run stepper motive is actuated and ejects the page from

the printer into the output tray. If more pages need to print, the serve for printing the adjacent page begins again at step 7. 14. once printing is arrant and the concluding page is ejected from the printer, the print head

is parked ( locked into remainder status ) and the print action is finished.

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Some decent models of inkjet printers have a duplex assembly attached to them, either at the back of the printer or inside it. It ’ s used for reversible printing. After the first page is printed, it ’ randomness fed into the duplex forum, turned over, and fed back into the wallpaper run assembly. then the moment page can be printed on the back english of the original musical composition of wallpaper. It ’ s a visualize attachment that gives your inkjet more functionality.

Laser Printers Laser printers and inkjet printers are referred to as page printers because they receive their print job instructions one page at a prison term rather than receiving instructions one credit line at a time. There are two major types of page printers that use the electrophotographic ( EP ) imaging process. The first base uses a laser to scan the image onto a light-sensitive drum, and the second base uses an align of light-emitting diodes ( LEDs ) to create the persona on the drum. even though they write the persona in unlike ways, both types placid follow the laser printer imaging action. Since the A+ examination focuses on the laser printer imaging process and not on differences between laser and LED, we ’ ll focus on the same here. Xerox, Hewlett-Packard, and Canon were pioneers in developing the laser printer technology we use today. Scientists at Xerox developed the electrophotographic ( EP ) imaging serve in 1971. HP introduced the first gear successful desktop laser printer in 1984, using Canon hardware that used the EP march. This engineering uses a combination of inactive electric charges, laser light, and a black powdered ink-like message called toner. Printers that use this technology are called EP march laser printers, or just laser printers. Every laser printer technology has its foundations in the EP printer imaging process. Let ’ s discuss the basic components of the EP laser printer and how they operate then that you can understand the way an EP laser printer works.

Basic Components Most printers that use the EP imagination procedure contain nine standard assemblies : the toner cartridge, laser scanner, high-voltage power add, DC power supply, paper tape drive assembly ( including paper-pickup rollers and paper-registration rollers ), transfer corona, fusing assembly, printer control circuitry, and ozone percolate. Let ’ s discus each of the components individually, along with a duplex assembly, before we examine how they all work together to make the printer function.

The Toner Cartridge The EP toner cartridge ( see Figure 5.10 ), as its diagnose suggests, holds the toner. Toner is a black carbon substance desegregate with polyester resins to make it flow better and iron oxide particles to make it sensitive to electric charges. These two components make the toner capable of being attracted to the light-sensitive brake drum and of melting into the newspaper. In addition to these components, toner contains a medium called the developer ( besides called the carrier ), which carries the toner until it is used by the EP action.

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An EP toner cartridge

Charge corona assembly

SIDE VIEW Toner

Cleaner blade

Developer curler Print barrel

Paper

The toner cartridge besides contains the EP print drum. This drum is coated with a light-sensitive material that can hold a inactive charge when not exposed to light but can not hold a care when it is exposed to light—a curious phenomenon and one that EP printers exploit for the aim of making images. finally, the brake drum assembly contains a clean blade that continuously scrapes the secondhand toner off the light-sensitive brake drum to keep it clean. Exposing a light-sensitive drum to dust or light can damage it, but touching it will most probable render the drum inoperable ! It ’ sulfur best to merely not batch around with them.

In most laser printers, toner cartridge means an EP toner cartridge that contains toner and a light-sensitive drum in one plastic case. In some laser printers, however, the toner and light-sensitive drum can be replaced individually alternatively of as a one unit. If you ask for a toner magazine for one of these printers, all you will receive is a cylinder wax of toner. Consult the printer ’ s manual of arms to find out which kind of toner cartridge your laser printer uses.

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Never ship a printer anywhere with a toner magazine installed ! The jostle that happens during shipping could cause toner to spill out of the cartridge and all over the inside of the printer. This will be a huge mess to clean up ! If the printer is a laser printer, remove the toner cartridge first. You can put it in a sealed, airtight bulge to ship, if needed. If it ’ s an LED page printer, there is a method to remove the light-sensitive drum and toner cartridge. Check your manual for details.

The Laser Scanning assembly As we mentioned earlier, the EP light-sensitive drum can hold a mission if it ’ s not exposed to light. It is night inside an EP printer, except when the laser scanning assembly shines on especial areas of the light-sensitive drum. When it does that, the cram discharges, but lone in the area that has been exposed. As the drum rotates, the laser scanning assembly scans the laser across the light-sensitive drum, exposing the trope onto it. calculate 5.11 shows the laser scan fabrication. farad I g u gas constant e 5 .11

The EP laser scanning assembly ( side view and simplified top view )

SIDE VIEW Laser balance beam

Mirror

Laser assembly

EP drum Laser scanning forum

Direction of rotation

Laser radio beam Fixed mirror Rotating mirror

Laser idle is damaging to human eyes. therefore, the laser is kept in an enclosure and will operate alone when the laser printer ’ second cover is closed.

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High-Voltage Power Supply The EP process requires high-octane electricity. The high-octane power supply ( HVPS ) provides the high voltages used during the EP process. This component converts AC current from a standard wall wall socket ( 120V and 60 Hz ) into higher voltages that the printer can use. This high voltage is used to energize both the appoint corona and the transfer aureole. Anything with the words high voltage in it should make you pause before opening a device and getting your hands into it. The HVPS can hurt or kill you if you ’ re working inside a laser printer and don ’ triiodothyronine know what you ’ re doing.

DC Power Supply The senior high school voltages used in the EP summons can ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate baron the other components in the printer ( the logic circuitry and motors ). These components require moo voltages, between +5VDC and +24VDC. The DC power supply ( DCPS ) converts theater current into three voltages : +5VDC and –5VDC for the logic circuitry and +24VDC for the composition transport motors. This component besides runs the fan that cools the inner components of the printer.

Paper Transport Assembly The paper transportation assembly is creditworthy for moving the composition through the printer. It consists of a motive and several rubberize rollers that each performs a different function. The fi rst type of roller found in most laser printers is the feed roller, or composition pickup roller ( see Figure 5.12 ). This D-shaped roller, when activated, rotates against the composition and pushes one plane into the printer. This roller works in conjunction with a extra rubber centrifuge slog to prevent more than one sheet from being fed into the printer at a clock time. fluorine I g u r e 5 .1 2

Paper transportation rollers Feed or pickup curler

Exit rollers

Fuser rollers Registration rollers

Another type of roller that is used in the printer is the registration curler ( besides shown in Figure 5.12 ). There are actually two registration rollers, which work together. These rollers synchronize the newspaper movement with the image-formation process in the EP cartridge. The rollers don ’ t feed the newspaper past the EP cartridge until the cartridge is ready for it.

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Both of these rollers are operated with a special electric motor known as an electronic stepper motor. This type of motor can accurately move in very minor increments. It powers all the paper enchant rollers ampere well as the fuser rollers.

The Transfer Corona Assembly When the laser writes ( exposes ) the images on the light-sensitive drum, the toner then sticks to the exposed areas. ( We ’ ll cover this in the “ Electrophotographic Imaging Process ” section. ) How does the toner get from the light-sensitive drum onto the paper ? The transfer corona discharge forum ( see Figure 5.13 ) is given a high-voltage charge, which is transferred to the newspaper, which, in sour, pulls the toner from the light-sensitive drum. Fi gram u radius e 5 .1 3 The transfer corona assembly

Print barrel EP magazine

Toner Paper

Transfer corona wire

Static-eliminator strip

Included in the transfer corona forum is a static-charge eliminator strip that drains away the charge imparted to the wallpaper by the corona. If you didn ’ thymine drain away the charge, the newspaper would stick to the EP cartridge and jam the printer. There are two types of transfer corona discharge assemblies : those that contain a transplant corona wire and those that contain a transportation corona roller. The transfer corona wire is a smalldiameter wire that is charged by the HVPS. The electrify is located in a special notch in the deck of the laser printer ( under the EP print cartridge ). The transfer aureole roller performs the like function as the transfer corona wire, but it ’ s a roller quite than a wire. Because the transfer aureole roller is directly in touch with the paper, it supports higher speeds. For this cause, the transfer corona discharge wire is used infrequently in laser printers today.

Fusing assembly The toner in the EP toner cartridge will stick to merely about anything, including paper. This is true because the toner has a negative inactive agitate and most objects have a internet positive charge. however, these toner particles can be removed by brushing any object across the page. This could be a problem if you want the images and letters to stay on the paper permanently. To solve this trouble, EP laser printers incorporate a device known as a fuser ( see Figure 5.14 ), which uses two rollers that apply pressure and heat to fuse the credit card toner particles to the newspaper. You may have noticed that pages from either a laser printer or a duplicator ( which uses a similar device ) come out warm. This is because of the fuser.

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The fuser Fusing roller

Pressure roller

The fuser is made up of three independent parts : a halogen heating system lamp, a Teflon-coated aluminum-fusing curler, and a rubberize press curler. The fuser uses the halogen lamp to heat the fusing curler to between 329° F ( 165° C ) and 392° F ( 200° C ). As the newspaper passes between the two rollers, the press roller pushes the newspaper against the fuse roller, which melts the toner into the paper. The fuser can cause austere burns ! Be careful when working with it.

Printer Controller Circuitry Another part in the laser printer that we need to discuss is the printer accountant assembly. This large circuit board converts signals from the calculator into signals for the diverse assemblies in the laser printer using a process known as rasterize. This tour board is normally mounted under the printer. The board has connectors for each type of interface and cables to each assembly. When a computer prints to a laser printer, it sends a bespeak through a cable to the printer restrainer assembly. The restrainer assembly formats the information into a page ’ s worth of line-by-line commands for the laser scanner. The control sends commands to each of the components, telling them to wake up and begin the EP imagination process.

Ozone Filter Your laser printer uses respective high-octane biases inside the casing. As anyone who has been outside during a lightning storm can tell you, high voltages create ozone. ozone is a chemically reactive gas that is created by the high-voltage corona ( charging and transmit ) inside the printer. Because ozone is chemically reactive and can hard reduce the biography of laser printer components, many older laser printers contain a trickle to remove ozone boast from inside the printer as it is produced. This trickle must be removed and cleaned with compress air out sporadically. ( Cleaning it whenever the toner cartridge is replaced is normally sufficient. ) Most newer laser printers don ’ t have ozone filters. This is because these printers don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate use transfer corona wires but rather use transfer aureole rollers, which dramatically reduce ozone emissions.

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Duplexing Assembly Any laser printer worth its money today can print on both sides of the wallpaper ( as can some nice models of inkjet printers, mentioned earlier ). This is accomplished through the practice of a duplex assembly. normally located inside or on the rear of the printer, the forum is responsible for taking the newspaper, turning it over, and feeding back into the printer so the second side can be printed.

Electrophotographic Imaging Process The electrophotographic ( EP ) imaging march is the process by which an EP laser printer forms images on paper. It consists of seven major steps, each designed for a specific finish. Although many different manufacturers call these steps unlike things or place them in a different order, the basic process is distillery the same. here are the steps in the order you will see them on the examination : 1. Processing 2. Charging 3. Exposing 4. Developing 5. Transferring 6. Fusing 7. Cleaning

Before any of these steps can begin, however, the control must sense that the printer is ready to start print ( toner cartridge installed, fuser warmed to temperature, and all covers in place ). Printing can not take place until the printer is in its ready state, normally indicated by an light ready LED light or a expose that says something like 00 READY ( on HP printers ). The computer sends the print caper to the printer, which begins processing the datum as the first gradation to creating output.

step 1 : Processing The action dance step comprises two parts : receiving the image and creating the effigy. The calculator sends the mark job to the printer, which receives it via its print interface ( USB, wireless, and so forth ). then, the printer needs to create the print job in such a way that it can accurately produce the output. If you think spinal column to our discussion of dot-matrix printing earlier in this chapter, you might recall that dot-matrix printers produce images by creating one deprive of dots at a prison term across the page. Laser printers use the like concept of rendering one horizontal plunder at a time to create the double. Each undress across the page is called a read line or a raster line. A component of the laser printer called the Raster Image Processor ( RIP ) manages raster creation. Its responsibility is to generate an image of the final page in memory. How the raster gets created depends on the page-description lyric that your system is using, such as PostScript ( PS ) or Printer Control Language ( PCL ). ultimately, this collection of lines is what gets written to the light-sensitive drum and onto the paper.

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Step 2 : Charging The adjacent step in the EP procedure is charging ( see Figure 5.15 ). In this tone, a special wire or roller ( called a charging aureole ) within the EP toner magazine ( above the photograph sensitive drum ) gets eminent electric potential from the HVPS. It uses this high voltage to apply a impregnable, undifferentiated negative commit ( around –600VDC ) to the surface of the light-sensitive drum. Fi gram u radius e 5 .1 5 The charging step of the EP action Charge corona discharge telegram

EP drum

Step 3 : queer Next is exposing the cram to the prototype, much referred to as the exposing step. In this step, the laser is turned on and scans the drum from english to side, flashing on and off according to the bits of data that the printer restrainer sends it as it communicates the individual bits of the picture. Wherever the laser radio beam touches, the light-sensitive drum ’ s appoint is badly reduced from –600VDC to a rebuff negative bang ( around –100VDC ). As the drum rotates, a design of uncover areas is formed, representing the image to be printed. figure 5.16 shows this procedure. Fi g u r e 5 .1 6 The exposing step of the EP process

EP drum Laser scanning assembly

Direction of rotation

Laser beam Fixed mirror Rotating mirror

At this sharpen, the accountant sends a signal to the pickup roller to feed a slice of wallpaper into the printer, where it stops at the registration rollers.

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Step 4 : develop now that the open of the drum holds an electrical representation of the image being printed, its discrete electrical charges need to be converted into something that can be transferred to a patch of newspaper. The EP work step that accomplishes this is developing ( see Figure 5.17 ). In this pace, toner is transferred to the areas that were exposed in the uncover step. Fi gram uracil gas constant e 5 .17 The develop dance step of the EP process Blade

Toner

Toner fog

Reservoir Nonexposed areas Exposed areas Nonexposed areas Developing roller

EP drum

EP drum

A metallic roller called the developing roller inside an EP cartridge acquires a –600VDC charge ( called a bias electric potential ) from the HVPS. The toner sticks to this roller because there is a magnet located inside the roller and because of the electrostatic charges between the toner and the developing roller. While the developing roller rotates toward the light-sensitive brake drum, the toner acquires the charge of the roller ( –600VDC ). When the toner comes between the developing curler and the light-sensitive barrel, the toner is attracted to the areas that have been exposed by the laser ( because these areas have a lesser charge, –100VDC ). The toner besides is repelled from the unexposed areas ( because they are at the lapp –600VDC charge and like charges repel ). This toner remove creates a fog of toner between the EP drum and the developing curler. The light-sensitive drum now has toner stuck to it where the laser has written. The light-sensitive drum continues to rotate until the break double is fix to be transferred to paper in the adjacent step.

pace 5 : remove At this sharpen in the EP summons, the develop persona is rotating into situation. The accountant notifies the registration rollers that the paper should be fed through. The adjustment rollers move the paper underneath the light-sensitive drum, and the process of transferring the image can begin ; this is the transplant dance step. The control sends a signal to the charging corona electrify or roller ( depending on which one the printer has ) and tells it to turn on. The corona wire/roller then acquires a strong plus commission ( +600VDC ) and applies that charge to the newspaper. therefore charged, the paper pulls the toner from the light-sensitive barrel at the lineage of contact between the roller and the paper because the paper and toner have opposite charges. Once the adjustment rollers move the composition past the corona cable, the static-eliminator strip removes all consign from

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that line of the paper. figure 5.18 details this step. If the strip didn ’ triiodothyronine bleed this commit away, the paper would attract itself to the toner cartridge and cause a paper jam. Fi gravitational constant u roentgen e 5 .1 8 The remove footprint of the EP procedure

Print drum EP magazine

Toner Paper

Transfer corona cable

Static-eliminator strip

The toner is now held in locate by weak electrostatic charges and gravity. It will not stay there, however, unless it is made permanent wave, which is the cause for the fuse step.

step 6 : Fusing The penultimate footstep before the printer produces the finished merchandise is called fuse. here the toner trope is made permanent. The registration rollers push the paper toward the fuser rollers. Once the fuser grabs the paper, the adjustment rollers press for only a short time longer. The fuser is now in control of moving the newspaper. As the paper passes through the fuser, the 350° F fuser curler melts the polyester resin of the toner, and the rubberize pressure roller presses it permanently into the newspaper ( see Figure 5.19 ). The paper continues through the fuser and finally exits the printer. Fi gram uranium gas constant e 5 .1 9 The fuse gradation of the EP serve Fusing roller

Pressure roller

Once the newspaper completely exits the fuser, it trips a detector that tells the printer to finish the EP process with the clean measure.

step 7 : clean In the last share of the laser imaging process, a rubber eraser blade inside the EP cartridge scrapes any toner left on the barrel into a exploited toner receptacle inside the EP magazine, and a fluorescent lamp discharges any remaining consign on the light-sensitive drum. ( Remember that the drum, being light-sensitive, loses its mission when exposed to light. ) This pace is called houseclean ( see Figure 5.20 ).

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figure 5.20

259

The cleanse step of the EP work

Cleaning blade Used toner Print drum

Used toner hop-picker

The EP cartridge is constantly cleaning the barrel. It may take more than one rotation of the light-sensitive drum to make an image on the newspaper. The cleaning dance step keeps the drum fresh for each use. If you didn ’ t clean the drum, you would see ghosts of previous pages printed along with your image. The sum of toner removed in the clean process is quite minor, and the cartridge will run out of toner before the use toner receptacle fills up. The toner that ’ south in the receptacle is useless because the imagination process has already chemically altered it. In addition, it ’ mho considered a hazardous substance. Recycle the mark cartridge and don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate pay up attention to the leftover toner.

At this point, the printer can print another page, and the EP process can begin again.

Summary of the EP Imaging Process Figure 5.21 provides a diagram of all the parts involved in the EP printing process. here ’ s a compendious of the action, which you should commit to memory : 1.

The printer receives and processes the double and stores a page in memory.

2.

The printer places a uniform –600VDC charge on the light-sensitive drum by means of a charging corona.

3.

The laser “ paints ” an visualize onto the light-sensitive drum, discharging the visualize areas to a much lower electric potential ( –100VDC ).

4.

The developing curler in the toner cartridge has charged ( –600VDC ) toner stuck to it. As it rolls the toner toward the light-sensitive drum, the toner is attracted to ( and sticks to ) the areas of the light-sensitive drum that the laser has discharged.

5.

The effigy is then transferred from the drum to the newspaper at its trace of contact by means of the transfer corona wire ( or corona roller ) with a +600VDC agitate. The static-eliminator denude removes the high, positive charge from the paper, and the wallpaper, now holding the trope, moves on.

6.

The paper then enters the fuser, where a fuser roller and the press roller make the image permanent wave. The newspaper exits the printer.

7.

The printer uses a rubber eraser scraper to clean the light-sensitive drum. At that period, it is ready to print the adjacent foliate or it returns to the ready state of matter.

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The EP visualize work

Laser

Mirror

Charge corona

Toner cartridge

Toner Waste toner receptacle EP drum Developer roller

Paper

Heat roller

Pressure roller Transfer corona wire Static-eliminator Fuser unit strip

There have been a lot of concepts covered in the laser print section. For the A+ documentation examination, be sure you are familiar with laser printer parts, including the image drum, fuser forum, transfer knock, pickup rollers, centrifuge pads, and duplexing assembly. besides know the steps of the imaging work in regulate. They are processing, charging, exposing, developing, transferring, blend, and cleanse.

Thermal Printers The types of printers that you have learned about so far in this chapter report for 90 percentage of all paper printers that are used with home or office computers and that you will see as a repair technician. The remaining 10 percentage consist of other types of printers that primarily differ by the method acting they use to put color material on the composition to represent what is being printed. Examples of these include solid ink, dye sublimation, and thermal printers. Keep in mind that, for the most separate, these printers operate like other newspaper printers in many ways : They all have a paper fertilize mechanism ( sheet-fed or coil ) ; they all require consumables such as ink or toner and composition ; they all use the lapp interfaces, for the most part, as early types of printers ; and they are normally about the lapp size. thermal print technology is used in many point-of-sale ( POS ) terminals and older fax machines. ( Newer fax machines normally use inkjet or laser engineering. ) They print on special thermal wallpaper, which is a kind of impressionable paper that comes on a coil ; the paper turns black when heat passes over it. thermal printers work by using a print head that is the width of the newspaper. When it needs to print, a inflame component heats sealed spots on the print head. The paper below the heated print head turns black in those spots. As the newspaper moves through the printer, the model of char spots forms an image on the page of what is being printed. Another character of thermal printer uses a heat-sensitive decoration alternatively of heat-sensitive paper. A thermal print oral sex melts wax-based ink from the ribbon onto the newspaper. These are called thermal transfer printers or thermal wax-transfer printers.

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Thermal direct printers typically have retentive lives because they have few moving parts. The only unique share that you might not be as familiar with is the newspaper feed assembly, which often needs to accommodate a roll of paper alternatively of sheets. The paper is reasonably expensive, doesn ’ t stopping point long ( specially if it is left in a very warm station, like a closed cable car in summer ), and produces poorer-quality images than the newspaper used by most of the other printing technologies.

Virtual Printers All the photographic print technologies that we have covered indeed far are physical technologies—that is, they do something to the wallpaper to produce an visualize, by using ink, toner, or heat. Another concept that we need to cover is virtual print, which sends the craved output signal to a file rather of to paper. From the end exploiter ’ mho point of view, starting the print process is the lapp. They click Print in their application and the march starts. From there, though, alternatively of sending the output to an electromechanical device, a new charge containing the output signal is generated. Printing to a file is nothing new ; this option has been around for credibly 20 years or more. You open the text file ( or other file ) that you want to print, choose Print, and a print window like to the one shown in Figure 5.22 opens. once there, you check the print To File box, and then click OK. ( other programs may have you choose the option to print to file in a drop-down list of printers. ) then, choose where to save the file ( good as saving any early file ), and after you chose a destination, you are done. Some programs or operating systems would even let you print to an trope ( such as JPG ) rather of a file, but the process works the same way. Fi g uracil radius einsteinium 5. 2 2 print To File option

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It used to be that people lone chose this option when the printer was not available. You could print your end product to a file, take the file to a different machine that had a printer available, and print the file from that machine. now, you might ask, why wouldn ’ thymine you just take the original file from the first computer to the moment and print it from the application ? That would make sense, but this method acting allowed you to print from a second calculator that didn ’ t have the application in which you created the charge installed on it. There was one boastful caution : You had to be printing to the lapp type of printer using the same printer driver as you used to publish the electronic print file ; otherwise, it wouldn ’ thyroxine exploit. The consequence was that it was rarely, if always, used. Another option has emerged, though, and this one is actually utilitarian ! alternatively of printing to a generic file format that can be later used to produce a paper copy, you can print to a portable document Format ( PDF ) file. Basically, you are just creating a PDF file using your application ’ s print officiate. There are a few different ways to print to PDF from Windows and Windows-based applications. Some apps natively print to PDF, whereas others require you to install a third-party lotion that supports print to PDF. There is no dearth of apps in the market that will do this ; for exemplar, Adobe Acrobat ( www.adobe.com ), CutePDF Writer ( www.cutepdf .com ), and Nitro PDF ( www.gonitro.com ) will do the trick. When you print, you will get a screen exchangeable to the one shown in Figure 5.23. Fi deoxyguanosine monophosphate u gas constant e 5. 2 3 print to PDF

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Select Print to PDF ( or your translation of it ) and cluck Print. A window will pop up asking where you want to save the fi lupus erythematosus. Save it, and a PDF fi lupus erythematosus is created for you. It ’ s vitamin a easy as that. current versions of Microsoft Office products besides let you create a PDF file automatically. For case, in Word, you can choose File ➢ Save As, and one of your options in the drop-down menu will be the PDF format. Another way is to click File ➢ Save & Send, and then choose Send As PDF.

Another choice, besides printing to PDF, is to print to XPS. An open XML Paper Specification ( XPS ) fi lupus erythematosus is Microsoft ’ sulfur interpretation of a PDF. It ’ sulfur designed to be an open standard, like PDF, but it hasn ’ t very taken off in terms of popularity. In fact, with the initiation of Windows 8, Microsoft included corroborate for OpenXPS ( OXPS ), which is contrastive with the XPS proofreader included with Windows 7. In addition, Windows 8 and newer include a native PDF lector, so it seems that Microsoft isn ’ t heavily invested in supporting the XPS format itself. Let ’ s go back to print to an persona for a minute. If your program doesn ’ t patronize printing to an image but you need the output of the fi lupus erythematosus in an image format ( JPG, TIF, PNG, or other ), you can print the fi lupus erythematosus as a PDF fi rst, and then convert it to an double fi lupus erythematosus. There are dozens of dislodge effigy fi le converters on the web. To summarize, there are four electric potential options for printing to a virtual printer : photographic print to fi lupus erythematosus, print to image, print to PDF, and print to XPS. Of the four, the only one that you will likely fi nd to be useful is print to PDF.

3D Printers In 2011, the beginning commercially available 3D printer hit the market. Although the password “ print ” is used, the technology and process are completely different from putting ink to paper. 3D print is very a fabrication process, besides called additive fabrication. In it, a three-dimensional intersection is produced by “ impression ” thin layers of a substantial and stacking those layers on crown of each other. The fi rst 3D printers were used in manufacture environments. Over fourth dimension, smaller, more economical models have been made for base use as well, although the technology inactive remains reasonably expensive. Most 3D printers intended for the family function rolls of credit card filament to create objects, but industrial printers can use a kind of materials, including aluminum, copper, and other metals. Some enterprising person besides created a 3D printer that prints using melted chocolate. They very likely deserve a Nobel Prize.

Parts of a 3D printer They can produce complex creations, but 3D printers are relatively elementary devices with few parts. For the examples here, we will use smaller 3D printers designed for home or small business manipulation. therefore, we ’ ll focus on printers that use plastic fibril as opposed to early materials. The primary components are as follows : ■

Frame

Printing plate

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■■

Extruder

■■

Cooling fan

■■

PCB circuit dining table

■■

Filament

The frame holds the printer together. On the bottom of the printer will be the print home plate, where the object is created. The extruder heats up and melts the filament, which is used to create the object. A cool fan keeps the extruder from overheating. A PCB circuit circuit board will be installed somewhere, to control the motion of the extruder assembly. Some printers will besides have electronic displays and a clear protective case. figure 5.24 shows a simpleton MakerBot 3D printer 24. It ’ s relatively easy to see the frame, printing home plate, expose, and filament pipe. 3D printers are connected to a calculator using a USB cable. Fi g uranium r vitamin e 5. 2 4 A 3D printer

On most 3D printers, the extruder is attached to metal rods that control the side of the extruder on X, Y, and Z axe. As mentioned earlier, the extruder heats up and melts credit card filament. The extruder then moves about to create the object, adding one thin layer of material to the printing plate at a time. figure 5.25 shows an extruder from a different 3D printer—it ’ s the small black parry at the bottom of the trope. In this visualize, the filament tube is seen coming from the circus tent of the extruder assembly.

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Fi gigabyte uranium roentgen einsteinium 5. 2 5 3D printer extruder

Filament comes on a spool, much like wire, and is shown in Figure 5.26. Be sure that the filament is compatible with the printer you intend to use it with. hera are the things to consider when purchasing replacement filament : type More than a twelve unlike types of plastic filament are available. The most popular are polylactic acid ( PLA ) and propenonitrile butadiene styrene ( ABS ). Each has different characteristics—for example, ABS shrinks as it cools, so a heated print home plate is recommended. Size The most park size is 1.75 millimeter, but 3.0 millimeter filament ( which is actually 2.85 millimeter slurred ) was the original size and is still used today. Color The printer doesn ’ metric ton very care what discolor you use, but a assortment of colors are available. Replacing filament is a square serve. The 3D printer ’ mho app ( or interface panel ) will have a Replace Filament button or option. once you start the action, the extruder will heat up and start to expel the current filament. At some point, it will tell you to replace the roll. You remove the old roll and feed the raw fibril through the filament tube into the extruder. After a short time, you will see the fresh semblance come through as melt fibril ( if you changed colors ), and you can use the app or interface panel to stop the replacement.

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Fi gigabyte u radius east 5. 2 6 3D printer PLA filament

The 3D Printing Process Every 3D printer comes with its own software that helps manage the print action ; consequently, the action will differ slenderly from printer to printer. The follow steps are cosmopolitan steps taken to get from idea to 3D print object. 1. Design the object using a computer-aided plan ( CAD ) program.

The most long-familiar commercial software for this is credibly AutoCAD by Autodesk. Another option is the absolve Tinkercad. 2. Export the file from the CAD software. Doing thus will cause the CAD program to “ slit ” the object into layers, preparing it for printing. The exported charge will be a .STL file.

This step will vary slightly, depending on the 3D printer ’ mho software. In many cases, the .STL file can be imported into the printer ’ mho app, and the app will slice the file even again, formatting the model specifically for the printer. Some apps can ’ thymine slice, though, so third-party slit software is needed. Examples include Cura, SliceCrafter, and Slic3r. Most slicers are loose, although commercial versions are available. 3. Send the job to the printer. This is basically precisely pushing the Print clitoris. 4. The printer will perform a calibration and self-test. The extruder will heat up and

calibrate its position on the X, Y, and Z axes. 5. Printing begins.

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Small print jobs may take over an hour, depending on the printer and size of the object. Larger jobs may take days to complete. The maximum object size will be determined by the model of printer. After the job is done, a little sandpaper or fi ling may be required to remove overindulgence fi lament. A completed 3D print job ( actually respective jobs ) is shown in Figure 5.27. In sum, the objects are about 1.5″ long. Higher-end 3D printers can create components that move, such as hinges and latches. figure 5.27

3D print objects

Installing and Maintaining Printers Odds are that if person owns a calculator, they own a printer ampere well. If they don ’ thymine, they have easy entree to a printer at a library, work, or some other place. many retailers and computer manufacturers make it fabulously easy to buy a printer because they frequently bundle a printer with a computer system as an incentive to get you to buy. The CompTIA A+ 220-1001 examination will test your cognition of the procedures to install and maintain printers. In the surveil sections, we will discuss connecting printers through respective interfaces, installing and sharing local and network printers, performing printer sustenance, and installing printer upgrades. many inkjet and laser printers today provide several functions, including replicate, scan, and faxing. These devices go by several names, including multifunctional printer, multifunction device ( MFD ), multifunction product ( MFP ), or all-in-one printer.

Printer Interface Components A printer ’ s interface is the collection of hardware and software that allows the printer to communicate with a computer. The hardware interface is normally called a larboard. Each printer has at least one interface, but some printers have several interfaces, to make them

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more flexible in a multiplatform environment. If a printer has several interfaces, it can normally switch between them on-the-fly so that several computers can print at the same clock. An interface incorporates several components, including its interface type and the interface software. Each expression must be matched on both the printer and the computer. For example, an older HP LaserJet 4L has only a twin port. therefore, you must use a latitude cable adenine well as the chastise software for the platform being used ( for case, a Macintosh HP LaserJet 4L driver if you connect it to a Macintosh calculator ).

Interface Types When we say interface types, we ’ rhenium talking about the ports used in getting the printed data from the calculator to the printer. There are two major classifications hera : wired and wireless. Wired examples are series, parallel, USB, and Ethernet. Wireless options include 802.11 and Bluetooth. You ’ ve learned about the wired connections in chapter 3, “ Peripherals and Connectors, ” and you will learn more about the radio receiver connections in chapter 6, “ Networking Fundamentals. ” here you will learn how they apply to printers.

Serial When computers send data serially, they send it 1 sting at a fourth dimension, one after another. The bits stand in line like people at a movie field, waiting to get in. old-time serial ( RS-232 ) connections were painfully dense, but raw serial engineering ( Thunderbolt, eSATA, and others ) makes it a more feasible choice than parallel. While it ’ s quite common to see USB ( another type of serial connection ) printers on the marketplace, it ’ second rare to find any other types of serial printers out there.

Parallel When a printer uses parallel communication, it is receiving data 8 bits at a time over eight distinguish wires ( one for each morsel ). Parallel communication was the most popular way of communicating from computer to printer for many years, chiefly because it was faster than serial. In fact, the latitude port became then synonymous with impression that a lot of companies just started referring to parallel ports as printer ports. today, though, parallel printers are rare. The huge majority of wire printers that you see will be USB or Ethernet. A analogue cable television consists of a male DB25 connection that connects to the computer and a male 36-pin Centronics connection that connects to the printer. Most of the cables are shorter than 10 ’. The industry standard that defi nes latitude communications is IEEE 1284 ; parallel cables should be IEEE 1284-compliant. Keep printer cable lengths shorter than 10 ’. Some people try to run printer cables more than 50 ’. If the length is greater than 10 ’, communications can become undependable due to crosstalk, which is the degrade of a signal due to electromagnetic noise ( EMI ).

Universal Serial Bus The most popular type of wired printer interface is the Universal Serial Bus ( USB ). In fact, it is the most popular interface for just about every peripheral. The convenience for printers

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is that it has a higher transfer rate than older serial or analogue connections, and it mechanically recognizes new devices. And, of class, USB is physically very easy to connect.

Ethernet Many printers sold today have a wired Ethernet interface that allows them to be hooked directly to an Ethernet cable. These printers have an inner network interface circuit board ( NIC ) and ROM-based software that allow them to communicate on the net with servers and workstations. As with any other network device, the type of network interface used on the printer depends on the type of network to which the printer is being attached. It ’ s likely that the entirely connection type that you will run into is RJ-45 for an Ethernet connection.

Wireless The latest swerve in printer interface technology is to use radio. Clearly, people love their Wi-Fi because it enables them to roam around an agency and still remain associate to one another and to their network. It logically follows that person came up with the brainy idea that it would be nice if printers could be that mobile as well—after all, many are on carts with wheels. Some printers have built-in Wi-Fi interfaces, while others can accept radio receiver network cards. Wi-Fi-enabled printers support about all 802.11 standards ( a, bacillus, deoxyguanosine monophosphate, north, actinium ), and the handiness of devices will mirror the current popularity of each standard. The radio receiver engineering that is specially popular among peripheral manufacturers is Bluetooth. Bluetooth is a short-range radio technology ; most devices are specified to work within 10 meters ( 33 feet ). Printers such as the HP Sprocket series and Officejet 150 fluid printers have Bluetooth capability. When printing with a Bluetooth-enabled device ( like a smartphone or pill ) and a Bluetooth-enabled printer, all you need to do is get within range of the device ( that is, move closer ), select the printer driver from the device, and choose Print. The data is transmitted wirelessly through the vent using radio waves and is received by the device. When Wi-Fi is used to connect printers to a network on a more permanent basis, it is known as infrastructure mode. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth can be used to connect a printer temporarily to a single calculator ( or mobile device ), and the connection does not have permanent condition. This type of configuration is known as an ad hoc network connection.

Interface Software now that we ’ ve looked at the ways that you can connect your printer, it ’ randomness time to face a gloomy world : Computers and printers don ’ triiodothyronine know how to talk to each other. They need aid. That help comes in the class of interface software used to translate software commands into commands that the printer can understand. There are two major components of interface software : the page-description language and the driver software. The page-description language ( PDL ) determines how efficient the printer is at converting the data to be printed into signals that the printer can

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understand. The driver software understands and controls the printer and must be written to communicate between a specific operating arrangement and specific printer. It is very authoritative that you use the correct interface software for your printer. If you use either the wrong page-description lyric or the incorrect driver software, the printer will print garbage—or possibly nothing at all.

Page-Description Languages A page-description language works equitable as its appoint implies : It describes the whole page being printed by sending commands that describe the text deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the margins and other settings. The accountant in the printer interprets these commands and turns them into laser pulses ( or pin strikes ). several printer communication languages exist, but the three most common are PostScript, Printer Command Language ( PCL ), and Graphics Device Interface ( GDI ). The first page-description linguistic process was PostScript. Developed by Adobe, it was first used in the Apple LaserWriter printer. It made printing graphics fast and simpleton. here ’ s how PostScript works : The PostScript printer driver describes the page in terms of “ draw ” and “ position ” commands. The page is divided into a very finely grid ( ampere fine as the resolution of the printer ). When you want to print a straight, a communication like the pursue takes place : POSITION 1,42 % DRAW 10 % POSITION 1,64 % DRAW10D %. ..

These commands tell the printer to draw a lineage on the page from cable 42 to line 64 ( vertically ). In other words, a page-description linguistic process tells the printer to draw a line on the page and gives it the starting and ending points—and that ’ randomness that. Rather than send the printer the location of each and every dot in the line and an education at each and every localization to print that placement ’ sulfur person point, PostScript can get the line draw with fewer than five instructions. As you can see, PostScript uses commands that are more or less in English. The commands are interpreted by the central processing unit on the printer ’ s restrainer and converted into the print-control signals. PCL was developed by Hewlett-Packard in 1984 and primitively intended for use with inkjet printers as a rival to PostScript. Since then, its role has been expanded to about every printer type, and it ’ s a de facto industry standard. GDI is actually a Windows component and is not specific to printers. rather, it ’ s a series of components that govern how images are presented to both monitors and printers. GDI printers work by using calculator processing ability rather of their own. The print image is rendered to a bitmap on the calculator and then sent to the printer. This means that the printer hardware doesn ’ thymine motivation to be as potent, which results in a less expensive printer. Generally speaking, the least expensive laser printers on the market are GDI printers. Most newer printers can handle both PS and PCL ( and GDI ) and will mechanically translate for you. consequently, it ’ sulfur less likely that you ’ ll install the wrong printer driver than it was respective years ago.

The main advantage of page-description languages is that they move some of the processing from the calculator to the printer. With text-only documents, they offer little benefit. however, with documents that have large amounts of graphics or that use numerous fonts,

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page-description languages make the process of those print jobs happen much faster. This makes them an ideal choice for laser printers, although about every type of printer uses them. If you ’ re working with an older laser printer and it ’ randomness print garbage, check the driver. It might have the letters PS or PCL at the end of the name. If a PS driver is installed for a printer that wants PCL ( or frailty versa ), drivel output could be the resultant role.

animation without a Page-description linguistic process Page-description languages make printing an efficient process. But what about when they are not used ? In situations like this, the calculator sends all the instructions the printer needs in a consecutive stream, like thus : position 1, print nothing ; Position 2, strike pins 1 and 3 ; Position 3, print nothing. This type of description language works well for dotmatrix printers, but it can be ineffective for laser printers. For example, if you wanted to print a foliate using a standard page-description language and only one character was on the page, there would be a lot of signal wasted on the “ print nothing ” commands. With graphics, the commands to draw a shape on the page are relatively complex. For example, to draw a square, the computer ( or printer ) has to calculate the size of the square and change that into a distribute of “ come to pin x ” ( or “ turn on laser ” ) and “ print nothing ” commands. This is where the early types of page-description languages come into the photograph.

Driver Software The driver software controls how the printer processes the photographic print job. When you install a printer driver for the printer you are using, it allows the calculator to print to that printer correctly ( assuming that you have the correct interface configured between the calculator and printer ). The driver must be written specifically for the engage system the computer is using and for the printer being used. In other words, Mac clients need a different driver than Windows clients need, even to print to the lapp printer. If you ’ ra working with a Windows-based operate system, Microsoft refers to the software that is installed on the computer and lets you print as the “ printer. ” The physical device where the paper comes out is refer to as the “ print device. ” here, when we say “ printer, ” we mean the physical device.

When you need to print, you select the printer driver for your printer from a preconfigured list. The driver that you select has been configured for the type, brand, and model of printer, angstrom well as the computer port to which it is connected. You can besides select which composition tray the printer should use vitamin a well as any other features the printer has ( if applicable ). besides, each printer driver is configured to use a particular page-description linguistic process.

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If the wrong printer driver is selected, the computer will send commands in the incorrectly lyric. If that occurs, the printer will print several pages wide of drivel ( even if only one page of information was sent ). This “ garbage ” international relations and security network ’ thyroxine drivel at all but the printer page-description linguistic process commands printed literally as text alternatively of being interpreted as control commands.

Installing and Sharing Local Printers Although every device is different, there are sealed accept methods used for installing about all of them. The play along routine works for installing many kinds of devices : 1.

Attach the device using a local anesthetic port ( generally USB, but possibly something else ) and connect the office.

2.

Install and update the device driver and calibrate the device.

3.

Configure options and settings.

4.

Print a examination page.

5.

Verify compatibility with the engage system and applications.

6.

Educate users about basic functionality.

Before installing any device, read your device ’ mho facility instructions. There are exceptions to every rule.

tone 1 : Attach the Device Using a Local Port and Connect the Power When installing a printer, you must first take the device out of its promotion and set it up on a two-dimensional, static surface. then, with the device powered off, connect it to the master of ceremonies calculator. nowadays, the huge majority of local printers are USB, but you will occasionally find ones that use different ports equally well. once you have connected the device, get in touch world power to it using whatever issue ability adapter comes with it. Some devices have their own built-in might issue and just need an AC might cord connecting the device to the wall exit, while others trust on an external transformer and power issue. finally, turn on the device.

step 2 : install and Update the Device Driver and Calibrate the Device Once you have connected and powered up the device, Windows should automatically recognize it. When it does, a screen will pop up saying that Windows is installing the driver. If a driver is not found, you will be given the option to specify the location of the driver. You can insert the driver media ( ostentation drive, DVD, etc. ) that came with the device, and the charming will guide you through the device driver initiation.

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If Windows fails to recognize the device, you can start the process manually by initiating the Add Printer Wizard ( called Add A Printer Wizard in Windows 7 and Windows 8/8.1 ) to troubleshoot the facility and to install the device drivers. To start the sorcerer in Windows 10, chatter Start, type printer, and then click Printers & Scanners when it appears under Best Match. Click Add a Printer or Scanner, as shown in Figure 5.28. If a printer is not detected, a connection will appear with the words “ The printer that I want international relations and security network ’ thyroxine listed. ” Click that connection, and it will start the charming shown in Figure 5.29. Fi thousand u radius vitamin e 5. 2 8 Printers & scanners

Fi gravitational constant u gas constant einsteinium 5. 2 9 Add Printer Wizard

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This might go without saying at this compass point, but it bears repeating : You need the right driver—one that matches both your printer and your operate system—in order for everything to work right.

Once the driver is installed, the device will function. But some devices, such as inkjet printers, must be calibrated. If the printer requires this tone, it will tell you. You ’ ll motivation to walk through a few steps before the printer will print, but instructions will be provided either on your computer screen or on the printer ’ s display. When you are working with print media, it is specially important to calibrate all your hardware, including your monitor, scanner, printer, and digital camera, to ensure color pit.

Each manufacturer ’ randomness serve is different, but a typical alignment/calibration works like this : 1.

During software installation, the facility sorcerer asks you if you would like to calibrate now, to which you will respond Yes or OK.

2.

The printer prints out a sheet with multiple sets of total lines. Each set of lines represents an conjunction example.

3.

The software will ask you which set ( s ) looks the best. Enter the number and pawl OK or Continue.

4.

Some alliance routines end at this point. Others will reprint the conjunction page and see if the alignment “ took. ” If not, you can re-enter the number of the one that looks the best.

5.

Click Finish to end the alignment everyday.

step 3 : configure Options and Settings once you have installed the software and calibrated the device, you can configure any options that you would like for the printer. All the settings and how to change them can be found online or in your exploiter manual. Where you configure particular printer properties depends a batch on the printer itself. As a rule of thumb, you ’ ra looking for the Printer Properties or Printing Preferences applet. In Windows 10, if you open Printers & Scanners, you will see the list of printers that are installed. Clicking an install printer will show three buttons : Open Queue, Manage, and Remove Device, as shown in Figure 5.30. The open Queue push button lets you manage print jobs, and the Remove Device button is self-explanatory. Click Manage to get the screen like the one shown in Figure 5.31. here you have options to print a test page, ampere well as the Printer properties and Printing preferences link. visualize 5.32 shows the General tab of the Printer Properties window, and Figure 5.33 shows the Printing Preferences window.

Installing and Maintaining Printers

Fi guanine u roentgen e 5. 3 0 Three printer management buttons

Fi thousand u gas constant vitamin e 5. 3 1 Manage your device options

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Fi g uranium roentgen vitamin e 5. 3 2 printer Properties

Fi guanine uranium r e 5. 3 3 print Preferences

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From the printer ’ mho Properties dialogue box ( Figure 5.32 ), you can configure closely any option that you want to for your printer. The Properties dialogue box will be reasonably much the same for any printer that you install, and we ’ ll cover a few options here in a minute. First, though, notice the Preferences button on the General tab. Clicking the Preferences release is another way to get to Printing Preferences ( Figure 5.33 ). That window will have shape options based on your specific exemplar of printer. normally, though, this is where you can find layout ( portrayal or landscape ), duplexing, quality, coloring material, and newspaper tray settings ( if applicable ) for the printer. nowadays back to the Properties dialogue box. The printer ’ mho Properties dialogue box is less about how the printer does its job and more about how people can access the printer. From the Properties dialogue box, you can share the printer, set up the port that it ’ mho on, configure when the printer will be available throughout the day, and specify who can use it. Let ’ s take a front at a few key tabs. We ’ ve already taken a attend at the General yellow journalism, which has the Preferences button a well as the all-important Print Test Page release. It ’ s handy for troubleshooting ! figure 5.34 shows the Sharing pill. If you want other users to be able to print to this printer, you need to contribution it. Notice the warnings above the Share This Printer check box. Those are important to remember. When you contribution the printer, you give it a share name. Network users can map the printer through their own Add Printer Wizard ( choosing a network printer ) and by using the standard \\computer_name\share_name convention. Permissions for exploiter authentication are managed through the Security tab, which is shown in Figure 5.35. Fi gigabyte u r vitamin e 5. 3 4 printer Properties Sharing tab key

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Printer Properties Security tab key

If you are on a public net and want others to be able to find and print to your shared printer, you first need to enable file and printer sharing for public networks. Open the Network and Sharing Center, and then click Change Advanced Sharing Settings on the leave side. In Advanced Sharing Settings, open the Guest or Public network and click Turn On File and Printer Sharing, as shown in Figure 5.36.

One other important feature to call out on this pill is the extra Drivers clitoris. This one provides a description that is reasonably self-explanatory. figure 5.37 shows the Ports tab. here you can configure your printer port and total and delete ports. There ’ sulfur besides a check box to enable printer pooling. This would be used if you have multiple physical printers that operate under the same printer name. If you ’ re going to configure a printer pool, remember that all of the end product can appear on any of the devices that are separate of that pool. Make certain that all the printers in that consortium are in the same physical localization. otherwise, you will have people wandering all over the position trying to find their printouts. That might be entertaining for you, but not thus much for them.

Installing and Maintaining Printers

Fi gigabyte u r east 5. 3 6 Turning on file and printer sharing

Fi gigabyte u radius east 5. 3 7 printer Properties Ports pill

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Figure 5.38 shows the important Advanced check of the printer ’ s Properties dialogue box. On this pill, you can configure the printer to be available during merely certain hours of the day. This might be utilitarian if you ’ re trying to curtail after-hours impression of non-work-related documents, for case. You can besides configure the bobbin settings. For faster print, you should always spool the jobs alternatively of printing directly to the printer. however, if the printer is printing garbage, you can try printing directly to it to see if the spooler is causing the problem. Fi gigabyte u radius e 5. 3 8 printer Properties Advanced yellow journalism

Regarding the check boxes at the bottom, you will always want to print spool documents inaugural because that speeds up the impression summons. If you need to maintain an electronic copy of all print files, check the Keep Printed Documents check corner. Keep in mind that this will eat up a lot of hard disk space and could potentially create a security system risk. ultimately, the Printing Defaults button takes you to the Printing Preferences windowpane ( shown earlier in Figure 5.33 ). The Print Processor button lets you choice alternate methods of processing print jobs ( not normally needed ), and the Separator Page push button lets you specify a charge to use as a centrifuge page ( a text file that prints out at the beginning of each separate print job, normally with the drug user ’ mho name on it ), which can be useful if you have several ( or several twelve ) users sharing one printer.

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Step 4 : print a Test page once you have configured your printer, you are finished and can print a screen page to test its end product. Windows has a built-in function for doing just that—you see links to do sol in Figure 5.31 and Figure 5.32. Click the associate or button, and Windows will send a trial foliate to the printer. If the foliate prints, your printer is working. If not, double-check all your connections. If they appear to be in order, then skip ahead to Chapter 14 for troubleshooting tips.

Step 5 : Verify Compatibility with Operating System and Applications once your printer is installed and you have printed a screen page, everything else should work well, right ? That ’ mho normally true, but it ’ second thoroughly rehearse to verify compatibility with applications before you consider the device fully installed. With printers, this process is preferably aboveboard. Open the application you ’ re wondering about and print something. For exercise, loose Microsoft Word, type in some gibberish ( or open a veridical document, if you want ), and print it. If you are running nonMicrosoft applications ( such as a computer-aided blueprint program or account software ) and have questions about their compatibility with the printer, try printing from those programs ampere well.

Step 6 : educate Users about Basic Functionality Most users today know how to print, but not everyone knows how to install the right printer or how to print efficiently. This can be a significant consequence in influence environments. Say your workplace has 10 different printers, and you good installed numeral 11. First, your company should use a diagnose process to identify the printers in a means that makes sense. Calling a printer HPLJ4 on a network does little to help users understand where that printer is in the build. Naming it after its physical location might make more common sense. After installing the printer, offer initiation aid to those who might want to use the device. Show users how to install the printer in Windows ( or if printer installation is automated, let them know that they have a newly printer and where it is ). besides, let the users know the respective options available on that printer. Can it print double-sided ? If so, you can save a distribute of newspaper. Show users how to configure that. Is it a color printer ? Do users in truth need color for grating drafts of documents or presentations ? Show users how to print in black and white on a color printer to save the expensive color ink or toner cartridges. On the printer we ’ ve used as an exercise in this chapter, most of the options involving print output signal are located in Preferences ( refer to Figure 5.33 ). Two of them are on the Printing Shortcut tab key : Duplex ( or Print On Both Sides ) and Print Quality ( Best, Normal, Draft ). Orientation ( Portrait or Landscape ) is set on the Layout check. This printer does not have a collate feature, which is used if you are printing respective copies of a longer document. collation enables you to select whether you want it to print pages in order ( 1, 2, 3… 1, 2, 3… and so on ) or multiple copies of the lapp page at once ( 1, 1, 1… 2, 2, 2… and so forth ). In Exercise 5.2, we ’ ll pace through the work of installing a USB printer in Windows 10.

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E x vitamin e roentgen curie s east 5. 2

Installing a USB Printer in Windows 10 For this practice, you will need the follow items : ■■

A USB printer

■■

A USB printer cable

■■

The software driver that came with the printer ( news bulletin drive, DVD, or downloaded )

■■

A computer with a release USB port and the ability to access the driver

1. Turn on the computer. 2. Plug the printer into the wall release and turn it on. 3. Access the driver file to begin the installation process. You can do this in one of two ways, as follows :

a. Insert the DVD ( or candle ) into the computer ’ south ocular drive. The driver magnetic disk ’ s autorun have should automatically start the initiation platform. If not, click Start and type computer. Click the Computer desktop App under Best Match. Find the ocular drive, and double-click the apparatus or install charge on the disk.

b. Double-click the frame-up or install program on the finger drive or from the placement to which you downloaded it.

4. Follow the prompts in the initiation program to install the driver. 5. once the software has been installed, plug one end of the USB cable into the printer and the other conclusion into the free USB larboard. Some facility programs will prompt you for this step.

6. Windows will automatically detect the new printer, install the driver, and configure it. Windows will display a balloon in the lower-right corner of the shield that says, “ Your hardware is now install and is ready to use. ” If Windows doesn ’ t by rights detect the printer, open the Add Printer Wizard to begin the initiation serve again, and manually specify the localization of the printer driver ( such as the disk or ovolo tug ).

7. Print a examination page to see if the printer can communicate and print by rights.

Which Printer Did That Go To ? One of the authors used to work at a satellite office in Salt Lake City for a company whose headquarters were in Houston. Because of printer problems, a new net printer had been installed, which had a different network diagnose from the previous printer.

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At the goal of the calendar month, one of the accountants printed her monthly reconciliation report, which typically ran about 400 pages. ( A hard copy was required for regulative reasons. ) Puzzled when it didn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate come out of the printer, she printed it again. And again. And again. After the one-fourth failed undertake, and several hours belated, she decided to ask person in IT what the problem was. It turns out that she had mapped ( installed ) the new network printer but had gotten a few letters wrong in the printer name. rather of being at her office, all her print jobs were sent to a printer in the Houston office. And, of course, there were people in Houston trying to print similar reports and who just kept refilling the printer with composition because they didn ’ thyroxine want to cut person else ’ s report off in the middle. While this wasn ’ thyroxine a catastrophic failure, it was annoying. She had unintentionally wasted three reams of wallpaper, the consort toner, and hours of printer life. It wasn ’ t a malicious act, and she was a literate calculator exploiter, but it ’ sulfur demonstrative of the necessitate to educate and help users with install and configuring devices. Had the printer been mapped correctly the first time, the waste could have been avoided.

Installing and Sharing Networked Printers The previous section was about installing a printer attached to your local calculator. There are advantages to that approach, such as being able to manage and control your own printer, not to mention having a printer at your own desk. That doesn ’ triiodothyronine happen frequently in the commercial enterprise world these days ! There are some big disadvantages vitamin a well. First, it means that all users who need to print to your device may need local accounts on your computer, unless you are on a net world. If then, you will need to manage security for these accounts and the printer. Second, your calculator is the print waiter. The print server is the device that hosts the printer and processes the necessary printer commands. This can slow your system down. third, because your calculator is the print server, if for any reason it ’ s turned off, no one will be able to print to that device. There is another option, though. rather of needing a specific computer to be the photographic print waiter, why not make the print server share of the printer itself, or make it a separate network device that hosts the printers ? That is precisely the rationale behind network print. next, we will cover two types of network printing—local network print and cloud printing—as well as speak about data privacy concerns with printing to public or shared printers.

Local Network Printing The key to local network printing is that you are moving the print server from your calculator to another localization, accessible to other users on the network. consequently, the print server needs a direct attachment to the network, via either a wire ( RJ-45 ) or wireless joining. You will find two major varieties of print servers. The first, called an integrated print server, is incorporated into the printer itself, and the moment is a freestanding hardware photographic print server. If you are using a stand-alone mark server, the printers attach to the print waiter,

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either physically or logically. In most cases, if a printer is adequate to of connecting immediately to a network, it has the capability to be its own print server. Installing and using a network printer is very exchangeable to installing and using a local printer. You need to ensure that both devices are plugged in, turned on, and attached to the network ( either with an RJ-45 Ethernet connection or by using radio ). credibly the biggest difference is that when you install it, you need to tell your calculator that you are adding a network printer alternatively of a local anesthetic printer. For case, in Windows 10, when you open the Add Printer utility program ( shown in Figure 5.29 ), you choose Add a Bluetooth, radio receiver or early network ascertainable printer rather of Add a local Printer. From there, you will be asked to install the printer driver, merely as if the printer were directly attached to your computer. Once it ’ s installed, you use it precisely as you would use a local printer, including setting the shape options that we looked at in earlier sections. Every computer on the local anesthetic network should be able to see and add the printer in the same way. The mark waiter needs to have drivers available ( installed ) for all the types of clients that will connect to its printers. For model, if the network has Mac, Linux, and Windows 10 clients, the server will need to have all three drivers. If not, users may not be able to install the printer properly and not be able to print.

There are a few other ways that you can add shared network printers, and they are by using TCP, Bonjour, and AirPrint.

TCP Printing Printers that are network-aware need IP addresses, so it makes sense that you can add a network printer by using TCP/IP, besides known as TCP printing. exercise 5.3 base on balls you through the cosmopolitan procedure of installing a TCP printer, using Windows 10 as an exemplar. exerCIse 5.3

Installing a TCP/IP Printer in windows 10 1.

Connect the printer to the net and power it on.

2.

Configure the printer with an IP savoir-faire, if it does not already have one. Most network-aware printers will have their own display panel where you can configure or verify net settings. The IP address needs to be on the lapp subnet as the computer trying to add the printer.

3.

From your Windows 10 calculator, start the Add Printer Wizard.

4.

Choose Add a Printer Using a TCP/IP Address or Hostname, and then click Next.

5.

On the future screen, shown in Figure 5.39, you have a few options. One is to let the organization mechanically detect the device. If so, leave Device Type as Autodetect and chatter Next. otherwise, set Device Type to TCP/IP Device and move to the next measure. For this practice, let ’ s do the latter.

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figure 5.39

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Adding an IP printer

6.

Enter the IP address ( or hostname ) of the printer that you want to add, add a port name ( it ’ s just for designation ), and then click Next.

7.

Select the make and model of your printer from the list.

8.

You will be prompted to install the driver ; continue installing the printer as you would any early local or network printer.

Some installations will ask you which TCP print protocol you want to use, RAW or LPR. RAW ( besides called the Standard TCP/IP Port Monitor ) is the default, and it uses TCP port 9100. It besides uses the Simple Network Management Protocol ( SNMP ) for bidirectional communication between the calculator and the printer. LPR is older, and the protocol is included for use with bequest systems. It ’ second limited to source ports 721–731 and the finish port 515. We will discuss ports and interface numbers in chapter 7, “ Introduction to TCP/IP. ”

After the printer is installed, it will appear in your Printers & Scanners window, barely as any other printer would. There are a few advantages to using TCP print. First, it sends the photographic print jobs directly to the printer, so your system does not need to act as the print server or spend serve prison term dealing with formatting the print job. Second, it allows clients with different OSs, such as Linux or macOS, to add printers without worrying about intra-OS confl icts.

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Bonjour Apple introduced Bonjour in 2002 ( then under the mention Rendezvous ) as an implementation of zero configuration network. It ’ randomness designed to enable automatic pistol discovery of devices and services on local networks using TCP/IP american samoa well as to provide hostname resolution. presently, it comes installed by default on Apple ’ s macOS and io operating systems. Bonjour makes it easy to discover and install printers that have been shared by other Bonjour-enabled clients on the network. even though Apple developed Bonjour, it does work on other operating systems. For exercise, it comes with iTunes and the Safari browser, so if you have either of those installed on a Windows calculator, odds are that you have Bonjour vitamin a well. once installed, the Bonjour overhaul starts automatically and scans the net looking for shared devices. use 5.4 shows you how to see if Bonjour is installed in Windows. E x einsteinium gas constant curie s e 5. 4

Determining if Bonjour Is Installed in Windows 1. Click Start, type services, and then click Services under Best Match. The Services window will open.

2. Sort the list by name and look for the Bonjour serve, as shown in Figure 5.40. Fi gravitational constant u r vitamin e 5. 4 0 Bonjour service is running and set to start mechanically.

Bonjour works entirely on a single circulate domain, meaning that it will not find a printer or other device if it ’ south on the early side of a router from your calculator. All major printer manufacturers support Bonjour technology.

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If you are using a Mac, adding a Bonjour printer is comfortable. You open System Preferences ➢ Print And Scan, click the summation signboard under Printers to open the Add Printer window, and attend for the printer on the tilt. If the Mac doesn ’ t have the driver available, you will be asked to provide it. otherwise, you ’ re done. In order to add or share a Bonjour printer from Windows, you need to download Bonjour Print Services for Windows. It ’ s found on Apple ’ s subscribe web site at hypertext transfer protocol : //support.apple .com/kb/dl999.

AirPrint The one big ailment that Apple aficionado had about Bonjour was that it didn ’ t hold print from iPhones or iPads. In 2010, Apple introduced AirPrint to meet that indigence. The idea behind AirPrint is quite simpleton. mobile devices can mechanically detect AirPrint-enabled printers on their local network and print to them without requiring the facility of a driver. To be fair, what Apple very did was eliminate the motivation for a particular printer driver to be installed on the customer and replaced it with the AirPrint concept. then it was up to the printer manufacturers to develop their own drivers that talked to AirPrint. HP was happy to oblige with its Photosmart Plus series, and other manufacturers soon followed. The list of AirPrint-enabled printers is available at hypertext transfer protocol : //support.apple .com/en-us/HT201311. From the end-user point of view, though, no driver is required. There actually is no facility process, and print is easy. just be certain that your mobile device is on the like local network as an AirPrint printer. When you attempt to print from your device, select the printer to which you want to print, and it should work. You can besides purchase AirPrint servers, which are modest print servers that enable you to connect about any printer to the network and make them AirPrint compatible.

Cloud Printing Through the first ten of the 2000s, it seemed like wireless network was the hot new tendency in computing. now that engineering has matured a bit, and the overcast has replaced it as the course du jour. not everyone knows what the cloud is or what the cloud does, but they think they are supposed to have it. The swarm would be a deplorable place if it didn ’ triiodothyronine patronize impression, but, fortunately for us, it does. We will provide details on the cloud in chapter 9, “ Network Services, Virtualization, and Cloud Computing. ”

For the determination of this chapter, know that cloud printing means impression to a distant device, one that is not necessarily located on your local net. basically, you are using the Internet to send the print occupation from your device to the printer from which you want the end product to come, and the printer can be located much anywhere in the populace. To use

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cloud print, you need to work through a cloud print avail, such as Google Cloud Print, HP ePrint, or others. Some printers are cloud-ready, but you can frequently get older devices to work on the mottle vitamin a well. Cloud services will have their own steps on how to activate printing. In Exercise 5.5, we will go through an model using Google Cloud Print. E x vitamin e gas constant hundred and one s e 5. 5

Enabling Google Cloud Print 1. If you do not already have a Google account, you will need to create one. 2. Log into your Google account and chew the fat hypertext transfer protocol : //www.google.com/cloudprint/ # printers, as shown in Figure 5.41. Fi gram uracil radius e 5. 41 Google Cloud Print

You can see on the left of the figure that you have options to add a classic printer or a cloud-ready printer.

Installing and Maintaining Printers

3. For this example, we will add a cloud-ready printer. Click the connection that says Add a Cloud-Ready Printer. You will be directed to an data page, which lists cloud-ready printers.

4. Find your brand in the list, and click it to see instructions on how to add the printer, alike to what is shown in Figure 5.42. Fi g uranium r vitamin e 5. 4 2 Instructions for adding an HP printer

5. If you scroll down in the instructions for an HP printer, it will say to make sure that you have an active HP ePrint e-mail address, and then they provide a associate to click to associate your printer with Google Cloud Print. Follow the steps listed.

6. Enter the printer ’ second electronic mail address and suction stop Connect My Printer. 7. After a moment, you will see that the printer has been registered with Google Cloud Print.

After registering your printer, you can print from Google Cloud Print, as shown in Figure 5.43. detect that the printer is immediately installed in the correct acid. use 5.6 shows you how to print to Google Cloud Print using the Chrome browser.

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Fi g u gas constant e 5. 4 3 Printers registered with Google Cloud Print

E x e roentgen hundred and one s vitamin e 5. 6

Printing from Google Cloud Print 1. receptive Google Cloud Print, as shown in Figure 5.43. 2. Click the crimson Print button. You will be asked if you want to upload a file to print or choose other ways to print.

3. If the file is on your machine, choose the first option. If you are looking to print from Chrome or another Google Cloud Print–enabled app, choose the second. In this example, we will choose the first.

4. A new window pops up with a connection to select a file from your computer. Click the connection and choose a file. You will be taken back to the list of available printers.

5. Click the printer to which you ’ d like to print. You will see mark options, such as collate, color, numeral of copies, size, orientation course, pages to print, and quality, like to what is shown in Figure 5.44.

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Fi g uranium gas constant e 5. 4 4 Google Cloud Print options

6. Choose your options and snap Print.

The steps involved to print directly from node computers differ based on the node you are using. table 5.1 provides information to get you started in the correct direction. Ta b liter e 5 .1 Google Cloud Print OS client options Client

Option

Windows

Go to https : //tools.google.com/dlpage/cloudprintdriver to download the print customer. After facility, Google Cloud Printer will appear in your tilt of printers when you print from an application.

macOS

Download Cloud Printer from the Mac App Store.

Linux

Printers that are installed on a CUPS print organization can be connected using the Google Cloud Print CUPS Connector. See hypertext transfer protocol : //support .google.com/a/answer/2906017 ? hl=en for more information.

Android

Android should natively support Google Cloud Print ; if not, download the Google Drive Android app from Google Play or use a third-party app, such as PrinterShare Mobile Print or Easy Cloud Print.

io

Download PrintCentral Pro, gCloud Print, or early apps from iTunes.

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Earlier we mentioned HP ’ s ePrint capability. Of course, this works only if you purchased an HP cloud-ready printer. If it ’ second cloud-ready, it will have an icon on it that looks like a printer with a radio receiver signal coming from it ( the bottom picture on the right english of Figure 5.45 ), and you can configure it with an e-mail [ e-mail protected ] Printer settings, including the e-mail address and security related to who can print to the printer, can be managed at www.hpconnected.com. If you have access, it ’ second very easy to print. Simply email what you want printed to the e-mail address of your printer, and it will print. Fi deoxyguanosine monophosphate uranium gas constant e 5. 4 5 HP ePrint information

Data Privacy Concerns When print to a public printer, or one that is shared in a coarse workspace, there may be data privacy concerns. For example, employees in Human Resources might need to print confidential personnel files, or person in the Mergers group might have a highly restricted contract to print. several printer manufacturers, including Brother, Canon, HP, and Xerox, offer a feature called Secure Printing ( or Private Printing ) on many of their office printers. When users print, they need to go into the printer preferences ( or a alike place ) and indicate that it ’ s a dependable print problem. They are then asked to enter a PIN and, last, print the document. The document will not print until they physically go to the printer and enter the PIN. Another security issue is storing photographic print jobs on print servers. Print jobs are cached on the print server ( it ’ second called hard drive hoard ), and they can be saved indefinitely. We looked at the control corner to keep print documents in Figure 5.38. If you are configuring a printer for a public area, do not select this choice. If you ’ rhenium print to a public printer ( such as at a hotel ), and you can see the printer properties, check to make indisputable that this option is not selected. That will help ensure that your files will not be cached on the hotel calculator ’ s hard drive.

Performing Printer Maintenance Considering the total of ferment they do, printers last a pretty hanker time. Some printers handle over 100,000 pages per calendar month, so far they ’ re normally reasonably authentic devices. You can

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help your printers live long and fulfilling lives by performing the right alimony, and smoothly running printers always make your officemates glad. After all, going to get your print problem from the printer and identify that the printer is in the patronize is a identical frustrating experience ! Regardless of the type of printer you use, giving it a regular check-up is a good mind. You ’ re credibly familiar with some of the activities that fall under maintenance, such as replacing newspaper, ink, or toner cartridges. We ’ ll look at those angstrom well as some extra, more necessitate sustenance procedures.

Replacing Consumables To maintain a printer by rights, you need to replace consumables such as toner or ink cartridges, assemblies, filters, and rollers on occasion. Trying to cut costs by buying cheaper supplies rarely pays off. Whenever buy supplies for your printer, constantly get supplies from the manufacturer or from an authoritative reseller. This way, you ’ ll be sure that the parts are of high quality. Using unauthorized parts can damage your printer and possibly void your guarantee.

Printer Paper Most people don ’ thyroxine give much thought to the kind of wallpaper they use in their printers. It ’ s a factor that can have a frightful effect on the quality of the hard-copy printout, however, and the topic is more complex than people think. For example, the incorrectly paper can cause patronize paper jams and possibly even damage components. several aspects of paper can be measured ; each gives an indication as to the paper ’ s timbre. The beginning factor is composition. Paper is made from a variety of substances. Paper used to be made from cotton and was called rag broth. It can besides be made from wood pulp, which is cheaper. Most paper nowadays is made from the latter or a combination of the two. Another expression of wallpaper is the property known as basis burden ( or just weight unit ). The weight of a particular type of newspaper is the actual weight, in pounds, of a ream ( 500 sheets ) of the standard size of that paper made of that corporeal. For regular bond composition, that size is 17 × 22. The final newspaper property we ’ ll discourse is the caliper ( or thickness ) of an individual tabloid of paper. If the paper is besides thick, it may jam in fertilize mechanisms that have respective curves in the composition path. On the other hand, a newspaper that ’ s besides slender may not feed at all. These are barely three of the categories we use to judge the quality of newspaper. Because there are so many different types and brands of printers a well as paper, it would be impossible to give the specifications for the “ perfect ” paper. however, the documentation for any printer will give specifications for the newspaper that should be used in that printer. many shock printers need to use special newspaper that has tractor feed perforations on the slope, or they will not work properly. When replacing tractor feed wallpaper, it ’ second identical easy to get it misaligned, and it will feed lopsidedly and ultimately jam the printer. similarly, thermal printers besides require especial newspaper that needs to be loaded properly. In many cases, if you load it top down, the unit will not produce images. By comparison, adding wallpaper to a laser or inkjet printer is normally very easy.

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For best results, store wallpaper in an area where it will not get wet or be exposed to excessive humidity.

Ink and Toner The sphere in which using recommend supplies is the biggest business is ink and toner cartridges. Using the wrong ink or toner supplies is the easiest way to ruin a perfectly good printer. Dot-matrix printers use a fabric or polyester ribbon soaked in ink and coiled up inside a fictile case. This assembly is called a printer ribbon ( or ribbon cartridge ). Once the decoration has run out of ink, it must be discarded and replaced. Ribbon cartridges are developed closely with their respective printers. For this reason, ribbons should be purchased from the like manufacturer as the printer. The incorrect decoration could jam in the printer adenine well as causal agent quality problems. It is possible to re-ink a ribbon. Some vendors sell a bottle of ink solution that can be poured into the formative casing, where the fabric ribbon will soak up the solution. This can be a messy process, and you should do this only if the manufacturer recommends it.

Inkjet cartridges have a liquid ink reservoir. The ink in these cartridges is sealed inside. Once the ink runs out, the cartridge must be removed and discarded. A raw, wax cartridge is installed in its identify. Because the ink cartridge contains the printing mechanism vitamin a well as ink, it ’ s like getting a new printer every time you replace the ink cartridge. In some inkjet printers, the ink cartridge and the print head are in separate assemblies. This way, the ink can be replaced when it runs out, and the mark forefront can be used several times. This works fi nebraska if the printer is designed to work this way. however, some people think that they can do this on their integrated cartridge/print drumhead system, using limited ink cartridge refi ll kits. These kits dwell of a syringe fi lled with ink and a long needle. The needle is used to puncture the top of an empty ink cartridge, and the syringe is then used to refi ll the reservoir. Do not use ink cartridge replenish kits ! There are several problems with these kits ( the ones you see advertised with a syringe and a needle ). First, the kits don ’ thyroxine use the like kind of ink that was primitively in the ink cartridges. The new ink may be thinner, causing it to run out or not photographic print by rights. besides, the print principal is often supposed to be replaced around this same time. Refilling the cartridge doesn ’ thymine replace the print forefront, so you ’ ll have print-quality problems. ultimately, the hole the syringe leaves can not be plugged and may allow ink to leak out. These problems can happen with do-it-yourself kits a well as with cartridges refilled by position provide stores or private printer provision sellers. here ’ s the bottom line : Buy new ink cartridges from the printer manufacturer. Yes, they are a moment more expensive, but in the long run you will save money because you won ’ t have any of the problems described here.

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The final type of consumable is toner. Each model of laser printer uses a specific toner cartridge. You should check the printer ’ s manual to see which toner magazine your printer needs. many businesses will recycle your toner or ink cartridges for you, refill them, and sell them back to you at a discount. Don ’ triiodothyronine buy them. While some businesses that perform this “ serve ” are more legitimate than others, using recycle parts is more dangerous to your hardware than using modern parts. The reason for this is that refilled cartridges are more likely to break or leak than modern parts, and this escape could cause across-the-board price to the at heart of your printer. And again, using secondhand parts can void your guarantee, so you ’ rhenium left with a break printer that you have to pay for. Avoid problems like this by buying fresh parts.

Think before You refill just as with ink cartridges, you should constantly buy the demand model of toner magazine recommended by the manufacturer. The toner cartridges have been designed specifically for a particular model. additionally, never refill toner cartridges, for most of the same reasons we don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate recommend refilling ink cartridges. The printout quality will be hapless, and the fact that you ’ re fair refilling the toner means that you might not be replacing the light-sensitive cram ( which is normally inside the magazine ), and the drum might need to be replaced. Simply replacing refilled toner cartridges with proper, name-brand toner cartridges has solved most laser printer quality problems that we have run across. We keep recommending the right ones, but clients keep coming back with the replenish ones. The leave is that we take our clients ’ money to solve their print-quality problems when all it involves is a toner cartridge, our ( normally repeat ) advice to buy the proper cartridge future time, and the obligatory minimal commit for a half hour of tug ( even though the job of replacing the cartridge takes all of 5 minutes ).

Always properly recycle your use ink and toner cartridges. Just don ’ thyroxine buy recycle cartridges !

Performing Scheduled Maintenance When patronize for a printer, one of the characteristics you should look for is the printer ’ south capacity, which is frequently quoted in monthly book. This is peculiarly crucial if the printer will be serving in a high-load capacitance. Every printer needs periodic sustenance, but printers that can handle a lot of traffic typically need it less frequently. Check the printer specifications to see how often scheduled alimony is suggested. Never, ever fall behind on performing scheduled maintenance on a printer.

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Many laser printers have LCD displays that provide useful information, such as error messages or notices that you need to replace a toner cartridge. The LCD display will besides tell you when the printer needs scheduled care. How does it know ? Printers keep track of the number of pages they print, and when the page limit is reached, they display a message, normally something simple like Perform user care. The printer will even print, but you should perform the alimony. Being the astute technician that you are, you clean the printer with the recommend clean kit or install the maintenance kit out that you purchased from the manufacturer. nowadays, how do you get the care message to go away ? Reset the page reckon using a menu choice. For model, on many HP laser printers, you press the Menu button until you get to the Configuration menu. once there, you press the Item key until the display shows Service Message = ON. then press the plus key ( + ) to change the message to Service Message = OFF. Bring the printer back on-line, and you ’ re ready to go. When performing alimony on an affect printer, constantly carefully inspect the print head for damage. Replace damaged print heads with authoritative parts from the manufacturer.

Performing act maintenance will keep the printer blank, make it stopping point longer, and help prevent annoying paper jams.

Using Cleaning Solutions With all of the ink or toner they use, printers get dirty. If printers get excessively dirty or if the print heads get dirty, you ’ ll poster mark problems. No one wants this to happen. Most printers have a self-cleaning utility that is activated through a menu option or by pressing a combination of buttons on the printer itself. It ’ randomness recommended that you run the cleanse sequence every time you replace the toner or ink cartridges. If you experience print-quality problems, such as lines in the output signal, run the houseclean everyday. sometimes, the self-cleaning routines aren ’ t adequate to clear up the trouble. If you are having print-quality issues, you might want to consider purchasing a clean or maintenance kit out, which frequently comes with a clean solution. Cleaning kits are frequently designed for one specific type of printer and should be used lone on that type of printer. For example, don ’ thymine apply an inkjet cleaning solution to a laser printer.

Each cleaning kit comes with its own instructions for use. exercise 5.7 walk you through the steps of using an inkjet cleaning solution. note that the steps for your printer might differ slenderly ; please consult your manual for specific instructions. After using a clean kit on a laser or inkjet printer, it ’ mho best to perform a calibration per the printer ’ randomness instructions.

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E x e gas constant curie s e 5. 7

Using an Inkjet Cleaning Solution 1. Power on the printer, and open the circus tent shroud to expose the sphere containing the mark cartridges.

2. Initiate a self-cleaning cycle. When the print head moves from its resting place, pull the AC baron plug. This lets you freely move the print heads without damaging them.

3. Locate the leech pads on which to apply the cleanse solution. They ’ ll be in the area where the photographic print heads normally park.

4. Use a cotton swab or newspaper towel to gently soak up any surfeit ink in the pads. 5. Using the add syringe, apply the clean solution to the mooch pads until they are saturated.

6. Plug the printer back into the wall wall socket, and turn it on. The print heads will park themselves.

7. Turn the printer binding off. Let the solution seat for at least 3 hours. 8. Power the printer bet on on, and run three printer cleaning cycles. 9. Print a nozzle confirmation pattern ( or a examination page ) after each cleaning bicycle to monitor the clean progress. That should take care of it. If not, refer to your printer ’ s manual for more instructions.

Thermal printers require particular attention because they contain a heat element. Always unplug the device and ensure that it ’ s cooled off before trying to clean it. thermal printer houseclean cards, cleaning pens, and kits are widely available in the marketplace. If you need to remove any debris ( from any printer ), use compressed air or a specify computer void.

Ensuring a desirable environment Printers won ’ thyroxine complain if the weather outside is besides blistering or besides cold, but they are susceptible to environmental issues. here are some things to watch out for in your printer ’ sulfur environment : Heat Laser printers can generate a bunch of heat. Because of this, ensure that your laser printer is in a well-ventilated area. Resist the enticement to put the laser printer in the fiddling cubby in your desk. Overheating will reduce the shelf life of your printer. Humidity High humidity can cause printer newspaper to stick together. gluey wallpaper leads to newspaper jams. Humidity over 80 or 90 percentage can cause issues.

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Light The laser printer ’ sulfur toner magazine contains a light-sensitive drum. Exposing that drum to light could ruin the drum. While the brake drum is encased in plastic, it ’ second best to avoid exposing the printer or toner cartridges to extreme light sources. Under no circumstance should you open the toner cartridge, unless you ’ re ready to get rid of it a well as clean up a big mess. Ozone Laser printers that use corona wires produce ozone as a by-product of the printing serve. In offices, ozone can cause respiratory problems in modest concentrations, and it can be seriously dangerous to people in large amounts. ozone is besides a very effective oxidant and can cause damage to printer components. fortunately, laser printers don ’ t produce boastfully amounts of ozone, and most laser printers have an ozone trickle. ozone is another rationality to ensure that your printer area has good ventilation. besides, replace the ozone trickle sporadically ; check your printer ’ s manual for recommendations on when to do this. Ammonia A printer doesn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate produce ammonia water, but it is contained in many clean products. Ammonia can greatly reduce the printer ’ s ability to neutralize ozone and can cause permanent wave damage to toner cartridges. It ’ mho best to avoid using ammonia-based cleaners near laser printers.

Installing Printer Upgrades The printer market encompasses a dizzy range of products. You can find portable printers, photograph printers, brassy black-and-white printers for under $ 30, high-end color laser printers for over $ 5,000, and everything in between. Most of the cheaper printers do not have upgrade options, but higher-end printers will have upgrade options, including memory, network cards, and firmware. Let ’ s examine some ways that you can upgrade a slower printer or add functionality without breaking the bank. Most of the upgrades discussed here are for laser printers lone. Inkjets are less expensive and normally not upgradeable.

Installing Printer Memory When purchasing a memory upgrade for your printer, you need to make certain of two things. First, buy lone memory that is compatible with your printer model. Most printers nowadays use a standard calculator dual in-line memory faculty ( DIMM ), but check your manual or the manufacturer ’ s web site to be certain. If you ’ ra not certain, purchasing the memory through the manufacturer ’ s web site ( or an authorize reseller ) is a good way to go. Second, be certain that your printer is adequate to of a memory upgrade. It ’ s potential that the come of memory in your printer is at the maximal that it can handle.

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Once you have obtained the memory, it ’ mho time to perform the upgrade. The specific steps required to install the memory will depend on your printer. Check the manual or the manufacturer ’ s web site for instructions tailored to your model. exert 5.8 walk you through the cosmopolitan steps for installing memory into a laser printer. E x e roentgen curie s e 5. 8

Installing Memory into a Laser Printer 1. Turn off the printer. 2. Disconnect all cables from the printer ( power and interface cables ). 3. Find the area in which you need to install the memory. On most HP LaserJet printers, this is in the back, on a piece of hardware called the formatter board. Tabs near the top and bottom of the board hold the formatter board in. Remove the formatter board from the printer. other brands have different configurations. For example, on many Xerox laser printers, you remove a panel on the clear of the whole ( underneath the paper output tray ) to get to the memory. If your printer requires you to remove a component ( such as the formatter board ) to upgrade the memory, place that part on a ground surface, such as an antistatic ferment flat.

4. If you are replacing an existing memory module, remove the old module, being careful not to break off the latches at the end of the module that hold it in.

5. Insert the raw memory faculty, making sure that any alliance notches on the memory module are lined up with the device before inserting the memory module.

6. Replace the obliterable part ( if necessity ). 7. Reconnect the power and interface cables. 8. Power on the printer. 9. Follow the printer manual ’ randomness instructions for running a self-test to ensure that the memory is recognized. Some printers require that you manually enable the add memory. here are the steps to do that in Windows :

1. Open the Printers & Scanners app ( or Devices and Printers in Windows 7 and 8 ). 2. Click the printer and choose Manage. ( In Windows 7 and 8, right-click the printer and choose Properties. )

3. On the Device Settings check, click Printer Memory in the Installable Options department, as shown in Figure 5.46.

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E x east gas constant curie s e 5. 8 ( c o n thymine i n uracil vitamin e vitamin d )

Fi thousand uracil r vitamin e 5. 4 6 Printer installable options

4. Select the amount of memory that is now installed. 5. Click OK.

Installing a Network Interface Card Installing a NIC directly into a printer has become popular as more and more people need their printers to be on the network but don ’ t want to hassle with a host computer. The NIC in a printer is like to the NIC in a calculator, with a couple of important differences. First, the NIC in a printer has a small processor on it to perform the management of the NIC interface ( functions that the software on a host computer would do ). This software is normally referred to as a print server, but be careful because that terminus can besides refer to a forcible computer that hosts many printers. Second, the NIC in a printer is proprietary, for the most part—that is, the same manufacturer makes the printer and the NIC. When a person on the net prints to a printer with a NIC, they are printing right to the printer and not going through any third-party device ( although in some situations, that is desirable and possible with NICs ). Because of its give nature, the NIC choice installed in a printer makes printing to that printer faster and more efficient—that NIC is dedicated to receiving print jobs and sending printer condition to clients.

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Most printer NICs come with management software installed that allows clients to check their print jobs ’ status adenine well as toner levels from any computer on the network. You access the configuration options by typing the IP address of the printer into your web browser and generally entering an authorized username and password.

Read more:   Domain valuation tool: How to price and sell domains - GoDaddy Blog

Your manual is the best put to check to see if you can install a print server—internal ones look like regular expansion cards. specific steps for installing the print waiter will besides be in the manual or on the manufacturer ’ s web site. by and large speaking, it ’ mho very alike to installing a NIC into a computer. human body 5.47 shows an internal HP print waiter. fluorine I g u roentgen einsteinium 5. 47

HP mark server expansion poster

Upgrading Printer Firmware As with upgrade memory, methods to upgrade a printer ’ mho firmware depend on the model of printer. Most of the time, upgrading a printer ’ randomness firmware is a matter of downloading and/ or installing a loose file from the manufacturer ’ s web site. Printer firmware upgrades are by and large done from the machine hosting the printer ( again, normally called the photographic print server ). Firmware is normally upgraded for one of two reasons. One, if you are having compatibility issues, a fi rmware upgrade might solve them. Two, fi rmware upgrades can offer newer features that are not available on former versions.

Installing early Upgrades While we ’ ve covered some of the most significant upgrades, most printers ( specially laser printers ) can be upgraded with extra capabilities as well. Each manufacturer, with the

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software documentation for each printer, includes a list of all of the accessories, options, and upgrades available. The postdate options can be included on that list : ■■

Hard drives

■■

Trays and feeders

■■

Finishers

Hard Drives For a printer to print by rights, the type manner, or font, being printed must be downloaded to the printer along with the job being printed. Desktop publish and graphic invention businesses that print semblance pages on slower color printers are constantly looking for ways to speed up their print jobs, so they install multiple fonts into the onboard memory of the printer to make them printer-resident fonts. There ’ s a problem, however : Most printers have a limited come of repositing space for these fonts. To solve this problem, printer manufacturers made it possible for hard drives to be added to many printers. The hard drives can be used to store many fonts used during the print process and are besides used to store a big document file while it is being processed for impression.

Trays and Feeders One option that is popular in agency environments is the addition of paper trays. Most laser and inkjet printers come with at least one paper tray ( normally 500 sheets or fewer ). The accession of a paper tray allows a printer to print more sheets between composition refills, thus reducing its engage cost. In accession, some printers can accommodate multiple paper trays, which can be loaded with different types of paper, stationery, and envelopes. The benefit is that you can print a letter and an envelope from the same printer without having to leave your desk or change the paper in the printer. Related to trays is the choice of feeders. Some types of newspaper products need to be watched as they are printed to make certain that the print happens properly. One example is envelopes : You normally can ’ metric ton put a stack of envelopes in a printer because they won ’ thymine pipeline up square or they may get jammed. An accessary that you might add for this aim is the envelope self-feeder. An envelope feeder typically attaches to the front of a laser printer and feeds in envelopes, one at a meter. It can hold normally between 100 and 200 envelopes.

Finishers A printer ’ s finisher does just what its mention implies : It finishes the document being printed. It does this by folding, stapling, hole punch, sorting, or collating the sets of documents being printed into their final form. So rather than printing out a bunch of paper sheets and then having to collate and staple them, you can have the finisher do it. This particular option, while not bum, is becoming more popular on laser printers to turn them into multifunction copiers. As a matter of fact, many copiers are now digital and can do all the same things that a laser printer can do but much faster and for a much cheaper cost per foliate.

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Summary In this chapter, we discussed how different types of printers work a well as the most common methods of connecting them to computers. You learned how computers use page-description languages to format data before they send it to printers and drivers to talk to them. You besides learned about the versatile types of consumable supplies and how they relate to each type of printer. The most basic class of printer presently in use is the impact printer. Impact printers form images by striking something against a ribbon, which in twist makes a crisscross on the paper. You learned how these printers work and the service concepts associated with them. One of the most popular types of printer today is the inkjet printer, so named because of the mechanism used to put ink on the newspaper. The most complex type of printer is the laser printer. The A+ 220-1001 examination covers this character of printer more than any other. You learned about the steps in the electrophotographic ( EP ) action, the action that explains how laser printers print. We besides explained the assorted components that make up this printer and how they work together. virtual print has become more popular in recent years, with people choosing to output electronic PDF files alternatively of physical newspaper. 3D printers are relatively new to the market. They ’ ra not printers in the sense that they put ink to newspaper. They ’ re actually fabricators, which make 3D objects out of material called filament. You then learned about the interfaces used to connect printers to PCs and how to install and share a printer. Proper steps include connecting the device, installing the driver, configuring options, validating application and operate system compatibility, and educating users on how to use the device. Installing the device is the first measure, but you ’ re not done until you ensure that it works by rights and that users know how to entree it. Installing network printers normally involves a few more steps than are needed to install local anesthetic printers, and the device is connected to the network alternatively of to a host. Cloud print is becoming more popular with the flexibility it offers, but installing swarm printers is an wholly different process from installing local and network printers. ultimately, we looked at how to perform printer maintenance, including the importance of using recommend supplies and assorted types of upgrades you can install in printers.

Exam Essentials Know the differences between types of printer technologies ( for model, laser, inkjet, thermal, impingement ). Laser printers use a laser and toner to create the page. Inkjet printers spray ink onto the page. Thermal printers use heat to form the characters on the page. Impact printers use a mechanical device to strike a ribbon, thus forming an picture on the page.

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Understand the basics of how 3D printers create objects. 3D printers use filament. It ’ s most much credit card but can be made of other material, such as aluminum or copper. The printer uses an extruder to heat the filament and then creates 3D objects by stacking thin layers of filament on top of each other. Know the names, purposes, and characteristics of interfaces used by printers, including port and cable types. Most printers today use the like interfaces, no matter what their type. Printers use series, analogue, USB, Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or Bluetooth to connect to their host computers. By far the most park is USB. Know how to install and configure printers. The basic routine is as follows : 1. Attach the device using a local or network port and connect the ability. 2. install and update the device driver and calibrate the device. 3. configure options and default settings. 4. Print a test page. 5. Verify compatibility with the operating system and applications. 6. educate users about basic functionality.

Know the seven steps in the laser imaging process. The seven steps are processing, charging, exposing, developing, transferring, fuse, and cleaning. Know the four kinds of virtual printing Virtual print options include print to file, print to PDF, print to XPS, and print to effigy. Understand the importance of using recommend supplies. Using consumables ( composition, ink, toner ) that are recommended for your printer is authoritative. Using bad supplies could ruin your printer and void your guarantee. Understand how to upgrade printer memory and firmware. Printer memory is upgraded by installing an extra or surrogate memory faculty. To do this, you must remove a gore from the printer. The specific steps depend on your printer model. Firmware is upgraded by downloading a file from the manufacturer ’ s web site and installing it. Some printers require that you manually enable the add memory. Know what environmental hazards to watch out for around printers. Heat, excessive light, ozone, and ammonia are all badly things for printers to be about.

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Review Questions The answers to the chapter inspection questions can be found in Appendix A. 1. Which voltage is applied to the paper to transfer the toner to the newspaper in an EP summons laser printer ? A. +600VDC B. –600VDC C. +6000VDC D. –6000VDC 2. Which types of printers are referred to as page printers because they receive their print job instructions one page at a time ? ( Choose two. ) A. Daisy-wheel B. Dot-matrix C. Inkjet D. Laser E. Thermal 3. Which of the comply is not an advantage of a Universal Serial Bus ( USB ) printer interface ? A. It has a higher transmit rate than a serial connection. B. It has a higher transfer rate than a parallel connection. C. It mechanically recognizes raw devices. D. It allows the printer to communicate with networks, servers, and workstations. 4. Which type of printers can be used with multipart forms ? A. Inkjet printers B. Laser printers C. Thermal printers D. Dot-matrix printers 5. Which step in the EP imagination process uses a laser to discharge selected areas of the light-sensitive cram, frankincense forming an visualize on the drum ? A. Exposing B. Transferring C. Developing D. Cleaning 6. Which of the come is fed through an extruder on a 3D printer to create objects ? A. plastic B. Metal C. Filament D. Extrusion powder

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7. What voltage does the corona wire or corona roller detention ? A. +600VDC B. –600VDC C. 0VDC D. –100VDC 8. Which device in an inkjet printer contains the print head ? A. Toner cartridge B. Ink cartridge C. Daisy rack D. Paper tray 9. What is the correct regulate of the steps in the EP imaging serve ? A. Developing, exposing, transferring, fusing, charging, clean, work B. Charging, march, exposing, developing, transferring, fusing, cleaning C. Processing, transfer, exposing, developing, charging, clean, fusing D. Processing, charging, exposing, developing, transferring, fusing, cleaning 10. Most printers that use the electrophotographic process contain how many standard assemblies ? A. Five B. Six C. Four D. Nine 11. What is typically included in the EP laser printer toner cartridge ? ( Choose three. ) A. Toner B. Print brake drum C. Laser D. Cleaning blade 12. What happens during the build up stage of laser print ? A. An electrostatic accusation is applied to the drum to attract toner particles. B. Heat is applied to the newspaper to melt the toner. C. The laser creates an prototype of the page on the drum. D. An electrostatic agitate is applied to the paper to attract toner particles. 13. Which of the following are possible interfaces for printers ? ( Choose three. ) A. Parallel B. SATA C. USB D. Network

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14. You have fair installed a newly printer, but it prints only confused text. Which of the come is probably the problem ? A. amiss IP address B. Worn print head C. Incorrect printer drivers D. Unsupported printer 15. Which printer contains a bicycle that looks like a flower with raised letters and symbols on each “ petal ” ? A. Inkjet printer B. Daisy-wheel printer C. Dot-matrix printer D. Laser printer 16. What part of a laser printer supplies the voltages for charging and transferring corona assemblies ? A. High-voltage ability provide ( HVPS ) B. DC power add ( DCPS ) C. Controller circuitry D. Transfer corona 17. Which printer part gets the toner from the light-sensitive drum onto the paper ? A. Laser-scanning assembly B. Fusing assembly C. Corona forum D. Drum 18. Which step in the laser printer printing action occurs immediately after the exposing phase ? A. Charging B. Fusing C. Transferring D. Developing 19. Which laser printer component permanently presses the toner into the newspaper ? A. transfer aureole B. Fuser fabrication C. Printer restrainer circuitry D. Paper conveyance assembly 20. Which of the following most accurately describes how to obtain a firmware upgrade for your laser printer ? A. Download the firmware upgrade for release from the manufacturer ’ s web site. B. Pay to download the firmware promote from the manufacturer ’ s web site. C. Have a certified laser printer technician come to your locate and install a newly firmware chip. D. Contact the manufacturer of the printer, and they will send you the firmware upgrade on a DVD.

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Performance-Based Question You will encounter performance-based questions on the A+ examination. The questions on the examination necessitate you to perform a specific tax, and you will be graded on whether or not you were able to complete the task. The watch requires you to think creatively in order to measure how well you understand this chapter ’ mho topics. You may or may not see alike questions on the actual A+ examination. To see how your answer compares to the authors ’, refer to Appendix B. Your network has respective inkjet printers in use. A drug user is complaining that their documents are systematically printing with excess smudges along the lines of print on one of them. What steps would you take to clean the printer ?

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Chapter

6

Networking Fundamentals The following CompTIA A+ 220-1001 examination objectives are covered in this chapter : ✓✓ 2.2 Compare and contrast common network hardware devices. ■■

Routers

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Switches ■■

Managed

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Unmanaged

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Access points

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Cloud-based network accountant

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Firewall

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Network interface menu

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Repeater

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Hub

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Cable/DSL modem

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Bridge

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Patch jury

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Power over Ethernet ( PoE )

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■■

Injectors

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Switch

Ethernet over Power

✓✓ 2.7 Compare and contrast Internet association types, network types, and their features. ■■

Network Types ■■

LAN

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WAN

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PAN

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MAN

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WMN

✓✓ 3.1 Explain basic cable types, features, and their ­purposes. ■■

Network cables ■■

Ethernet ■■

Cat 5

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Cat 5e

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Cat 6

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Plenum

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Shielded twisted pair

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Unshielded twisted copulate

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568A/B

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Fiber

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Coaxial

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Speed and transmission limitations

✓✓ 3.2 Identify common connection types. ■■

RJ-11

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RJ-45

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BNC

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RG-59

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RG-6

Looking around most homes or offices today, it ’ randomness hard to imagine a populace without networks. about every place of business has some sort of network. Wireless home networks have exploded in popularity in the final decade, and it seems that everywhere you go, you can see a twelve radio receiver networks from your smartphone, tablet, or laptop. It didn ’ t used to be that way. even when not thinking about networks, we ’ rhenium still likely connected to one via the omnipresent Internet-enabled smartphones in our pockets and purses. We take for granted a lot of what we have gained in technology over the past few years, much less the past several decades. Thirty years ago, if you wanted to send a memo to everyone in your party, you had to use a photocopier and interoffice mail. Delivery to a remote control office could take days. today, one mistake chink of the Reply All button can result in instantaneous overplus. Email is an case of one form of communication that became available with the introduction and growth of networks. This chapter focuses on the basic concepts of how a network works, including the way it sends information, the hardware used, and the common types of networks you might encounter. It used to be that in order to be a personal computer technician, you needed to focus on lone one individual ( but big ) computer at a time. In nowadays ’ mho environment, though, you will in all likelihood need to understand combinations of hardware, software, and network infrastructure in order to be successful. If the material in this chapter interests you, you might consider studying for, and finally taking, CompTIA ’ s Network+ examination. It is a non- companyspecific networking certification exchangeable to A+ but for network-related topics. You can study for it using Sybex ’ s CompTIA Network+ Study Guide, by Todd Lammle ( Sybex, May 8, 2018 ) materials, available at your favorite on-line bookseller.

Understanding Networking Principles Stand-alone personal computers, fi rst introduced in the deep 1970s, gave users the ability to create documents, spreadsheets, and other types of data and save them for future use. For the small-business exploiter or home-computer fancier, this was great. For larger companies, however, it was not enough. Larger companies had greater needs to plowshare information

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between offices and sometimes over great distances. stand-alone computers were insufficient for the follow reasons : ■■

Their humble hard-drive capacities were insufficient.

■■

To print, each computer required a printer attached locally.

■■

■■

Sharing documents was cumbersome. People grew tired of having to save to a diskette and then take that phonograph record to the recipient. ( This routine was called sneakernet. ) There was no e-mail. rather, there was interoffice mail, which was slow and sometimes undependable.

To address these problems, networks were born. A network links two or more computers together to communicate and parcel resources. Their success was a disclosure to the computer industry ampere well as to businesses. immediately departments could be linked internally to offer better performance and increase efficiency. You have probably heard the term network in a social or business context, where people come together and exchange names for future contact and access to more resources. The same is true with a computer network. A calculator network enables computers to link to each early ’ sulfur resources. For example, in a net, every computer does not need a printer connected locally in order to print. rather, you can connect a printer to one computer, or you can connect it immediately to the network and allow all the early computers to access it. Because they allow users to share resources, networks can increase productiveness equally well as decrease cash spending for raw hardware and software. In the follow sections, we will discuss the fundamentals of network deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the types of networks that you are likely to encounter.

Understanding Networking Fundamentals In many cases, networking today has become a relatively simple plug-and-play process. Wireless network cards can mechanically detect and join networks, and then you ’ rhenium seconds away from surfing the network or sending electronic mail. Of naturally, not all networks are that simple. Getting your network running may require a set of configuration, and one messedup set can cause the hale thing to fail. equitable as there is a distribute of information you should know about how to configure your network, there is a batch of background data you should understand about how network cultivate. The following sections cover the fundamentals, and armed with this data, you can then move on to how to make it work right.

Network Types The local area network ( LAN ) was created to connect computers in a one office or construction. Expanding upon that, a broad sphere network ( WAN ) includes networks outside the local environment and can besides distribute resources across great distances. by and large, it ’ s safe to think of a WAN as multiple, disburse LANs connected in concert. today, LANs exist in many homes ( radio networks ) and about all businesses. WANs are reasonably common excessively, as businesses embrace mobility and more of them span greater distances. historically, only larger corporations used WANs, but many smaller companies with distant locations immediately use them american samoa well.

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Having two types of net categories just didn ’ t spirit like enough, so the industry introduced three more terms : the personal area net, the metropolitan area network, and the radio engage network. The personal area network ( PAN ) is a identical small-scale net designed around one person within a identical restrict boundary area. The term broadly refers to networks that use Bluetooth engineering. On a larger scale is the metropolitan sphere network ( MAN ), which is bigger than a LAN but not quite equally big as a WAN. The most late designation created is the wireless mesh topology network ( WMN ). As the name indicates, it ’ s a wireless net, and it uses what ’ s known as a net regional anatomy. We ’ ll blanket both of those concepts in more detail late in this chapter. It is important to understand these concepts as a overhaul professional because when you ’ ra repairing computers, you are likely to come in contact with problems that are associated with the calculator ’ s connection to a network. Understanding the basic structure of the net can often help you solve a trouble.

LANs The 1970s brought us the minicomputer, which was a smaller translation of large central processing unit computers. Whereas the mainframe used centralized march ( all programs ran on the lapp calculator ), the minicomputer used distributed processing to access programs across early computers. As depicted in Figure 6.1, distributed work allows a exploiter at one computer to use a program on another computer as a backend to work and store data. The drug user ’ south computer is the frontend, where data entry and child action functions are performed. This arrangement allowed programs to be distributed across computers preferably than be centralized. This was besides the first time network cables rather than telephone lines were used to connect computers. F i g uranium roentgen e 6 .1 Distributed process

Data submission ( frontend ) Data processing and storage ( backend )

By the 1980s, offices were beginning to buy PCs in big numbers. Portables were besides introduced, allowing computing to become mobile. Neither PCs nor portables, however, were efficient in sharing information. As seasonableness and security became more authoritative, floppy disks were merely not cutting it. Offices needed to find a way to implement a better mean to plowshare and access resources. This led to the introduction of the first type of PC local area network ( LAN ) : ShareNet by Novell, which had both hardware and software components. LANs merely link computers in order to share resources within a close environment. The first base elementary LANs were constructed a lot like the LAN shown in Figure 6.2.

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F one g u radius e 6. 2 A childlike LAN

After the introduction of ShareNet, more LANs sprouted. The earliest local area network could not cover large distances. Most of them could alone stretch across a one floor of the office and could support no more than 30 computers. furthermore, they were inactive very rudimentary and only a few software programs supported them. The foremost software programs that ran on a LAN were not able of being used by more than one user at a time. ( This restraint was known as file locking. ) Nowadays, multiple users often concurrently access a program or file. Most of the meter, the alone limitations will be restrictions at the record level if two users are trying to modify a database record at the same time.

WANs By the late 1980s, networks were expanding to cover large geographic areas and were supporting thousands of users. Wide area networks ( WANs ), first implemented with mainframes at massive government expense, started attracting personal computer users as networks went to this new level. Employees of businesses with offices across the country communicated as though they were alone desk apart. Soon the wholly populace saw a change in the means of doing business, across not merely a few miles but across countries. Whereas LANs are limited to individual buildings, WANs can span buildings, states, countries, and even continental boundaries. name 6.3 shows an exemplar of a elementary WAN. F one g uracil r vitamin e 6. 3 A simpleton WAN

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The networks of nowadays and tomorrow are no long limited by the inability of LANs to cover distance and treat mobility. WANs play an authoritative function in the future development of corporate networks worldwide.

PANs The term PAN is most normally associated with Bluetooth networks. In 1998, a consortium of companies formed the Bluetooth Special Interest Group ( SIG ) and formally adopted the name Bluetooth for its technology. The name comes from a tenth-century danish king named Harald Blåtand, known as Harold Bluetooth in English. ( One can lone imagine how he got that name. ) King Blåtand had successfully unified warring factions in the areas of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. The makers of Bluetooth were trying to unite disparate technology industries, namely computing, mobile communications, and the car industry. Although the most common use of a PAN is in association with Bluetooth, a PAN can besides be created with other technologies, such as infrared.

Current membership in the Bluetooth SIG includes Microsoft, Intel, Apple, IBM, Toshiba, and several cell telephone manufacturers. The technical specification IEEE 802.15.1 describes a wireless personal area network ( WPAN ) based on Bluetooth version 1.1. The fi rst Bluetooth device on the market was an Ericsson headset and cell phone adapter, which arrived on the view in 2000. While mobile phones and accessories are calm the most common type of Bluetooth device, you will fi neodymium many more, including wireless keyboards, mouse, and printers. calculate 6.4 shows a Bluetooth USB adapter. figure 6.4

Bluetooth USB arranger

We cover Bluetooth in more detail in chapter 8, “ Installing Wireless and SOHO Networks. ” besides, if you want to learn more about Bluetooth, you can visit www.bluetooth.com.

One of the defi ning features of a Bluetooth WPAN is its impermanent nature. With traditional Wi-Fi, you need a cardinal communication point, such as a wireless router or access point to connect more than two devices in concert. ( This is referred to as infrastructure. ) Bluetooth networks are formed on an ad hoc footing, meaning that whenever two Bluetooth devices get close up enough to each other, they can communicate directly with each other—no

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cardinal communication period is required. This dynamically created network is called a piconet. A Bluetooth-enabled device can communicate with up to seven other devices in one piconet. Two or more piconets can be linked in concert in a scatternet. In a scatternet, one or more devices would serve as a bridge between the piconets.

MANs For those networks that are larger than a LAN but confi ned to a relatively small geographic area, there is the term metropolitan area network ( MAN ). A man is by and large defi ned as a network that spans a city or a big campus. For model, if a city decides to install wireless hotspots in assorted places, that network could be considered a MAN. One of the questions a set of people ask is, “ Is there in truth a remainder between a MAN and a WAN ? ” There is defi nitely some grey sphere here ; in many cases they are about identical. possibly the biggest dispute is who has province for managing the connectivity. In a MAN, a central IT organization, such as the campus or city IT staff, is creditworthy. In a WAN, it ’ s implied that you will be using publicly available communication lines, and there will be a phone company or other service provider involved.

WMNs Wireless networks are everywhere today. If you use your smartphone, tablet, or laptop to look for radio networks, chances are you will fi neodymium several. radio clients on a network typically entree the network through a radio receiver access point ( WAP ). The WAP may connect wirelessly to another connectivity device, such as a wireless router, but more probable uses a wired connection to a router or switch. ( We ’ ll talk about all of these devices late in the chapter. ) The key defi ning factor of a interlock network topology is that it has multiple excess connections. If one fails, another is available to take its place. therefore, a radio receiver mesh network is one that uses wireless but has multiple pleonastic connections to help ensure that communication runs smoothly. While mobility is a key feature of radio receiver network, the key infrastructure that wireless clients connect to is broadly not mobile. It makes it a draw harder to connect to a hot spot if you don ’ metric ton know where it will be today ! In order to implement a WMN, the access points and other wireless infrastructure must support it. A WMN is then managed through a cloud-based network control, which allows the administrator to enable, configure, and monitor the network remotely. In addition to LANs, WANs, and others, the A+ exam 220-1001 objective 2.7 covers Internet connection types. We cover these in chapter 8. There, we show you the details of each character of connection and factors to consider when choosing one for yourself or a node.

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Primary Network Components Technically speaking, two or more computers connected together constitute a network. But networks are rarely that simple. When you ’ re looking at the devices or resources available on a network, there are three types of components of which you should be mindful : ■

Servers

Clients or workstations

Resources Every network requires two more items to tie these three components together : a network operating system ( NOS ) and some kind of shared medium ( wired or radio connectivity ). These components are covered late in their own sections.

blurring the lines In the 1980s and 1990s, LANs and WANs were often differentiated by their connection speeds. For exemplar, if you had a 10 Mbps or faster connection to other computers, you were much considered to be on a LAN. WANs were often connected to each other by very expensive T1 connections, which have a maximum bandwidth of 1.544 Mbps. As with all other technologies, networking capacity has exploded. In today ’ second position net, wired connections slower than 100 Mbps are considered archaic. Connections of 1 Gbps are reasonably park. WAN connectivity, although hush slower than LAN connectivity, can easily be several times faster than the T1. Because of the focal ratio increases in WAN connectivity, the old drill of categorizing your network based on connection amphetamine is outdated. today, the most common way to classify a network is based on geographic distance. If your network is in one central placement, whether that is one office, one shock of an position building, or possibly even one integral build, it ’ s normally considered a LAN. If your network is spread out among multiple aloof locations, it ’ s a WAN.

Servers Servers come in many shapes and sizes. They are a core component of the network, providing a connection to the resources necessary to perform any task. The connection that the server provides could be to a resource existing on the server itself or to a resource on a customer calculator. The waiter is the critical enabler, offering directions to the node computers regarding where to go to get what they need.

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Servers offer networks the capability of centralizing the master of resources and security, thereby reducing administrative difficulties. They can be used to distribute processes for balancing the load on computers and can therefore increase speed and performance. They can besides compartmentalize fi les for better dependability. That way, if one server goes depressed, not all of the fi les are lost. Servers can perform several different critical roles on a network. For exercise, a waiter that provides fi les to the users on the network is called a file waiter. Likewise, one that hosts print services for users is called a print server. Yet another exercise is a network attached repositing ( NAS ) device that we discussed in Chapter 4, “ Custom PC Configurations. ” Servers can be used for other tasks as well, such as authentication, distant access services, administration, electronic mail, and then on. Networks can include multipurpose and single-purpose servers. A multipurpose waiter can be, for case, both a fi lupus erythematosus server and a print server at the same time. If the waiter is a single-purpose server, it is a fi lupus erythematosus server only or a photographic print waiter only. Another eminence we use in categorizing servers is whether they are dedicated or nondedicated : Dedicated Servers A dedicate server is assigned to provide specific applications or services for the net and nothing else. Because a dedicate waiter specializes in only a few tasks, it requires fewer resources than a nondedicated server might require from the computer that is hosting it. This savings may translate to efficiency and can frankincense be considered as having a beneficial affect on network operation. A vane server is an example of a dedicated waiter : It is dedicated to the task of serving up web pages and nothing else. Nondedicated Servers Nondedicated servers are assigned to provide one or more network services and local access. A nondedicated server is expected to be slenderly more flexible in its daily consumption than a dedicate waiter. Nondedicated servers can be used to direct network traffic and perform administrative actions, but they besides are frequently used to serve as a frontend for the administrator to work with early applications or services or to perform services for more than one net. For example, a dedicate web waiter might serve out one or more websites, whereas a nondedicated web server serves out websites but might besides function as a print server on the local network or as the administrator ’ south workstation. The nondedicated server is not what some would consider a on-key server, because it can act as a workstation ampere well as a server. The workgroup server at your position is an example of a nondedicated server. It might be a combination fi lupus erythematosus, print, and electronic mail server. Plus, because of its nature, a nondedicated waiter could besides function well in a peer-to-peer environment. It could be used as a workstation in accession to being a fi lupus erythematosus, print, and e-mail waiter. We will talk in more depth about server roles in chapter 9, “ Network Services, Virtualization, and Cloud Computing. ”

Many networks use both dedicated and nondedicated servers to incorporate the best of both worlds, offering better network performance with the consecrated servers and flexibility with the nondedicated servers.

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Workstations Workstations are the computers on which the network users do their work, performing activities such as give voice work, database design, graphic design, e-mail, and other office or personal tasks. Workstations are basically everyday computers, except for the fact that they are connected to a network that offers extra resources. Workstations can range from diskless computer systems to desktops or laptops. In network terms, workstations are besides known as node computers. Examples include thin clients, chummy clients, virtualization workstations, and graphic/CAD/CAM workstations, which you learned about in chapter 4. As clients, they are allowed to communicate with the servers in the network to use the network ’ mho resources. It takes several items to make a workstation into a net client. You must install a network interface calling card ( NIC ), a special expansion card that allows the personal computer to talk on a net. You must connect it to a cable system that connects to other computers ( unless your NIC supports radio receiver network ). And you must install particular software, called client software, which allows the computer to talk to the servers and request resources from them. once all this has been accomplished, the computer is “ on the network. ” Network customer software comes with all operating systems today. When you configure your calculator to participate in the network, the operate system utilizes this software.

To the client, the server may be nothing more than just another force letter. however, because it is in a network environment, the client can use the server as a doorway to more memory or more applications or to communicate with other computers or other networks. To users, being on a network changes a few things : ■

They can store more information because they can store data on other computers on the network. They can share and receive information from other users, possibly even collaborating on the lapp document. They can use programs that would be besides large or complex for their calculator to use by itself. They can use hardware not attached directly to their computer, such as a printer.

is That a server or a workstation ? This is one of the things that author Quentin Docter does when teaching novitiate technicians. In the board, there will be a standard-looking mini-tower background calculator. He points to it and asks, “ Is that a waiter or a workstation ? ” A draw of technical school will look at it and say it ’ s a workstation because it is a background computer. The very answer is, “ It depends. ”

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Although many people have a perception that servers are ultra-fancy, rack-mounted devices, that international relations and security network ’ t necessarily true. It ’ sulfur true that servers typically need more herculean hardware than do workstations because of their character on the network, but that doesn ’ metric ton have to be the case. ( Granted, having servers that are less knock-down than your workstations doesn ’ t make legitimate common sense. ) What actually differentiates a workstation from a server is what operating system it has installed and what function it plays on the network. For exercise, if that system has Windows Server 2016 installed on it, you can be reasonably certain that it ’ s a server. If it has Windows 7 or Windows 10, it ’ mho more than likely going to be a client, but not always. Computers with operating systems such as Windows 10 can be both clients on the net and nondedicated servers, as would be the sheath if you share your local printer with others on the network. The moral of the story ? Don ’ thymine assume a computer ’ sulfur role plainly by looking at it. You need to understand what is on it and its character on the network to make that determination.

Network Resources We now have the server to partake the resources and the workstation to use them, but what about the resources themselves ? A resource ( vitamin a far as the net is concerned ) is any detail that can be used on a network. Resources can include a broad crop of items, but the follow items are among the most significant : ■■

Printers and other peripherals

■■

Disk storehouse and file access

■■

Applications

When lone a few printers ( and all the consort consumables ) have to be purchased for the entire office, the costs are dramatically lower than the costs for supplying printers at every workstation. Networks besides give users more storage space to store their files. client computers can ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate constantly handle the operating expense involved in storing large files ( for example, database files ) because they are already heavily involved in users ’ daily work activities. Because servers in a network can be dedicated to entirely sealed functions, a server can be allocated to store all of the larger files that are used every day, freeing up magnetic disk space on client computers. In addition, if users store their files on a waiter, the administrator can back up the server sporadically to ensure that if something happens to a drug user ’ second files, those files can be recovered. Files that all users need to access ( such as emergency contact lists and caller policies ) can besides be stored on a server. Having one copy of these files in a central localization saves disk quad, as opposed to storing the files locally on everyone ’ sulfur system. Applications ( programs ) no long need to be on every computer in the office. If the server is able of handling the overhead that an lotion requires, the application can reside on the waiter and be used by workstations through a network connection.

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The share of applications over a network requires a special arrangement with the application seller, who may wish to set the price of the application according to the numeral of users who will be using it. The placement allowing multiple users to use a single initiation of an lotion is called a locate license.

being on a Network brings responsibilities You are separate of a residential district when you are on a network, which means that you need to take responsibility for your actions. First, a network is only american samoa secure as the users who use it. You can not randomly erase files or move documents from server to server. You do not own your e-mail, so anyone in your company ’ second management team can choose to read it. In summation, sending something to the printer does not necessarily mean that it will print immediately— your document may not be the first in credit line to be printed at the shared printer. Plus, if your workstation has besides been set up as a nondedicated server, you can not turn it off.

Network Operating Systems PCs use a harrow operating system that controls the fi lupus erythematosus system and how the applications communicate with the hard phonograph record. Networks use a network operating system ( NOS ) to control the communication with resources and the stream of data across the net. The NOS runs on the server. Some of the more democratic NOSs are Linux, Microsoft ’ south Windows Server series ( Server 2019, Server 2016, and then on ), and macOS Server. Several early companies offer network operating systems angstrom good.

Network Resource Access We have discussed two major components of a distinctive network—servers and workstations— and we ’ ve besides talked briefly about network resources. Let ’ s dive in a bit deeper on how those resources are accessed on a network. There are by and large two resource access models : peer-to-peer and client-server. It is important to choose the appropriate model. How do you decide which character of resource model is needed ? You must fi rst think about the following questions : ■

What is the size of the organization ?

How much security does the company require ?

What software or hardware does the resource necessitate ?

How much administration does it need ?

How much will it cost ?

Will this resource meet the needs of the organization today and in the future ?

Will extra trail be needed ?

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Networks can not barely be put together at the fell of a hat. A set of plan is required before execution of a network to ensure that whatever design is chosen will be effective and effi cient, and not just for today but for the future as well. The caution of the architect will lead to the best network with the least amount of administrative viewgraph. In each network, it is authoritative that a plan be developed to answer the previous questions. The answers will help the architect choose the type of resource exemplar to use.

Peer-to-Peer Networks In a peer-to-peer network, the computers act as both avail providers and service requestors. An example of a peer-to-peer resource model is shown in Figure 6.5. visualize 6.5

The peer-to-peer resource exemplary

The peer-to-peer model is bang-up for small, elementary, cheap networks. This model can be set up about instantaneously, with little supernumerary hardware required. many versions of Windows ( Windows 10, Windows 8, and others ) angstrom well as Linux and macOS are popular operating system environments that support the peer-to-peer resource model. Peer-to-peer networks are besides referred to as workgroups. by and large speaking, there is no centralize administration or control condition in the peerto-peer resource model. Every station has unique control over the resources that the calculator owns, and each station must be administered individually. however, this very miss of centralized control can make administering the net unmanageable ; for the lapp reason, the network international relations and security network ’ t very dependable. Each user needs to manage separate passwords for each calculator on which they wish to access resources, angstrom well as set up and manage the share resources on their own computer. furthermore, because each computer is acting as both a workstation and waiter, it may not be easy to locate resources. The person who is in charge of a fi lupus erythematosus may have moved it without anyone ’ s cognition. besides, the users who work under this agreement need more train because they are not alone users but besides administrators. Will this type of net meet the needs of the organization today and in the future ? Peer-to-peer resource models are broadly considered the proper choice for small companies that don ’ thymine expect future growth. Small companies that expect increase, on the other hand, should not choose this character of model. A convention of thumb is that if you have no more than 10 computers and centralize security is not a key priority, a workgroup may be a good choice for you.

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Client-Server Resource Model The client-server model ( besides known as server-based model ) is better than the peer-to-peer exemplar for big networks ( say, more than 10 computers ) that need a more batten environment and centralized control. Server-based networks use one or more dedicate, centralized servers. All administrative functions and resource partake are performed from this point. This makes it easier to share resources, perform backups, and support an about unlimited number of users. This model besides offers better security than the peer-to-peer model. however, the waiter needs more hardware than a typical workstation/server calculator in a peer-to-peer resource model. In addition, it requires specialized software ( the NOS ) to manage the server ’ randomness character in the environment. With the addition of a server and the NOS, server-based networks can easily cost more than peer-to-peer resource models. however, for big networks, it ’ s the alone choice. An example of a client-server resource model is shown in Figure 6.6. F iodine g uracil roentgen east 6. 6 The client-server resource model

Client

Client

Server

Client

Printer

Server-based networks are frequently known as domains. The key feature of a serverbased network is that security is centrally administered. When you log into the net, the login request is passed to the server responsible for security, sometimes known as a knowledge domain control. ( Microsoft uses the condition knowledge domain accountant, whereas early vendors of server products do not. ) This is different from the peer-to-peer model, where each individual workstation validates users. In a peer-to-peer model, if the exploiter jsmith wants to be able to log into different workstations, she needs to have a drug user account set up on each machine. This can quickly become an administrative nightmare ! In a knowledge domain, all drug user accounts are stored on the server. User jsmith needs lone one history and can log into any of the workstations in the knowledge domain. Client-server resource models are the hope models for companies that are continually growing, necessitate to support a large environment, or need centralized security. Server-based

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networks offer the flexibility to add more resources and clients about indefi nitely into the future. Hardware costs may be higher, but with the centralized administration, managing resources become less clock time consume. besides, alone a few administrators need to be trained, and users are responsible for merely their own make environment. If you are looking for an cheap, dim-witted network with small apparatus required, and there is no necessitate for the company to grow in the future, then the peer-to-peer network is the way to go. If you are looking for a network to support many users ( more than 10 computers ), solid security, and centralize administration, consider the server-based network your only option.

Whatever you decide, constantly take the time to plan your network before installing it. A network is not something you can just throw together. You don ’ metric ton want to fi neodymium out a few months down the road that the type of network you chose does not meet the needs of the company—this could be a time-consuming and costly mistake.

Network Topologies A topology is a way of laying out the network. When you plan and install a net, you need to choose the correct regional anatomy for your situation. Each type differs from the others by its cost, ease of installation, blame tolerance ( how the topology handles problems such as cable breaks ), and ease of reconfiguration ( such as adding a new workstation to the existing network ). There are five primary topologies : ■

Bus

Star

Ring

Mesh

Hybrid

Each topology has advantages and disadvantages. board 6.1 summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each topology, and then we will go into more detail about each one. TA b-complex vitamin fifty vitamin e 6 .1

Topologies—advantages and disadvantages

Topology

Advantages

Disadvantages

Bus

Cheap. Easy to install

Difficult to reconfigure. A break in the bus disables the entire network.

Star

Cheap. very easy to install and recon- More expensive than busbar figure. More bouncy to a single cable failure

Understanding Networking Principles

Topology

Advantages

Disadvantages

Ring

Efficient. Easy to install

Reconfiguration is difficult. very expensive

Mesh

Best mistake permissiveness

Reconfiguration is highly difficult, highly expensive, and very complex.

Hybrid

Gives a combination of the best features of each topology used

Complex ( less so than engage, however )

325

Bus Topology A bus topology is the simplest. It consists of a individual cable that runs to every workstation, as shown in Figure 6.7. This topology uses the least measure of cabling. Each calculator shares the lapp data and savoir-faire way. With a bus regional anatomy, messages pass through the luggage compartment, and each workstation checks to see if a message is addressed to it. If the cover of the message matches the workstation ’ second address, the network adapter retrieves it. If not, the message is ignored. F iodine g u gas constant e 6. 7 The bus regional anatomy

Cable systems that use the bus topology are easy to install. You run a cable from the first computer to the last calculator. All of the remaining computers attach to the cable somewhere in between. Because of the chasteness of installation, and because of the low price of the cable, bus topology cabling systems are the cheapest to install. Although the busbar topology uses the least total of cable, it is unmanageable to add a workstation. If you want to add another workstation, you have to reroute the cable wholly and possibly run two extra lengths of it. besides, if any one of the cables breaks, the integral net is disrupted. consequently, such a system is expensive to maintain and can be unmanageable to troubleshoot. You will rarely run across physical bus networks in use today.

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Star Topology A star topology topology branches each network device off a cardinal device called a hub or a switch, making it easily to add a newly workstation. If a workstation goes down, it does not affect the entire network ; if the central device goes down, the entire network goes with it. Because of this, the hub ( or switch ) is called a single point of failure. trope 6.8 shows a simple star network. digit 6.8

The star topology

Star topologies are very easy to install. A cable is run from each workstation to the switch. The switch is placed in a central localization in the office ( for model, a utility closet ). Star topologies are more expensive to install than bus networks because several more cables need to be installed, plus the switches. But the ease of reconfiguration and mistake tolerance ( one cable fail does not bring down the entire network ) far outweigh the drawbacks. This is the most normally install network topology in use today. Although the trade is the central part of a star topology, some older networks use a device known as a hub rather of a switch. Switches are more advance than hubs, and they provide better performance than hub for only a little price increase. Colloquially, though, many administrators use the terms hub and switch over interchangeably.

Ring Topology In a hoop topology, each computer connects to two other computers, joining them in a lap and creating a unidirectional path where messages move from workstation to workstation. Each entity participating in the ring reads a message and then regenerates it and

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hands it to its neighbor on a different network cable. See calculate 6.9 for an example of a gang regional anatomy. number 6.9

The ring regional anatomy

The ring makes it difficult to add new computers. Unlike a star topology network, a ring topology network will go down if one entity is removed from the ring. physical ring topology systems rarely exist anymore, chiefly because the hardware involved was fairly expensive and the fault tolerance was identical moo. You might have heard of an older network computer architecture called Token Ring. Contrary to its diagnose, it does not use a physical band. It actually uses a forcible star topology, but the traffic flows in a coherent closed chain from one calculator to the adjacent.

Mesh Topology The mesh topology topology is the most complex in terms of forcible design. In this topology, each device is connected to every other device ( see Figure 6.10 ). This regional anatomy is rarely found in wired LANs, chiefly because of the complexity of the cable. If there are adam computers, there will be ( ten × ( x – 1 ) ) ÷ 2 cables in the network. For example, if you have five computers in a mesh network, it will use ( 5 × ( 5 – 1 ) ) ÷ 2 = 10 cables. This complexity is compounded when you add another workstation. For example, your 5-computer, 10-cable network will jump to 15 cables if you add equitable one more computer. Imagine how the person doing the cable would feel if you told them they had to cable 50 computers in a net network—they ’ d have to come up with ( 50 × ( 50 – 1 ) ) ÷ 2 = 1,225 cables ! ( not to mention figuring out how to connect them all. )

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F one g uranium roentgen e 6 .1 0 The mesh topology

Because of its design, the forcible mesh topology is expensive to install and maintain. Cables must be run from each device to every other device. The advantage you gain is high mistake tolerance. With a interlock regional anatomy, there will always be a manner to get the data from source to address. The data may not be able to take the direct route, but it can take an alternate, collateral road. For this reason, the net topology is often used to connect multiple sites across WAN links. It uses devices called routers to search multiple routes through the engage and determine the best path. however, the net regional anatomy does become inefficient with five or more entities because of the number of connections that need to be maintained.

Hybrid Topology The loanblend topology is just a mix of the early topologies. It would be impossible to illustrate it because there are many combinations. In fact, most networks today are not merely loanblend but heterogenous. ( They include a mix of components of different types and brands. ) The hybrid network may be more expensive than some types of network topologies, but it takes the best features of all the other topologies and exploits them. table 6.1, earlier in this chapter, summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each type of network topology.

Rules of Communication Regardless of the type of network you choose to implement, the computers on that network need to know how to talk to each other. To facilitate communication across a network, computers use a common terminology called a protocol. We ’ ll blanket protocols more in Chapter 7, “ Introduction to TCP/IP, ” but basically they are lyric much like English is a language. Within each lyric, there are rules that need to be followed so that all computers understand the justly communication behavior.

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To use a human model, within English there are grammar rules. If you put a bunch together of English words together in a means that doesn ’ t make sense, no one will understand you. If you merely decide to omit verbs from your linguistic process, you ’ re going to be challenged to get your point across. And if everyone talks at the like time, the conversation can be hard to follow. Computers need standards to follow to keep their communication clear. different standards are used to describe the rules that computers need to follow to communicate with each early. The most important communication framework, and the spine of all network, is the OSI model. The OSI model is not specifically listed in the CompTIA A+ examination objectives. however, it ’ s a critical slice of networking cognition and a model with which all technicians should be familiar.

OSI Model The International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ) published the receptive Systems Interconnection ( OSI ) model in 1984 to provide a common way of describing network protocols. The ISO put together a seven-layer model providing a relationship between the stages of communication, with each layer adding to the layer above or below it. This OSI exemplary is a theoretical model governing calculator communication. tied though at one luff an “ OSI protocol ” was developed, it never gained wide acceptance. You will never find a network that is running the “ OSI protocol. ”

here ’ s how the theory behind the OSI model works : As a transmission takes place, the higher layers pass data through the lower layers. As the datum passes through a layer, that layer tacks its information ( besides called a header ) onto the begin of the information being transmitted until it reaches the buttocks layer. A layer may besides add a trailer to the end of the data. The bottom layer sends the information out on the wire ( or in the vent, in the casing of radio receiver ). At the receiving end, the bottom layer receives and reads the data in the header, removes the header and any associate trailer related to its layer, and then passes the remainder to the next highest level. This procedure continues until the topmost level receives the datum that the sending calculator sent. The OSI model layers are listed here from peak to bottom, with descriptions of what each of the layers is responsible for : 7—Application layer The Application layer allows access to network services. This is the layer at which fi lupus erythematosus services, print services, and other applications operate.

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6—Presentation layer This level determines the “ look, ” or format, of the datum. The Presentation layer performs protocol conversion and manages data compression, data translation, and encoding. The character set information besides is determined at this floor. ( The character set determines which numbers represent which alphanumeric characters. ) 5—Session layer This layer allows applications on different computers to establish, maintain, and end a session. A session is one virtual conversation. For exercise, all of the procedures needed to transfer a single file make up one seance. Once the session is over, a new action begins. This layer enables network procedures, such as name passwords, logins, and network monitor. 4—Transport layer The Transport layer controls the datum flow and troubleshoots any problems with transmitting or receiving datagrams. It besides takes large messages and segments them into smaller ones and takes smaller segments and combines them into a single, larger message, depending on which way the dealings is flowing. last, the TCP protocol ( one of the two options at this layer ) has the important job of verifying that the destination host has received all packets, providing error check and dependable end-to-end communications. 3—Network layer The Network layer is responsible for legitimate address of messages. At this layer, the data is organized into chunks called packets. The Network layer is something like the dealings hook. It is able to judge the best network way for the data based on net conditions, priority, and other variables. This layer manages traffic through packet switch, rout, and controlling congestion of data. 2—Data Link layer This layer arranges data into chunks called frames. Included in these chunks is control information indicating the begin and end of the datastream. The Data Link layer is very important because it makes transmission easier and more manageable, and it allows for erroneousness check within the data frames. The Data Link level besides describes the singular physical address ( besides known as the MAC cover ) for each NIC. The Data Link layer is actually subdivided into two sections : Media Access Control ( MAC ) and logical Link Control ( LLC ). 1—Physical layer The Physical layer describes how the data gets transmitted over a communication medium. This level defines how farseeing each nibble of data is and the translation of each into the electric pulses or light up impulses that are sent over the wires, or the radio receiver waves that are sent through the air. It decides whether data travels unidirectionally or bidirectionally across the hardware. It besides relates electric, ocular, mechanical, and functional interfaces to the cable. calculate 6.11 shows the complete OSI model. Note the relationship of each level to the others and the function of each layer.

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F iodine g uracil gas constant e 6 .11

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The OSI model Open Systems Interconnect ( OSI ) Model Application layer Responsible for providing net services—like file services, print services, and messaging services ( not applications like word process or spreadsheets, as the layer ‘s appoint might lead you to believe ). Presentation layer Responsible for the presentation of data ( for model, the translation of character sets—e.g., ASCII to EBCDIC ). Session layer Responsible for establishing and maintaining a communications “ session. ” Transport layer Responsible for providing authentic end-to-end communications. Includes most of the error control and flow see. Network layer Responsible for coherent net addressing. Some error master and flow control is performed at this level. Data Link layer Responsible for the logical regional anatomy and coherent ( MAC ) addressing. Individual net card addresses besides routine at this degree. Physical layer Responsible for placing the network data on the cable, by changing binary data into electric pulses on the physical medium. The physical topology is defined at this flush.

A helpful mnemonic device to remember the OSI layers in order is “ All People Seem To Need Data Processing. ”

IEEE 802 Standards Continuing with our theme of communication, it ’ south time to introduce one fi nal group of standards. You ’ ve already learned that a protocol is like a lyric ; think of the IEEE 802 standards as syntax, or the rules that govern who communicates, when they do it, and how they do it.

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The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ) formed a subcommittee to create standards for network types. These standards specify certain types of networks, although not every net protocol is covered by the IEEE 802 committee specifications. This model contains several standards. The ones normally in practice today are 802.3 CSMA/ CD ( Ethernet ) LAN and 802.11 Wireless networks. The IEEE 802 standards were designed chiefly for enhancements to the bed three layers of the OSI model. The IEEE 802 standard breaks the Data Link layer into two sublayers : a legitimate Link Control ( LLC ) sublayer and a Media Access Control ( MAC ) sublayer. The coherent Link Control sublayer manages data link communications. The Media Access Control sublayer watches out for data collisions and manages physical addresses, besides referred to as MAC addresses. You ’ ve most likely hear of 802.11ac or 802.11n radio network. The rules for communicating with all versions of 802.11 are defi ned by the IEEE standard. Another very well-known standard is 802.3 CSMA/CD. You might know it by its more popular appoint, Ethernet. The original 802.3 CSMA/CD standard defi nes a bus topology net that uses a 50-ohm coaxial baseband cable and carries transmissions at 10 Mbps. This criterion groups data bits into frames and uses the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection ( CSMA/CD ) cable access method acting to put data on the cable. presently, the 802.3 standard has been amended to include speeds up to 10 Gbps. Breaking the CSMA/CD acronym apart may help illustrate how it works. CS First, there is the Carrier Sense ( CS ) part, which means that computers on the network are listening to the wire at all times. MA Multiple Access ( MA ) means that multiple computers have access to the production line at the same time. This is analogous to having five people on a league call. Everyone is listening, and everyone in hypothesis can try to talk at the lapp clock. Of course, when more than one person talks at once, there is a communication error. In CSMA/CD, when two machines transmit at the lapp time, a datum collision takes place and the intended recipients receive none of the data. compact disk This is where the Collision Detection ( candle ) assign of the acronym comes in ; the collision is detected and each sender knows they need to send again. Each sender then waits for a brusque, random period of clock time and tries to transmit again. This process repeats until transmission takes home successfully. The CSMA/CD engineering is considered a contention-based entree method. The only major downside to 802.3 is that with boastfully networks ( more than 100 computers on the lapp segment ), the number of collisions increases to the sharpen where more collisions than transmissions are taking home. other examples of controversy methods exist, such as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance ( CSMA/CA ). Whereas CSMA/CD tries to fix collisions after they happen, CSMA/CA tries to avoid them in the first gear place by actively listening and only transmitting when the impart is clear. wireless Ethernet uses CSMA/CA.

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Identifying Common Network Hardware We have looked at the types of networks, network topologies, and the manner communications are handled. That ’ s all of the coherent thrust. To very get computers to talk to each other requires hardware. Every calculator on the network needs to have a network adapter of some type. In many cases, you besides need some screen of cable to hook them together. ( radio network is the exception, but at the backend of a radio receiver network there are however components wired together. ) And fi nally, you might besides need connectivity devices to attach several computers or networks to each other.

Network Interface Cards The network interface card ( NIC ), besides referred to as a net arranger calling card, provides the physical interface between calculator and cable. It prepares data, sends data, and controls the menstruation of data. It can besides receive and translate data into bytes for the CPU to understand. NICs come in many shapes and sizes. unlike NICs are distinguished by the personal computer bus type and the net for which they are used. The come sections describe the role of NICs and how to evaluate them.

Compatibility The fi rst thing you need to determine is whether the NIC will fit the bus topology type of your personal computer. If you have more than one type of bus in your personal computer ( for case, a combination PCI/PCI Express ), use a NIC that fits into the fastest type ( the PCI Express, in this case ). This is particularly authoritative in servers because the NIC can quickly become a constriction if this road map international relations and security network ’ thyroxine followed. More and more computers are using NICs that have USB interfaces. For the rare laptop calculator that doesn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate differently have a NIC built into it, these little portable cards are very handy. A USB network menu can besides be handy for troubleshooting. If a laptop international relations and security network ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate connecting to the net by rights with its built-in card, you may be able to use the USB NIC to see if it ’ s an issue with the card or possibly a software trouble.

Network Interface Card Performance The most crucial finish of the NIC is to optimize network operation and minimize the sum of prison term needed to transfer data packets across the network. The identify is to ensure that you get the fastest card that you can for the type of net that you ’ re on. For example, if your radio receiver network supports 802.11g/n/ac, make certain to get an 802.11ac card because it ’ s the fastest.

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Sending and Controlling Data In order for two computers to send and receive data, the cards must agree on several things : ■■

The maximal size of the data frames

■■

The amount of data sent before giving confirmation

■■

The time needed between transmissions

■■

The total of prison term to wait before sending confirmation

■■

The travel rapidly at which data transmits

If the cards can agree, the datum is sent successfully. If the cards can not agree, the data is not sent. To send data on the network successfully, all NICs need to use the same media access method acting ( such as CSMA/CD ) and be connected to the lapp nibble of cable television. This normally international relations and security network ’ thyroxine a problem, because the huge majority of network cards sold today are Ethernet. In addition, NICs can send data using either full-duplex or half-duplex mode. Half-duplex communication means that between the sender and receiver, only one of them can transmit at any one meter. In full-duplex communication, a computer can send and receive data simultaneously. The chief advantage of full-duplex over half-duplex communication is performance. NICs ( Gigabit Ethernet NICs ) can operate doubly as fast ( 1 Gbps ) in full-duplex manner as they do normally in half-duplex mode ( 500 Mbps ). In summation, collisions are avoided, which speeds up performance adenine well. Configuring the network arranger ’ randomness duplexing setting is done from the Advanced tab key of the NIC ’ south properties, as shown in Figure 6.12. F i g u gas constant e 6 .1 2 A NIC ’ s Speed & Duplex setting

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Normally, you aren ’ metric ton going to have to worry about how your NIC sends or controls data. Just make surely to get the fastest NIC that is compatible with your network. Do know that the negotiations discussed here are happening in the background, though.

NIC Configuration Each card must have a unique hardware address, called a Media Access Control address or MAC address. If two NICs on the same net have the same hardware address, neither one will be able to communicate. For this reason, the IEEE has established a standard for hardware addresses and assigns blocks of these addresses to NIC manufacturers, who then hard-wire the addresses into the cards. MAC addresses are 48 bits farseeing and written in hexadecimal, such as B6-15-53-8F29-6B. An example is shown in Figure 6.13 from the output of the ipconfig /all command executed at the command prompt. F iodine g uracil gas constant e 6 .1 3

Physical ( MAC ) address

Although it is possible for NIC manufacturers to produce multiple NICs with the like MAC address, it happens very rarely. If you do encounter this type of problem, contact the hardware manufacturer.

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NIC Drivers In club for the calculator to use the NIC, it is very crucial to install the proper device drivers. These drivers are pieces of software that communicate immediately with the operate on arrangement, specifically the network redirector and adapter interface. Drivers are specific to each NIC and operate system, and they operate in the Media Access Control ( MAC ) sublayer of the Data Link layer of the OSI model. To see which adaptation the driver is, you need to look at the device ’ south properties. There are several ways to do this. A common one is to open Device Manager ( suction stop Start, type Device, and cluck Device Manager under Best meet ), and find the device, as shown in Figure 6.14. F one g u gas constant e 6 .1 4 Device Manager

Right-click the device, click Properties, and then go to the Driver yellow journalism, as shown in Figure 6.15. hera you can see a draw of information about the driver, update it, or roll it bet on if you installed a new one and it fails for some reason. You can besides update the driver by right-clicking the device in Device Manager and choosing Update driver from the popup menu.

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F one g uranium radius e 6 .1 5

337

NIC properties Driver tab

The best place to get drivers is constantly the manufacturer ’ s web site. When you click Update Driver, Windows will ask you if you want to search for the driver on the Internet or provide a localization for it. The best course of action is to download the driver beginning, and then tell Windows where you put it.

Cables and Connectors When the data is passing through the OSI model and reaches the Physical layer, it must fi nd its way onto the medium that is used to transfer data physically from calculator to calculator. This medium is called the cable ( or in the case of radio networks, the air ). It is the NIC ’ s function to prepare the datum for transmission, but it is the cable ’ mho function to move the data by rights to its intended finish. The surveil sections discuss the three chief types of physical cable : coaxial, twisted-pair, and fiber-optic. ( radio communication is covered in chapter 8. )

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Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable ( or wheedle ) contains a center conductor core make of copper, which is surrounded by a credit card jacket with a braided shield over it ( as shown in Figure 6.16 ). Either Teflon or a credit card coat covers this metallic element harbor. F i g uranium roentgen e 6 .1 6

Coaxial cable Wire mesh topology conductor

Center wire Inner insulating material Outer insulation

Common network cables are covered with a credit card called polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ). While PVC is flexible, reasonably durable, and cheap, it has a nasty side effect in that it produces poisonous boast when burned. An option is a Teflon-type report that is frequently referred to as a plenum-rated coating. That merely means that the application does not produce toxic gas when burned and is rated for habit in the public discussion plenum areas in a build that circulate breathable atmosphere, such as air condition and heating systems. This type of cable is more expensive, but it may be mandated by electrical code whenever cable is hidden in walls or ceilings. plenum fink can apply to all types of network cabling.

Coax Cable Specifications Coaxial cable is available in diverse specifications that are rated according to the Radio Guide ( RG ) system, which was in the first place developed by the US military. The dense the copper, the far a bespeak can travel—and with that comes a higher price and a lessflexible cable. When coaxial cable cable was popular for network, there were two standards that had fairly high habit : RG-8 ( thicknet ) and RG-58A/U ( thinnet ). Thicknet had a maximum segment outdistance of 500 meters and was used primarily for net backbones. Thinnet was more much used in a conventional physical busbar. A thinnet segment could span 185 meters. Both thicknet and thinnet had electric resistance of 50 ohms. board 6.2 shows the different types of RG cabling and their uses. The ones that are included on the A+ examination objectives are RG-6 and RG-59.

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Ta bacillus l e 6. 2 Coax RG types RG #

Popular Name

RG-6

Satellite/cable television, cable modems N/A

Solid copper

RG-8

Thicknet

10Base5

Solid copper

RG-58 U

N/A

None

Solid copper

RG-58 A/U Thinnet

10Base2

Stranded copper

RG-59

N/A

Solid copper

Cable television

Ethernet Implementation Type of Cable

Explaining Ethernet Naming Standards In table 6.2, you will notice two terms that might be new to you : 10Base5 and 10Base2. These are Ethernet list standards. The number at the beginning tells you the maximum travel rapidly that the standard supports, which is 10 Mbps in this case. The parole Base refers to the type of infection, either baseband ( one signal at a time per cable ) or broadband ( multiple signals at the same fourth dimension on one cable ). Legend has it that the 5 and the 2 refer to the approximate maximum transmission distance ( in hundreds of meters ) for each specification. Later in the chapter, you will see 10BaseT, which refers to twistedpair cabling.

Coaxial network has all but gone the way of the dinosaur. The only two coaxial cable types used nowadays are RG-6 and RG-59. Of the two, RG-6 has a thick core ( 1.0 millimeter ), can run longer distances ( up to 304 meters, or 1000 feet ), and documentation digital signals. RG-59 ( 0.762 millimeter core ) is considered adequate for analogue cable television receiver but not digital and has a utmost outdistance of about 228 meters ( 750 feet ). The utmost speed for each depends on the quality of the cable and the standard on which it ’ mho being used. Both have electric resistance of 75 ohms.

Coax Connector Types Thicknet was a yield to use. not merely was it highly inflexible, but you besides needed to use a connection called a vampire tap. A vampire tap is therefore named because a alloy tooth sinks into the cable, thus making the connection with the inner conductor. The wiretap is connected to an external transceiver that in turn has a 15-pin AUI connection ( besides called a DIX or DB-15 connection ) to which you attach a cable that connects to the station. The transceiver is shown in Figure 6.17. On the right side, you will see the thicknet cable running through the fortune of the unit that contains the vampire tap. DIX got its name from the companies that worked on this format—Digital, Intel, and Xerox.

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F one g u gas constant e 6 .17 Thicknet transceiver and cable inside a vampire tap

Thicknet transceiver licensed Under CC BY-Sa 2.5 via Wikimedia Commons. hypertext transfer protocol : //commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/File : ThicknetTransceiver.jpg # /media/File : ThicknetTransceiver.jpg

Thinnet coaxial cable was much easier to use. Generally, thinnet cables used a BNC connection ( see Figure 6.18 ) to attach to a t-shaped connection that attached to the workstation. The early slope of the T-connector would either continue on with another thinnet segment or be capped off with a exterminator. It is beyond the setting of this ledger to settle the long-standing argument over the entail of the abbreviation BNC. We have heard Bayonet Connector, Bayonet Nut Connector, and british Naval Connector—among others. What is relevant is that the BNC connection locks securely with a quarter-twist apparent motion. F i g u radius e 6 .1 8 Male and female BNC connectors, T-connector, and exterminator

Male

Female

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Another type of connection that you will see in use with wheedle is a rail-splitter. As its name implies, a splitter takes a single signal ( say that three times fast ) and splits it into multiple replica of the same signal. You might use this for cable TV—one agate line may run into your house, but the signal ultimately needs to get rip for three televisions. This type of configuration will work for cable television receiver or cable Internet. figure 6.19 shows a one-to-two coaxial cable splitter. You can besides buy splitters that split one input into three or more outputs. F one g u roentgen e 6 .1 9 A coaxial cable splitter

Keep in judgment that a coaxial cable signal is designed to go from one transmitter to one recipient, so splitting it can cause some issues. Splitting the signal causes it to weaken, meaning that signal quality could be lower, and it might not travel the same distance as a non-split signal. To avoid problems, don ’ triiodothyronine over-split the cable television, and purchase a good timbre or amplified splitter. The final character of wheedle connection we will cover is called an F-connector ( shown in Figure 6.20 ), and it is used with cable television. The unwrap end of the bull cable is pushed into the receptacle, and the connection is threaded therefore that it can screw into locate. F one g uracil gas constant e 6. 2 0 An F-connector

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Twisted-Pair Cable Twisted-pair is the most popular type of cabling to use because of its tractability and low cost. It consists of several pairs of wire twisted around each other within an isolate crown, as shown in Figure 6.21. F one g uracil r e 6. 2 1 Unshielded twisted-pair cable

There are two different types of twisted-pair cables : shielded twisted-pair ( STP ) and unshielded twisted-pair ( UTP ). Both types of cable have two or four pairs of twist wires going through them. The dispute is that STP has an supernumerary level of braid thwart shielding surrounding the wires to decrease electric interference, as shown in Figure 6.22. ( In Figure 6.22, the person wire pairs are shielded adenine well. ) UTP has a PVC or plenum coat but no out foil harbor to protect it from interference. In the real worldly concern, UTP is the most common network cable type used, whereas STP is used infrequently. F iodine g u r einsteinium 6. 2 2 Shielded twisted-pair cable television

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You will often listen people refer to UTP cables as Ethernet cables. As you learned earlier in this chapter, Ethernet is an access method acting based on the IEEE 802.3 criterion and not related to a particular cable type. sol while technically it ’ randomness faulty, there ’ s no damage in using the term to refer to the cable.

Twisted-Pair Cable Specifications There aren ’ metric ton any STP standards that you truly need to know about, either for the quiz or real-life situations. UTP is a different animal. It comes in respective grades to offer different levels of performance and protection against electric intervention : category 1 contains two twist pairs. It is for voice-only transmissions, and it is in many bequest call systems today. Category 2 is the lowest-grade cable that can have four pairs of wires. ( Every other CAT rat since CAT-2 has four pairs. ) It can handle data infection at speeds up to 4 Mbps. Category 3 is able to transmit data at speeds up to 10 Mbps. It was popular for 10BaseT installations before CAT-5 came out. class 4 is able to transmit data at speeds up to 16 Mbps. Category 5 is able to transmit data at speeds up to 100 Mbps. Category 5e is able to transmit data at speeds up to 1 Gbps. The enhancement over CAT-5 is that the four twist pairs of copper electrify are physically separated and contain more twists per foot. This provides maximum hindrance protective covering. Category 6 is able to transmit data at speeds up to 10 Gbps, but lone up to a distance of 55 meters. Its four writhe pairs of copper wire are oriented differently than in CAT-5e. This is the lowest grad of cable you should ever use as a spinal column to connect different parts of a network together, such as those on unlike floors of a build. class 6a can besides handle 10 Gbps rush, but at longer distances ( up to 100 meters ) than CAT-6 can. Category 7 is an incremental upgrade over CAT-6e. Its most luminary have is that every wire match is shielded, which provides better resistance to crosstalk and external noise. It can handle 10 Gbps at up to 100 meters. You might hear it besides called Class F cabling. CompTIA ( and many others ) normally shortens the bible category to CAT and use the shape CAT-5 to refer to Category 5, for example. This is a park way to refer to these categories, and you can feel loose to use these terms interchangeably. If you are buying cable today, you shouldn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate buy anything older than CAT-5e.

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Before the CAT-6a standard was finalized, respective cable vendors started selling CAT-6e cable. much like CAT-5e was an enhance interpretation of CAT-5, CAT-6e was supposed to be an enhanced version of CAT-6. The thing is, an official CAT-6e stipulation was never formally established ; if you buy CAT-6e, there is no guarantee of the type of performance that you will get. The official standard is CAT-6a.

The standard utmost transmission distance for UTP is 100 meters ( 328 feet ). note, however, that if you want to run 10GBaseT over CAT-6, you won ’ triiodothyronine get that much distance— about 55 meters under ideal conditions.

Twisted-Pair Connector Types Twisted-pair cable uses a connection type called an RJ ( register jack ) connection. You are probably familiar with RJ connectors. Most land line phones connect with an RJ-11 connection. The connection used with UTP cable television is called RJ-45. The RJ-11 has room for two pairs ( four wires ), and the RJ-45 has room for four pairs ( eight wires ). In about every case, UTP uses RJ connectors ; a crimp is used to attach an RJ connection to a cable. Higher-quality crimp tools have exchangeable dies for both types of connectors. ( Crimpers are discussed in chapter 14, “ Hardware and Network Troubleshooting. ” ) figure 6.23 shows an RJ-11 connection and an RJ-45 connection. figure 6.23

RJ-11 and RJ-45 connectors

You will besides fi north dakota RJ-45 splitters ( frequently called Ethernet splitters ) in the market. The theme is similar to a coaxial cable rail-splitter, but functionally they are very different. Coax signals are carried over one wire, while twisted pair uses either two pairs of wires ( for 100 Mbps or slower connections ) or all four pairs of wires ( for Gigabit Ethernet and faster ). An Ethernet splitter will take the entrance signal on two pairs and then split it, so on the output end

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it produces two sets of signals using two pairs each. Because of this, Ethernet splitters are limited to 100 Mbps connections. It is not recommended that you use ethernet splitters on a network. If you need to connect multiple computers together using UTP, use a hub or a switch. We talk about both of these devices belated in this chapter.

Wiring Standards Twisted-pair cables are singular in today ’ randomness network environment in that they use multiple physical wires. Those eight wires need to be in the right places in the RJ-45 connection or it ’ s very probable that the cable will not work by rights. To ensure consistency in the diligence, two standards have been developed : 568A and 568B. Older implementations using UTP used only two pairs of wires, and those two pairs were matched to pins 1, 2, 3, and 6 in the connection. Newer applications such as Voice over IP and Gigabit Ethernet use all four pairs of wires, so you need to make surely that they ’ re all where they ’ re supposed to be. If you ’ re creating a regular net plot cable to connect a computer to a hub or substitution, both sides need to have the same pinout. For that, follow either the 568A standard shown in Figure 6.24 or the 568B standard shown in Figure 6.25. Although there are no differences in terms of how the standards perform, some companies prefer one to the other. calculate 6.24

568A standard Pin

Pair

Wire

Color

1

3

1

white/green

2

3

2

fleeceable

3

2

1

white/orange

4

1

2

blue

5

1

1

white/blue

6

2

2

orange

7

4

1

white/brown

8

4

2

brown

If you are going to create a cable to connect a computer to another computer directly, or you ’ re going to make a connection from hub to hub, switch to switch, hub to switch, or a calculator immediately to a router, then you need what ’ second called a crossover cable television. In a crossing cable television, pin 1 to pin 3 and pin 2 to pin 6 are crossed on one side of the cable merely. This is to get the “ send ” pins matched up with the “ receive ” pins on the other side, and vice versa. For easier visual image, look at Figure 6.25.

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F one g uranium roentgen e 6. 2 5 568B standard Pin

Pair

Wire

Color

1

2

1

white/orange

2

2

2

orange

3

3

1

white/green

4

1

2

blue

5

1

1

white/blue

6

3

2

green

7

4

1

white/brown

8

4

2

brown

The key thing to remember is that a patch ( straight-through ) cable is the like on both ends. A crossover voter cable is different on each goal. You should know the order of the colors for both standards.

fiber-optic cable television fiber-optic cable has been called one of the best advances in cabling. It consists of a thin, elastic glass or plastic fiber surrounded by a rubberize outer coat ( see Figure 6.26 ). It provides transmission speeds from 100 Mbps to 10 Gbps and a utmost distance of several miles. Because it uses pulses of light rather of electric voltages to transmit data, it is immune to electrical intervention and to wiretapping. F one g u radius einsteinium 6. 2 6 fiber-optic cable

Optical fiber cable by Buy_on_turbosquid_optical.jpg : cable master derivative work : Srleffler ( talk ) – Buy_on_

turbosquid_optical.jpg hypertext transfer protocol : //commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File : Optical_fiber_cable.jpg # /media/ File : Optical_fiber_cable.jpg

Fiber-optic cable is silent not arsenic popular as UTP for local area networks, however, because of its high cost of installation. fiber-optic cable is great for networks that need highly fast transmission rates or transmissions over retentive distances or in networks that have had problems with electrical intervention in the past. Fiber is besides becoming more coarse as

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backbones to the telecommunication system, and in many places fiber-optic cables can be used to deliver high-speed Internet connections to businesses and homes. We ’ ll spill more about this in chapter 8.

Fiber-Optic Cable Specifications Fiber-optic cable television comes in two varieties : single-mode or multimode. The term manner refers to the bundles of faint that enter the fiber-optic cable. Single-mode fiber ( SMF ) cable uses only a unmarried modality ( or path ) of light to propagate through the fiber cable, whereas multimode character ( MMF ) allows multiple modes of light to propagate simultaneously. In multimode fiber-optic cable, the inner light bounces off the cable walls as it travels through the cable, which causes the signal to weaken more promptly. Multimode fiber is most often used as horizontal cable. It permits multiple modes of light to propagate through the cable, which shortens cable distances but delivers more available bandwidth. Devices that use MMF cable typically function light-emitting diodes ( LEDs ) to generate the light that travels through the cable television ; however, lasers with multimode fiber-optic cable are nowadays being used in higher-bandwidth network devices, such as Gigabit Ethernet. MMF can transmit up to 10 Gbps for up to 550 meters ( 1,804 feet, or good over one-third of a nautical mile ), depending on the standard used. Single-mode roughage cable is normally used as spine cable. It is besides normally the cable type used in earphone systems. light travels through single-mode fiber-optic cable using entirely a one mode, meaning that it travels straight down the fiber and does not bounce off the cable walls. Because only a single modality of light travels through the cable, single-mode fiber-optic cable supports lower bandwidth at longer distances than does multimode fiber-optic cable. Devices that use single-mode fiber-optic cable typically use lasers to generate the light that travels through the cable. SMF can transmit up to 10 Gbps for up to 40 kilometers ( 25.85 miles ), depending on the standard used. We have talked about respective different types of cables, and it ’ s potential that you will be asked to know utmost distances and transmission speeds on the A+ examination. table 6.3 summarizes the most coarse cable types, the specifications with which they are used, and their characteristics. Ta bel fifty e 6. 3 Common cable television types and characteristics

Cable type

Ethernet Specification

Maximum Speed

Maximum Distance

RG-6 coaxial cable

*

*

304 meters

Digital cable/satellite television

RG-59 coaxial cable

*

*

228 meters

Analog cable television television receiver

CAT-5 UTP or STP

100BaseT

100 Mbps

100 meters

100 Mbps and less use two pairs of wires.

CAT-5e UTP

1000BaseT

1 Gbps

100 meters

1 Gbps and higher use four pair of wires.

Notes

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Ta boron l einsteinium 6. 3 Common cable types and characteristics ( continued )

Cable character

Ethernet Specification

Maximum Speed

Maximum Distance

CAT-6 UTP

10GBaseT

10 Gbps

55 meters

CAT-6a UTP

10GBaseT

10 Gbps

100 meters

CAT-7 UTP

10GBaseT

10 Gbps

100 meters

Every wire couple is individually shielded.

MMF fiber

1000BaseLX or 1000BaseSX

1 Gbps

550 meters

For character, maximum length depends on character size and timbre.

MMF fiber

10GBaseSR or 10GBaseSW

10 Gbps

300 meters

SMF fiber

10GBaseER or 10GBaseEW

10 Gbps

40 kilometers

Notes Can support 1 Gbps improving to 100 meters

*

RG-6 and RG-59 coaxial cable cables can be used with many different specifications, and the maximal speed depends on cable quality and stipulation.

fiber-optic Connector Types There are literally dozens of fiber-optic connectors out there because it seemed that every manufacturer wanted its proprietary design to become “ the standard. ” Three of the most normally used ones are ST, SC, and LC. The straight tip ( ST ) fiber-optic connection, developed by AT & T, is credibly the most widely used fiber-optic connection. It uses a BNC-style attachment mechanism that makes connections and disconnections fairly easy. The still of use of the ST is one of the attributes that make this connection so democratic. figure 6.27 shows ST connectors. F one g u radius einsteinium 6. 2 7 ST connectors

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The subscriber connection ( SC ), besides sometimes known as a square connection, is shown in Figure 6.28. scandium are latched connectors, making it virtually impossible for you to pull out the connection without releasing its latch, normally by pressing a button or let go of. SCs study with either single-mode or multimode ocular fibers. They aren ’ triiodothyronine vitamin a popular as ST connectors for LAN connections. F one g u gas constant e 6. 2 8 A sample SC

The stopping point character of connection with which you need to be familiar is the local connection ( LC ), which was developed by Lucent Technologies. It is a mini form factor ( MFF ) connection, specially popular for manipulation with Fibre-Channel adapters, fast storehouse area networks, and Gigabit Ethernet adapters ( see Figure 6.29 ). F one g uracil r vitamin e 6. 2 9 LC fiber connection

The prices of net cables differ dramatically between copper and character cables. exert 6.1 asks you to investigate the dispute for yourself. E x east radius carbon iodine s e 6 .1

Pricing Network Cables 1. Visit a major electronics retailer web site ( such as www.frys.com or an on-line retailer of your option ).

2. search for a CAT-6 temporary hookup cable. 3. Price the remainder between a 7-foot, 25-foot, and 50-foot cable.

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E x east gas constant speed of light one s e 6 .1 ( hundred oxygen n thyroxine one n uranium einsteinium d )

4. search for the same lengths of CAT-7 patch cables. Note the price difference. ( At the prison term of write, CAT-7 cables were about twice vitamin a expensive as CAT-6 cables. )

5. search for fiber-optic cables. Notice, first, that most of them are much shorter in distance than commercially available UTP cables. What is the price remainder ? Do you notice price differences between fiber-optic cables with different types of connectors ?

Networking Components Network cabling can link one calculator to another, but most networks are army for the liberation of rwanda deluxe in scale than two elementary machines. There are a variety show of network devices that provide connectivity to the network, make the net bigger, and offer accessory services to end users. In the pursue sections, we ’ re going to classify extra network components into two broad categories : connectivity devices and accessory devices.

Connectivity Devices We all know that if you want to be part of a calculator net, you need to attach to that net somehow. Using network cables is one way to accomplish this, but not everyone is in a side to just plug a cable in and go. In summation, if you want to grow your network beyond a few simple connections, you need to use a special class of network devices known as connectivity devices. These devices allow communications to break the boundaries of local networks and in truth provide the backbone for closely all computer networks, careless of size. There are respective categories of connectivity devices. These connectivity devices make it possible for users to connect to networks and to lengthen networks to about unlimited distances. We will now discuss the most significant and frequently used connectivity devices.

Modems If you want to connect to a net or the Internet using knit old telephone lines and a dialup connection, a modem is the device you ’ ll want. Modems got their list because they modulate and demodulate ( mo-dem ) digital signals that computers use into analogue signals that can be passed over call lines. In the early to mid-1990s, modems were much the only device available to get onto the Internet. many companies besides used them to allow users who were not in the agency to dial into the local net. While modems did provide flexibility, you needed to be near a earphone line, and focal ratio was an issue. The fastest modems transferred data at 56 Kbps. At the meter that felt lightning

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quick, but fortunately our species has moved well beyond that technology. It ’ s horrifically slow by nowadays ’ sulfur standards and consequently rarely used.

Cable/DSL Modems The traditional modem is basically obsolete—most homes and many businesses now access the Internet through the use of a cable modem or digital subscriber line ( DSL ) modem. The primary coil deviation between the two is the infrastructure they connect to. cable modem habit television cable lines, and DSL modems use call lines. Both cable and DSL modems are digital, and therefore aren ’ t technically modems because they don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate modulate and demodulate analogue signals. We ’ ll report cable Internet and DSL technologies in more detail in chapter 8.

Access Points Technically talk, an access period is any point that allows a exploiter on to a network. The condition is normally used in character to a radio receiver access point, which lets users connect to your network via an 802.11 technology. We ’ ll get deeper into wireless access points and how to configure them in chapter 8.

Repeaters and Extenders A repeating firearm, or extender, is a small, power device that receives a sign, amplifies it, and sends it on its way. The solid purpose of a repeating firearm is to extend the functional distance of a cable television run. For exemplar, you know that UTP is limited to 100 meters, but what if you need to make a cable campaign that is 160 meters long ? ( One answer could be to use fiber, but pretend that ’ s not an option. ) You could run two lengths of cable with a repeating firearm in the plaza, and it would work. Repeaters and extenders work at the Physical layer ( Layer 1 ) of the OSI model. They don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate examine the datum or make any changes to it—they precisely take what they receive and send it along its gay direction.

Hubs A hub is a device used to link several computers together. Hubs are very childlike devices that possess no real intelligence. They simply repeat any bespeak that comes in on one port and transcript it to the other ports ( a work that is besides called broadcast medium ). You ’ ll sometimes hear them referred to as multiport repeaters. They work at Layer 1 of the OSI model, just as repeaters do. There are two types of hub : active and passive voice. passive hubs connect all ports together electrically but do not have their own ability source. Active hub use electronics to amplify and clean up the bespeak before it is broadcast to the other ports. active hub can consequently be used to extend the length of a network, whereas passive hub can not.

Patch Panels A bandage dialog box is basically a bombastic hub that is rack mounted. It houses multiple cable television connections but possesses no network intelligence. Its sole purpose is to connect cables together. Short bandage cables are used to plug into the front-panel connectors, and there are longer, more permanent cables on the back. figure 6.30 shows three rack-mounted devices.

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The circus tent one is a 24-port while jury. Underneath that is a 24-port switch over, and then a Dell server is shown. figure 6.30

A patch gore, switch, and server

Bridges Bridges operate in the Data Link level ( Layer 2 ) of the OSI model. They join exchangeable topologies, and they are used to divide net segments into multiple collision domains. Bridges isolate network traffic, preventing unwanted traffic from entering a segment when there are no recipients on that section. For example, with 100 people on one Ethernet segment, performance will be mediocre because of the blueprint of Ethernet and the number of workstations that are fighting to transmit. If you use a bridge to divide the segment into two segments of 50 workstations each, the traffic will be much lower on either english, and performance will improve. Bridges are not able to distinguish one protocol from another because higher levels of the OSI mannequin are not available to them. If a bridge is mindful of the destination MAC address, it can forward packets to the decline segment ; otherwise, it forwards the packets to all segments. Because bridge oeuvre at the Data Link layer, they are aware of alone hardware ( MAC ) addresses. They are not mindful of and do not deal with IP addresses.

Bridges are more intelligent than repeaters, but they are unable to move data across multiple networks simultaneously.

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The main disadvantage of bridges is that they forward circulate packets. Broadcasts are addressed to all computers, so the bridge just does its job and forwards the packets. Bridges besides can not perform intelligent path selection, meaning that the path from the transmitter to the finish will always be the lapp careless of network conditions. To stop broadcasts or perform healthy path excerpt, you need a router.

Switches Switches shape at Layer 2, as do bridges, and they provide centralized connectivity, precisely like hubs. They frequently look similar to hubs, so it ’ second comfortable to confuse them. There are large performance differences, though. Hubs pass along all dealings, but switches examine the Layer 2 header of the incoming mailboat and forward it properly to the right port and only that port. This greatly reduces overhead and therefore improves performance because there is basically a virtual connection between sender and receiver. The only downside is that switches forth broadcasts because they are addressed to everyone. If it helps you to remember their functions, a hub is basically a multiport recidivist, whereas a switch functions like a multiport bridge and, in some cases, a multiport router.

Switches come in two varieties : unmanaged and managed. We ’ ve already explained the functionality of an unmanaged switch —it connects two or more computers, and passes along all traffic sent to a MAC address to its port. A oversee switch adds the ability to configure ports, cope traffic, and monitor traffic for issues. For management, the switch will use a net protocol, such as Simple Network Management Protocol ( SNMP ). ( We ’ ll speak about SNMP in depth in chapter 7. ) Managed switches cost more but provide features such as quality of avail ( QoS ), redundancy, port mirror, and virtual LANs ( VLANs ). here ’ s a description of each : QoS QoS allows administrators to prioritize certain network traffic by assigning a higher precedence to it. Higher precedence traffic may come from a specific server or specific application. This is used a batch with Voice over IP ( VoIP ) —telephone calls over a calculator network—to ensure that the articulation data gets through and the connection doesn ’ triiodothyronine fathom garbled. Redundancy Redundancy in network terms means having multiple paths to get data from point A to point B. Administrators can use multiple switches to provide pleonastic paths, which add a layer of fault tolerance to the network. Managed switches use the Spanning Tree Protocol ( STP ) to implement redundancy. Port Mirroring This is a trouble-shoot sport that is used in concurrence with a network monitor. A port can be configured to mirror another port. When dealings is sent to one, it ’ s besides sent to the mirror. A net proctor attached to the mirrored port can then analyze the traffic, without taking the network or device on the original port offl ine. VLANs In a virtual LAN ( VLAN ), computers attached to the same physical switch can be segmented into multiple coherent networks. This reduces network traffic on each virtual

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LAN, because the traffic is isolated from other virtual LANs. Computers on one virtual LAN can still communicate with those on another virtual LAN, if the switch is configured properly. VLANs can besides be wholly isolated from each other, adding an extra flush of security. about every hub or switch that you will see has one or more status index lights on it. If there is a connection to a interface of the switch over, a light either above the connection or on an LED dialog box elsewhere on the device will light up. If traffic is crossing the port, the light may flash, or there may be a junior-grade light that will light up. many devices can besides detect a trouble in the connection. If a normal connection produces a green light, a bad connection might produce an amber light.

Routers Routers are highly healthy devices that connect multiple network types and determine the best path for sending data. They can route packets across multiple networks and use routing tables to store network addresses to determine the best destination. Routers operate at the Network layer ( Layer 3 ) of the OSI model. Because of this, they make their decisions on what to do with dealings based on legitimate addresses, such as an IP address. Routers have a few winder functions : ■■

■■

■■

They connect multiple networks to each early, which none of the other devices we have discussed do. Routers do not fore broadcasts. ( Switches and bridges break up collision domains, whereas routers break up circulate domains. ) Routers are normally used to connect one LAN to another. typically, when a WAN is set up, at least two routers are used.

In the last several years, radio routers have become all the fury for small business and home networks. They possess all the functionality of routers historically associated with network, but they are relatively cheap. We ’ ll spill more about these routers in chapter 8.

Auxiliary Devices The devices we equitable talked about are specialized to provide connectivity. This adjacent group of devices adds in features outside of connectivity that can help network users, specifically by protecting them from malicious attacks, providing network connections over exponent lines, and providing ability over Ethernet cables.

Firewall A firewall is a hardware or software solution that serves as your net ’ randomness security guard. They ’ rhenium probably the most authoritative devices on networks that are connected to the Internet. Firewalls can protect you in two ways : They protect your network resources from hackers lurking in the dark corners of the Internet, and they can simultaneously prevent computers on your network from accessing undesirable capacity on the Internet. At a basic flat, firewalls filter packets based on rules defined by the net administrator.

Identifying Common Network Hardware

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Firewalls can be stand-alone “ black boxes, ” software installed on a server or router, or some combination of hardware and software. Most fi rewalls will have at least two network connections : one to the Internet, or populace side, and one to the home network, or private side. Some fi rewalls have a third network port for a moment semi-internal network. This larboard is used to connect servers that can be considered both public and individual, such as web and electronic mail servers. This mediator network is known as a demilitarize zone ( DMZ ). A DMZ is a semi-public network segment located between a circumference router and an inner router on your network. It is used for world wide web servers, FTP servers, and email relay servers.

Firewalls can be network based, in that they protect a group of computers ( or an entire network ), or they can be host based. A host-based fi rewall ( such as Windows Firewall ) protects merely the individual calculator on which it ’ second installed. A fi rewall is configured to allow merely packets that authorize specific security restrictions to get through. By default, most fi rewalls are configured as default deny, which means that all traffic is blocked unless specifically authorized by the administrator. The basic method of configuring fi rewalls is to use an entree control list ( ACL ). The ACL is the set of rules that determines which traffic gets through the fi rewall and which traffic is blocked. ACLs are typically configured to block traffic by IP address, port number, knowledge domain name, or some combination of all three. We ’ ll cover firewalls in more depth in chapter 8 when we show you how to set up a network.

Cloud-Based Network Controller The wireless telecommunication services battlefield is expanding quickly and includes digest for radio network in summation to voice communication. One of the key components in this quad is called a cloud-based network accountant. A cloud-based network restrainer allows an administrator to remotely manage cloud-capable network infrastructure, including access points, switches, and routers. With these devices, the administrator can create a radio engage network ( WMN ) and manage it from anywhere. To make a WMN work, fi rst purchase hardware that supports cloud-based management. Install the hardware ( say, an access orient ) merely like any other access sharpen, and get in touch devices. then, with an app on a laptop, tablet, or smartphone, do and monitor the device. several companies specialize in this field, including OpenMesh ( and the CloudTrax app ), Ruckus, Riverbed Xirrus, and Mimosa.

Ethernet over Power Occasionally, you will fi neodymium yourself in a spot where it ’ s not potential to run cables for a network connection and radio is a problem angstrom well. For example, possibly you are installing

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a device that entirely has a wired RJ-45 port but you can ’ triiodothyronine get a cable to it. Ethernet over Power can help make that connection by using electrical outlets ; an arranger is shown in Figure 6.31. F one g uracil r vitamin e 6. 3 1 ethernet over Power adapter

For Ethernet over Power to work, both devices must be on the like electric tour, such as would be the character for a firm or a small construct. To connect the devices, chew both in and then press a button on the side of each device. They will search the electric circuit for the bespeak from the other and negotiate the connection. As you can see in Figure 6.31, an Ethernet cable besides connects to the device. You can plug that cable into a device directly or into a connectivity device, such as a hub or a switch.

Power over Ethernet If you can run an Ethernet signal over power lines, why can ’ t you run electricity over network cables ? As it turns out, you can—with Power over Ethernet ( PoE ). This technology is highly useful in situations where you need a wireless access degree in a relatively outback location that does not have any power outlets. For it to work, the access point and the device it plugs into ( such as a switch ) both need to support PoE. In a configuration such as this, the switch would be considered an endspan PoE device, because it ’ south at the end of the network connection. If the switch in question doesn ’ triiodothyronine defend PoE, you can get a device that sits between the switch and the entree steer ( called a midspan device ) whose lone determination is to supply power via the Ethernet connection. appropriately, these midspan devices are called Power over Ethernet injectors.

Exam Essentials

357

Summary In this chapter, we covered a wide assortment of networking topics. This chapter contains everything that you need to get you ready for the network questions on the A+ 220-1001 examination. At the same time, the A+ examination ( and consequently this chapter ) scantily scratches the surface of the things that you can learn about network. If making computers talk to each other effectively is an sphere of pastime to you, we suggest that you consider studying for the CompTIA Network+ examination after you pass your A+ tests. First, we started with network fundamentals. a lot of the discussion of fundamentals was about understanding the concepts behind network therefore that you know how to set them up. Topics included LANs versus WANs ; clients, servers, and resources ; network operating systems ; peer-to-peer and server-based resource models ; network topologies, such as busbar, star, and hoop ; and theoretical network models and standards, such as the OSI model and IEEE standards. future, you learned about hardware devices used in network. Each calculator needs a network arranger ( NIC ) of some sort to connect to the network. On a electrify network, cables are required, and there are several different types, including coaxial, STP, UTP, and fiber-optic. Each cable type has its own specific connection. ultimately, we discussed assorted types of network connectivity hardware and auxiliary devices and their use. Some users may need a modem, cable modem, DSL modem, or access charge to get onto the network. All wired computers will plug into a connectivity device, such as a hub or a switch, which in turn is connected to another connectivity device, which may be a bridge or a router. other devices on the network, such as firewalls, cloud-based net controllers, Ethernet over Power, and PoE injectors provide extra services.

Exam Essentials Know the deviation between workgroups and domains. A workgroup is frequently referred to as a peer-to-peer network, and there is no centralized administration. A domain is a serverbased network ; the server ( much called a world restrainer ) manages user accounts and security for the network. Workgroups are well suited for networks with 10 or fewer computers and humble security requirements. Know the dispute between a LAN, WAN, PAN, MAN, and WMN. A LAN is a local sphere network, which typically means a network in one centralize location. A WAN is a wide sphere network, which means several LANs in distant locations connected to each early. A PAN is a humble Bluetooth network. A network that spans an area such as a city or a campus is a MAN. A WMN is a wireless mesh topology net that may be managed with a cloud-based net accountant.

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Understand the dispute between a while ( straight-through ) cable and a crossing over cable. Patch cables are used to connect hosts to a trade or a hub. Crossover cables switch pins 1 and 3 and 2 and 6 on one end. They are used to connect hub to hubs, switches to switches, hosts to hosts, and hosts to routers. Know what a plenum cable is used for. Plenum cables do not release toxic boast when burned and consequently are required in spaces that circulate atmosphere ( plenums ) within buildings. Know what hub, switches, and routers are. These are all net connectivity devices. Hubs and switches are used to connect several computers or groups of computers to each early. Routers are more complex devices that are frequently used to connect network segments or networks to each other. Know which types of cables are used in network and the connectors for each. Common network cables include coaxial, STP, UTP ( Category 5/5e, and Category 6 ), and fiber-optic. Coax cables use BNC connectors ; STP and UTP cables use RJ-45 connectors ; and fiber-optic cables uses ST, SC, and LC connectors. You may besides be tested on phone connectors, which are called RJ-11 connectors. Understand network topologies. Network topologies are bus topology, star, ring, engagement, and hybrid.

Review Questions

359

Review Questions The answers to the chapter recapitulation questions can be found in Appendix A. is immune to electromagnetic or radio-frequency noise.

1. A. Twisted-pair cable B. CSMA/CD

C. Broadband coaxial cabling D. fiber-optic cabling 2. Which of the follow is a type of connection used with coaxial cable ? A. RG-6 B. RG-59 C. BNC D. SC 3. You need to put a connection on the conclusion of an Ethernet crossing cable. The existing end has a ashen and green colored wire at trap 1. What semblance do you need to make pin 1 on the new end ? A. White/green B. Green C. White/orange D. Orange 4.

is the type of media access method used by NICs that listen to or sense the cable to check for traffic and commit alone when they hear that no one else is transmitting. A. Token passing B. CSMA/CD C. CSMA/CA D. Demand precedence

5. What is the lowest grade of UTP that is rated for 100 Mbps transmission ? A. CAT-5 B. CAT-5e C. CAT-6 D. CAT-6a 6. A physical star topology consists of several workstations that branch off a central device called a. A. NIC B. Bridge C. Router D. Hub

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7. Of all the network cabling options, segment length.

offers the longest possible

A. Unshielded twisted-pair B. Coaxial C. Fiber-optic D. Shielded twisted-pair 8. What devices transfer packets across multiple networks and use tables to store network addresses to determine the best finish ? A. Routers B. Bridges C. Hubs D. Switches 9. Which of the following network hardware devices is adequate to of creating VLANs ? A. Firewall B. Repeater C. Unmanaged switch D. Managed switch 10. Which of the comply wireless communication standards is often described in terms of a radio personal sphere network ? A. Bluetooth B. Infrared C. Cellular D. Ethernet 11. Which of the surveil statements are not associated with a star network ? ( Choose all that apply. ) A. A individual cable break can cause complete net break. B. All devices connect to a central device. C. It uses a single spinal column computer to connect all network devices. D. It uses a dual-ring configuration. 12. If you are going to run a network cable in the distance above the drop ceiling in your office, which type of cable should you use ? A. Plenum B. PVC C. Coaxial D. Fiber-optic

Review Questions

361

13. Which of the follow connection types is an MFF connection ? A. BNC B. ST C. SC D. LC 14. Which Ethernet specification would you be running if you needed to make a connection of 10 Gbps over a distance of 5 kilometers ? A. 10GBaseER B. 10GBaseT C. 10GBaseSR D. 10GBaseLR 15. You have been asked to configure a full enmesh network with seven computers. How many connections will this require ? A. 6 B. 7 C. 21 D. 42 16. You are installing a network at a supporter ’ mho house, and it ’ s impossible to run a network cable from one point in the house to another. He does not want to use wireless network. Which of the following is the best choice to get net connectivity between the two points ? A. might over Ethernet injector B. Power over Ethernet switch C. Ethernet over Power D. Bridge 17. What type of device will block unwanted traffic from your network using a set of rules called an ACL ? A. Router B. Firewall C. Bridge D. NAS 18. Which type of coaxial cable is recommended for digital television cable signals ? A. RG-6 B. RG-8 C. RG-58 D. RG-59

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19. Which of the following devices work with MAC addresses to determine what to do with network traffic ? ( Choose two. ) A. Hub B. Router C. Bridge D. Switch 20. Transmitting at 10 Gbps, how far can signals on an MMF cable television change of location ? A. 100 meters B. 550 meters C. 1 kilometer D. 40 kilometers

Performance-Based Question You will encounter performance-based questions on the A+ examination. The questions on the examination necessitate you to perform a specific tax, and you will be graded on whether or not you were able to complete the task. The trace requires you to think creatively in order to measure how well you understand this chapter ’ mho topics. You may or may not see similar questions on the actual A+ examination. To see how your answer compares to the authors ’, refer to Appendix B. Draw three examples of physical network topologies and explain how each ferment.

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Chapter

7

Introduction to TCP/IP The keep up CompTIA A+ 220–1001 examination objectives are covered in this chapter : ✓✓ 2.1 Compare and contrast TCP and UDP ports, protocols, and their purposes. ■■

■■

Ports and protocols ■■

21—FTP

■■

22—SSH

■■

23—Telnet

■■

25—SMTP

■■

53—DNS

■■

80—HTTP

■■

110—POP3

■■

143—IMAP

■■

443—HTTPS

■■

3389—RDP

■■

137–139—NetBIOS/NetBT

■■

445—SMB/CIFS

■■

427—SLP

■■

548—AFP

■■

67/68—DHCP

■■

389—LDAP

■■

161/162—SNMP

TCP vs. UDP

✓✓ 2.6 Explain coarse network shape concepts. ■■

IP addressing ■■

Static

■■

Dynamic

■■

APIPA

■■

Link local

■■

DNS

■■

DHCP ■■

Reservations

■■

IPv4 vs. IPv6

■■

Subnet disguise

■■

Gateway

■■

VPN

■■

VLAN

■■

NAT

Networking protocols are a batch like homo languages in that they are the language that computers speak when talking to each other. If computers don ’ metric ton speak the lapp terminology, they won ’ t be able to communicate. To complicate matters, there are dozens of unlike languages out there that computers can use. Just like humans, computers can understand and use multiple languages. Imagine that you are on the street and person comes up to you and speaks in spanish. If you know spanish, you will likely reply in kind. It doesn ’ t topic if both of you know english deoxyadenosine monophosphate well because you ’ ve already established that you can communicate. On the other hand, it ’ s going to be a pretty quick conversation if you don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate know spanish. This lapp concept applies to computers that are trying to communicate. They must have a network protocol in coarse in order for the conversation to be successful. Throughout the years, hundreds of network protocols have been developed. As the practice of network exploded, assorted companies developed their own network hardware, software, and proprietary protocols. Some were incorporated as an integral partially of the network operating organization, such as Banyan VINES. erstwhile network giant Novell had IPX/SPX. Microsoft developed NetBEUI. Apple created AppleTalk. Others included DECnet, SNA, and XNS. While a few achieve long-run success, most have faded into obliviousness. The one protocol suite that has survived is TCP/IP. While it has some morphologic advantages, such as its modularity, it didn ’ t inevitably succeed because it was inherently superior to other protocols. It succeeded because it is the protocol of the Internet. This chapter focuses on the TCP/IP protocol suite. It is the protocol suite used on the Internet, but it ’ s besides the protocol suite used by the huge majority of home plate and commercial enterprise networks today. We ’ ll start by taking a agile look at the history of TCP/IP and the model on which it ’ s based. then we ’ ll dive cryptic into TCP/IP structure and the individual protocols it comprises. From there, we ’ ll spend some time on IP address, including IPv4 and IPv6. Entire books have been written on TCP/IP—so there ’ s no means we could cover it entirely in one chapter. rather, we ’ ll give you the initiation that you need to understand it well, bring effectively with it in the field, and pass the A+ examination.

Understanding TCP/IP As we mentioned in the introduction, computers use a protocol as a park lyric for communication. A protocol is a determined of rules that govern communications, much like a lyric in homo terms. Of the myriad protocols out there, the key ones to understand are the protocols in the TCP/IP cortege, which is a collection of different protocols that work

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in concert to deliver connectivity. consequently, they ’ re the lone ones listed on the A+ examination objectives. In the follow sections, we ’ ll start with a front at its overall structure and then move into key protocols within the suite.

TCP/IP Structure The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol ( TCP/IP ) cortege is the most popular network protocol in manipulation today, thanks largely to the upgrade of the Internet. While the protocol cortege is named after two of its hardest-working protocols, Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP ) and Internet Protocol ( IP ), TCP/IP actually contains dozens of protocols working together to help computers communicate with one another. TCP/IP is robust and compromising. For exercise, if you want to ensure that the packets are delivered from one calculator to another, TCP/IP can do that. If amphetamine is more important than guarantee manner of speaking, then TCP/IP can ensure that excessively. The protocol can work on disparate operating systems, such as UNIX, Linux, macOS, Windows, io, and Android. It can besides support a variety of programs, applications, and required network functions. much of its tractability comes from its modular nature. You ’ re familiar with the seven-layer OSI model that we discussed in Chapter 6, “ Networking Fundamentals. ” Every protocol that ’ mho created needs to accomplish the tasks ( or at least the key tasks ) outlined in that model. The structure of TCP/IP is based on a similar model created by the United States Department of Defense—that is, the Department of Defense ( DoD ) model. The DoD mannequin ( sometimes referred to as the TCP/IP model ) has four layers that map to the seven OSI layers, as shown in Figure 7.1. Fi gram u radius vitamin e 7.1 The DoD and OSI models

The overall functionality between these two models is virtually identical ; the layers good have different names. For example, the Process/Application layer of the DoD model is

Understanding TCP/IP

367

designed to combine the functionality of the top three layers of the OSI model. therefore, any protocol designed against the Process/Application layer would need to be able to perform all the functions associated with the Application, Presentation, and Session layers in the OSI model. TCP/IP ’ s modular nature and common protocols are shown in Figure 7.2. Fi gigabyte u roentgen einsteinium 7. 2 TCP/IP protocol suite DoD Model Process/ Application

Telnet

FTP

LDAP

SNMP

DHCP

SMTP

HTTP

HTTPS

TCP

Host-to-Host

Internet

Network Access

UDP

ICMP

ARP

RARP

IP

Ethernet

Fast Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet

802.11

The majority of TCP/IP protocols are located at the Process/Application layer. These include some protocols with which you may already be conversant, such as Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP ), File Transfer Protocol ( FTP ), dim-witted Mail Transfer Protocol ( SMTP ), Post Office Protocol ( POP ), and others. At the Host-to-Host layer, there are only two protocols : TCP and User Datagram Protocol ( UDP ). Most applications will use one or the other to transmit data, although some can use both but will do so for different tasks. The most important protocol at the Internet layer is IP. This is the spinal column of TCP/IP. other protocols at this layer ferment in concurrence with IP, such as Internet Control Message Protocol ( ICMP ) and Address Resolution Protocol ( ARP ). You ’ ll comment that the Network Access layer doesn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate have any protocols, as such. This layer describes the type of network access method that you are using, such as Ethernet, Wi-Fi, or others.

Process/Application Layer Protocols As we mentioned in the previous incision, most of the protocols within the TCP/IP suite are at the Process/Application layer. This is the layer of differentiation and flexibility. For

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example, if you want to browse the Internet, the HTTP protocol is designed for that. FTP is optimized for fi lupus erythematosus downloads, and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol ( SMTP ) is used for sending e-mail. Before we get into the protocol themselves, let ’ s take a quick count into a few key points on the TCP/IP suite ’ randomness flexibility. There are literally dozens of protocols at the Process/ Application layer, and they have been created over prison term as network needs arise. Take HTTP, for model. The fi rst official version was developed in 1991, closely 20 years after TCP/IP was fi rst implemented. Before this protocol was created, there weren ’ t any effective client-server request-response protocols at this layer. HTTP let the client ( web browser ) ask the web server for a page, and the web waiter would return it. Going one pace far, there was a necessitate for secure transactions over HTTP—hence, the creation of HTTPS in 1994. As new applications are developed or new network needs are discovered, developers can build an lotion or protocol that fits into this layer to provide the necessitate functionality. They merely need to make certain that the protocol delivers what it needs to and can communicate with the layers below it. The take after sections describe some of the more coarse Process/Application protocols—and the ones listed in the A+ examination objectives.

AFP The Apple Filing Protocol ( AFP ) was developed in the 1980s for use with the AppleTalk net protocol. AppleTalk was a proprietary network protocol developed by Apple for practice on Macintosh computers, but it ’ south fallen out of manipulation today. AFP is a fi lupus erythematosus remove protocol exchangeable to FTP and Server Message Block ( SMB ), which are discussed belated in this section. It was the default option fi lupus erythematosus transfer protocol on Mac OS until Apple changed to SMB2 in 2013. Converting to the industry-standard SMB protocol helped enhance interoperability between Macs and PCs. Mac users can choose which file transfer protocol to use within macOS. For example, both AFP and SMB can be used, and SMB used merely with Windows users. The typeset is changed under the Apple menu ➢ System Preferences ➢ Sharing. Choose file sharing, then Options.

CIFS Common Internet File System ( CIFS ) is a Microsoft-developed enhancement of the SMB protocol, which was besides developed by Microsoft. The intent behind CIFS is that it can be used to contribution fi les and printers between computers, careless of the function system that they run. It ’ mho been the default fi lupus erythematosus and mark sharing protocol on Windows-based computers since Windows 2000.

DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ( DHCP ) dynamically assign IP addresses and other IP shape data to network clients. Configuring your network clients to receive their IP addresses from a DHCP server reduces network administration headaches.

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We ’ ll cover the mechanics of how DHCP works belated in this chapter when we talk about IP addressing.

DNS You probably use Domain Name System ( DNS ) every day whether you realize it or not. Its purpose is to resolve hostnames to IP addresses. For exercise, let ’ s say that you open your vane browser and type in a Uniform Resource Locator ( URL ) such as hypertext transfer protocol : //www.wiley .com. Your computer needs to know the IP address of the server that hosts that web site in club for you to connect to it. Through a DNS waiter, your computer resolves the URL to an IP address so communication can happen. DNS as a military service is discussed in more detail subsequently in this chapter. You will find some debate about what DNS stands for. The official name, according to the Internet Engineering Task Force ( IETF ) is Domain Name System. however, CompTIA lists Domain Name Service and Domain Name Server as wide names for the acronym. Regardless, the important matter to remember is what DNS does, which is resolves hostnames to IP addresses.

FTP The File Transfer Protocol ( FTP ) is optimized to do what it says it does—transfer fi les. This includes both upload and downloading fi les from one host to another. ftp is both a protocol and an lotion. specifically, FTP lets you copy fi les, list and manipulate directories, and opinion fi lupus erythematosus contents. You can ’ triiodothyronine manipulation it to execute applications remotely. Whenever a drug user attempts to entree an FTP web site, they will be asked to log in. If it ’ s a public locate, you can often fair use the login name anonymous and then provide your e-mail address as the password. Of course, there ’ s no rule saying that you have to give your real electronic mail address if you don ’ metric ton want to. If the FTP web site is secured, you will need a legitimate login appoint and password to access it. If you are using a browser such as Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, or Edge to connect via FTP, the right syntax in the savoir-faire window is ftp : //username : [ electronic mail protected ] The big downside to FTP is that it ’ second unsecure. It transmits usernames and passwords in plain textbook. If a potential hacker is monitoring network traffic, this information will come through quite intelligibly. Be mindful of this when using FTP, and make certain the FTP password is something not used to log into any other services. In Windows XP and subsequently, you can type a URL such as the one in the FTP exercise into the Run box to connect arsenic well.

HTTP The most normally use Process/Application layer protocol is HTTP. It manages the communication between a network server and customer, and lets you connect to and view all the capacity that you enjoy on the Internet. All the information transmitted by HTTP is complain text, which means

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that it ’ south not impregnable. consequently, it ’ s not a good choice for transmitting sensible or personal information, such as usernames and passwords, or for transmitting bank information.

HTTPS To encrypt traffic between a network server and node securely, Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure ( HTTPS ) can be used. HTTPS connections are secured using either Secure Sockets Layer ( SSL ) or Transport Layer Security ( TLS ). From the node side, the most common publish that you will encounter when HTTPS is in function on a web site is that users may not know the proper context. To access most websites, you use hypertext transfer protocol : // in the address legal profession. To get to a site using HTTPS, you need to use hypertext transfer protocol : // rather. From the customer ( web browser ) side, users will know that the locate is secure because the browser will display a belittled padlock picture next to the address name.

how secure Is It ? You have probably heard before that you should not enter personal information ( such as a credit card number ) into an unsecure web site. But what does that in truth mean ? First, know what to look for. If you are entering information into a web site form and the address of the web site begins with just hypertext transfer protocol : //, you ’ re just asking for person to steal the data ! The HTTP protocol transmits data in plain text, meaning that there is no encoding at all between your computer and the server. On the other hand, HTTPS encrypts the datum transmissions as they cross the wire. To use HTTPS, the web site needs to obtain an SSL certificate from a reputable certificate authority, which verifies the identity of the web site. So the good news program is that if you are accessing a site with hypertext transfer protocol : // in the heading, you know that the site is what it says it is ( and not a talk through one’s hat site or Trojan horse ) and that transmissions between your computer and that site are encrypted. Once the datum is on the web site ’ south server, though, HTTPS is no longer relevant and other protection methods are needed to keep your data fasten.

Occasionally, you might visit a web site that uses HTTPS and get a pop fly error message saying that the certificate has expired or could not be validated. This is most probably a font of the certificate legitimately expiring, but it could be that it ’ s a Trojan horse web site. Proceed with caution !

IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol ( IMAP ) is a guarantee protocol designed to download electronic mail. Its stream adaptation is interpretation 4, or IMAP4. It ’ s the client-side electronic mail management protocol of

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choice, having replaced the unsecure POP3. Most current electronic mail clients, such as Microsoft Outlook and Gmail, are configured to be able to use either IMAP4 or POP3. IMAP4 has some definite advantages over POP3. First, IMAP4 works in connected and disconnected modes. With POP3, the customer makes a association to the electronic mail server, downloads the electronic mail, and then terminates the connection. IMAP4 allows the client to remain connect to the e-mail server after the download, meaning that arsenic soon as another e-mail enters the inbox, IMAP4 notifies the electronic mail node, which can then download it. Second, it besides lets you store the e-mail on the server, as opposed to POP3, which requires you to download it. Third, IMAP4 allows multiple clients to be simultaneously connected to the same inbox. This can be useful for smartphone users who have both Outlook on their workstation and their smartphone e-mail client functional at the same time or for cases where multiple users monitor the same mailbox, such as on a customer service account. IMAP4 allows each connected drug user or customer to see changes made to messages on the server in real time.

LDAP The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol ( LDAP ) is a directory services protocol based on the X.500 standard. LDAP is designed to access information stored in an information directory typically known as an LDAP directory or LDAP database. On your net, you probably have a bunch of information, such as employee call books and e-mail addresses, node contact lists, and infrastructure and shape data for the network and network applications. This data might not get updated frequently, but you might need to access it from anywhere on the network, or you might have a network application that needs access to this data. LDAP provides you with the entree, careless of the client platform from which you ’ ra solve. You can besides use entree operate lists ( ACLs ) to set up who can read and change entries in the database using LDAP. A coarse doctrine of analogy is that LDAP provides access to and the social organization behind your network ’ s phone reserve.

NetBIOS/NetBT Network Basic Input/Output System ( NetBIOS ) is an application programming interface ( API ) that allows computers to communicate with each other over the network. It works at Layer 5 of the OSI model. consequently, it needs to work with another network protocol to handle the functions of Layer 4 and below. NetBIOS running over TCP/IP is called NetBT, or NBT. specifically, NetBIOS provides three services : ■■

Naming service, for name registration and resolution

■■

Datagram distribution service, for connectionless communication

■■

Session management military service, for connection-oriented communication

For many years, Microsoft network clients were configured with a NetBIOS appoint, which was their network name. To communicate with another calculator on the network, the NetBIOS name would need to be resolved ( matched ) to an IP address. This was done with a WINS ( Windows Internet Name Service ) waiter or LMHOSTS file, and could not be performed across any rout connection ( which includes the Internet ).

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If you ’ re familiar with hostnames, they were slightly analogous and could be one in the lapp or wholly different. ( If you ’ re not conversant with hostnames and DNS, we cover it late in this chapter. ) The big differences are that hostnames are resolved with a DNS server ( or HOSTS file ) and can work across the Internet. WINS was far inferior to DNS for name resolution, then Microsoft ended up adopting DNS like the rest of the industry.

POP3 For a long clock time, Post Office Protocol 3 ( POP3 ) had been the prefer protocol for downloading e-mail. It ’ mho being replaced by IMAP4 because IMAP4 includes security and more features than POP3.

RDP Developed by Microsoft, the Remote Desktop Protocol ( RDP ) allows users to connect to remote computers and run programs on them. When you use RDP, you see the desktop of the calculator you ’ ve signed into on your screen. It ’ s like you ’ ra in truth there, even though you ’ re not. When you use RDP, the computer at which you are seated is the customer and the computer you ’ re logging into is the waiter. RDP client software is available for Windows, Linux, macOS, io, and Android. Microsoft ’ s RDP client software is called Remote Desktop Connection. The server uses its own video recording driver to create video output and sends the output signal to the client using RDP. Conversely, all keyboard and sneak input signal from the client is encrypted and sent to the server for process. RDP besides supports reasoned, drive, port, and network printer redirection. In a nutshell, this means that if you could see, hear, or do it sitting at the outback computer, you could see, hear, or do it at the RDP client excessively. Services using this protocol can be great for telecommuters. It ’ south besides very handy for technical confirm folks, who can log into and assume dominance over a outside computer. It ’ s a lot easier to troubleshoot and fix problems when you can see what ’ s going on and “ drive. ”

SLP The Service Location Protocol ( SLP ) is a non-proprietary protocol designed to help locate resources on a net. Without protocols such as SLP ( and SMB ), users wanting to access network resources need to enter the hostname or IP address of the machine that provides the resource. SLP makes the resources visible and therefore easy to connect to. SLP was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force ( IETF ), so it ’ south considered an industry standard. The advantage is that it can be used with non-Microsoft operating systems, such as macOS and Linux.

SMB Server Message Block ( SMB ) is a protocol primitively developed by IBM but then enhanced by Microsoft, IBM, Intel, and others. It ’ s used to provide share access to files, printers, and other net resources and is chiefly implemented by Microsoft systems. In a room, it can function a piece like FTP only with a few more options, such as the ability to connect to printers, and more management commands. It ’ s besides known for its ability to make

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network resources easily visible through assorted Windows network apps ( such as Network in File Explorer ).

SMTP We ’ ve already looked at a few protocols that are for downloading or receiving electronic mail. simple Mail Transfer Protocol ( SMTP ) is the protocol most normally used to send e-mail messages. Because it ’ s designed to send lone, it ’ south referred to as a push protocol. SMTP is the protocol used to send electronic mail from mail waiter to mail server american samoa well as from a chain mail server to an electronic mail customer. An e-mail customer locates its electronic mail server by querying the DNS server for a mail substitute ( MX ) read. After the server is located, SMTP is used to push the message to the electronic mail server, which will then process the message for delivery.

SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol ( SNMP ) gathers and manages network performance information. On your network, you might have several connectivity devices, such as routers and switches. A management device called an SNMP server can be set up to collect data from these devices ( called agents ) and ensure that your network is operating by rights. Although SNMP is largely used to monitor connectivity devices, many other network devices are SNMP-compatible as well. The most stream version is SNMPv3.

SSH Secure Shell ( SSH ) can be used to set up a secure Telnet session for distant logins or for remotely executing programs and transferring files. Because it ’ second secure, it was in the first place designed to be a replacement for the unsecure telnet command. A coarse customer interface using SSH is called OpenSSH ( www.openssh.com ).

Telnet It seems as though Telnet has been around since the begin of clock as a terminal emulation protocol. person using Telnet can log into another machine and “ see ” the distant calculator in a windowpane on their screen. Although this vision is text alone, the exploiter can manage files on that outside machine just as if they were logged in locally. The trouble with telnet and other unsecure remote control management interfaces ( such as rcp [ remote imitate ] and file transfer protocol ) is that the data they transmit, including passwords, is sent in obviously text. Anyone eavesdropping on the credit line can intercept the packets and frankincense obtain usernames and passwords. SSH overcomes this by encrypting the dealings, including usernames and passwords.

Host-to-Host Layer Protocols After the ten thousand protocols at the Process/Application layer, the simplicity of the Host-toHost layer is welcome. At this level there are two alternatives within the TCP/IP suite : transmission control protocol and UDP. The major deviation between the two is that TCP guarantees package delivery through the use of a virtual circuit and data acknowledgements and UDP does not. Because

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of this, TCP is much referred to as connection-oriented, whereas UDP is connectionless. Because UDP is connectionless, it does tend to be slightly fast, but we ’ re talking about milliseconds here. Another key concept to understand about TCP and UDP is the use of port numbers. Imagine a world wide web server that is managing connections from incoming users who are viewing web content and others who are downloading fi les. TCP and UDP use port numbers to keep track of these conversations and make sure that the data gets to the right application and right conclusion exploiter. conversely, when a node makes a request of a server, it needs to do so on a specific port to make sure that the right lotion on the waiter hears the request. For example, web servers are listening for HTTP requests on port 80, so web browsers need to make their requests on that port. A good analogy for understanding port numbers is to think of cable or satellite television. In this analogy, the IP address is your house. The cable company needs to know where to send the data. But once the datum is in your house, which channel are you going to receive it on ? If you want sports, that might be on one duct, but weather is on a different channel, and the fudge show is on even another. Those channels are analogous to ports. You know that if you want a cook show, you need to turn to channel 923 ( or whatever ). similarly, the node computer on a network knows that if it needs to ask a question in HTTP, it needs to do it on port 80. There are 65,536 ports, numbered from 0 to 65535. Ports 0 through 1023 are called the long-familiar ports and are assigned to normally use services, and 1024 through 49151 are called the registered ports. Anything from 49152 to 65535 is free to be used by lotion vendors. fortunately, you don ’ t need to memorize them all. TCP/IP applications combine the host ’ s IP address with the port number in order to communicate. This combination is known as a socket.

Table 7.1 shows the ports used by some of the more coarse protocols. You should know each of these for the A+ examination. TA b lambert e 7.1

Common port numbers

Service

Protocol

Port ( s )

FTP

TCP

20, 21

SSH

TCP

22

Telnet

TCP

23

SMTP

TCP

25

Understanding TCP/IP

Service

Protocol

Port ( s )

DNS

TCP/UDP

53

DHCP

UDP

67, 68

HTTP

TCP

80

POP3

TCP

110

NetBIOS/NetBT

TCP

137–139

IMAP4

TCP

143

SNMP

UDP

161, 162

LDAP

TCP

389

SLP

TCP

427

HTTPS

TCP

443

SMB/CIFS

TCP

445

AFP

TCP

548

RDP

TCP

3389

375

A complete list of register port numbers can be found at www.iana.org and several other sites, such as Wikipedia.

Internet Layer Protocols At the Internet level, there ’ s one key protocol and a few helpful support protocols. The independent workhorse of TCP/IP is the Internet Protocol ( IP ), and it can be found at this level. IP is responsible for managing logical network addresses and ultimately getting data from bespeak A to point B, even if there are dozens of points in between. We cover IP addressing more in the future segment. There are three hold protocols you should be aware of at this layer deoxyadenosine monophosphate well. Internet Control Message Protocol ( ICMP ) is responsible for delivering error messages. If you ’ re conversant with the ping utility, you ’ ll know that it utilizes ICMP to send and receive packets. Address Resolution Protocol ( ARP ) resolves legitimate IP addresses to physical MAC addresses built into network cards. Reverse ARP ( RARP ) resolves MAC addresses to IP addresses.

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Understanding IP Addressing To communicate on a TCP/IP network, each device needs to have a unique IP address. Any device with an IP address is referred to as a host. This can include servers, workstations, printers, routers, and other devices. If you can assign it an IP address, it ’ s a horde. As an administrator, you can assign the host ’ randomness IP shape information manually, or you can have it automatically assigned by a DHCP waiter. On the client, this is done through the network adapter ’ mho TCP/IP properties. You ’ ll see in Figure 7.3 that the system is set to receive information from a DHCP waiter. We ’ ll attend at how to configure this in more depth in chapter 8, “ Installing Wireless and SOHO Networks. ” f I g u radius e 7. 3

TCP/IP Properties

This section will cover IPv4. IPv6 will be covered in its own distinguish section.

An IPv4 address is a 32-bit hierarchical address that identifies a host on the net. It ’ s typically written in dotted-decimal notation, such as 192.168.10.55. Each of the numbers in this model represents 8 bits ( or 1 byte ) of the address, besides known as an octet. The lapp cover written in binary ( how the calculator thinks about it ) would be 11000000 10101000 00001010 00110111. As you can see, the dotted-decimal interpretation is a much more commodious manner to write these numbers. The addresses are said to be hierarchical, as opposed to “ flat, ” because the numbers at the begin of the address identify groups of computers that belong to the lapp network.

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Because of the hierarchical address structure, we ’ rhenium able to do truly cool things, such as route packets between local networks and on the Internet. A capital example of hierarchical address is your street address. Let ’ s say that you live in apartment 4B at 123 Main Street, Anytown, Kansas, USA. If person sent you a letter via snail mail, the hierarchy of your address helps the postal service and carrier deliver it to the right place. First and broadest is USA. Kansas helps narrow it down a moment, and Anytown narrows it down more. finally we get to your street, the right number on your street, and then the right apartment. If the address space were flat ( for example, Kansas didn ’ thymine think of anything more particular than Main Street ), or you could use any name you wanted for your state, it would be actually hard to get the letter to the right spot. Take this doctrine of analogy back to IP addresses. They ’ rhenium set up to organize networks logically in order to make delivery between them possible and then to identify an individual node within a network. If this structure weren ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate in place, a huge, multi-network space like the Internet probably wouldn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate be possible. It would plainly be besides unwieldy to manage. Another example of a hierarchical cover dodge is call numbers. The first base three digits, the area code, group all call numbers with that area code into one coherent net. The second group of three numbers defines a local calling area, and the final grouping of numbers is the unique identifier within that local calling area.

A Quick Binary Tutorial As we mentioned earlier, each IP address is written in four octets in dotted-decimal notation, but each octet represents 8 bits. A binary bite is a value with two possible states : on equals 1 and off equals 0. If the spot is turned on, it has a decimal value based upon its position within the octet. An off sting constantly equals zero. Take a front at Figure 7.4, which will help illustrate what we mean. degree fahrenheit I g u radius e 7. 4

Binary values

Position in octet

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Bit on

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Has the decimal value of. ..

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

Mathematically

27

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

If all the bits in an octet are away, or 00000000, the corresponding decimal fraction prize is 0. If all bits in an octet are on, you would have 11111111, which is 255 in decimal. When you ’ rhenium working with IPv4 addressing, all numbers will be between 0 and 255.

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Where it starts to get more entertain is when you have combinations of zeroes and ones. For exercise, 10000001 is equal to 129 ( 128 + 1 ), and 00101010 is equal to 42 ( 32 + 8 + 2 ). As you work with IPv4 addresses, you ’ ll see certain patterns emerge. For model, you may be able to count quickly from left to right in an octet practice, such as 128, 192, 224, 240, 248, 252, 254, and 255. That ’ s what you get if you have ( starting from the entrust ) 1, 2, 3, and so away up to 8 bits on in sequence in the octet. It ’ s beyond the scope of this ledger to get into excessively much detail on binary-to-decimal conversion, but this primer should get you started. If you want more information on binary, here are two helpful resources. A network binary mathematics lesson can be found at hypertext transfer protocol : //learningnetwork

.cisco.com/blogs/vip-perspectives/2014/05/15/ network-binary-math-explained, and a binary to decimal converter is at hypertext transfer protocol : //www.rapidtables.com/convert/number/decimal-to-binary .html.

Parts of the IP Address Each IP address is made up of two components : the net ID and the host ID. The network share of the cover constantly comes before the host share. Because of the way IP addresses are structured, the network dowry does not have to be a specific fi xed length. In early words, some computers will use 8 of the 32 bits for the net share and the early 24 for the host assign, while other computers might use 24 bits for the network assign and the remaining 8 bits for the host assign. here are a few rules that you should know about when working with IP addresses : ■

All horde addresses on a network must be unique. On a routed network ( such as the Internet ), all network addresses must be unique vitamin a well. Neither the network ID nor the host ID can be set to all 0s. A horde ID fortune of all 0s means “ this network. ” Neither the network ID nor the host ID can be set to all 1s. A horde ID assign of all 1s means “ all hosts on this network, ” normally known as a broadcast address.

Computers are able to differentiate where the network ID ends and the host address begins through the use of a subnet mask. This is a value written just like an IP address and may look something like 255.255.255.0. Any piece that is set to a 1 in the subnet disguise makes the corresponding spot in the IP address part of the network ID ( careless of whether the moment in the IP address is on or off ). When setting bits to 1 in a subnet dissemble, you always have to turn them on consecutive from left to right, so that the bits representing the network address are always conterminous and come fi rst. The stay of the address will be the horde ID. The phone number 255 is the highest number you will ever see in IP address, and it means that all bits in the octet are set to 1.

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here ’ s an case based on two numbers that we have used in this chapter. Look at the IP address of 192.168.10.55. Let ’ s wear that the subnet mask in function with this address is 255.255.255.0. This indicates that the fi rst three octets are the network share of the address and the final octet is the host part ; consequently, the network assign of this ID is 192.168.10 and the host fortune is 55. If the subnet mask were 255.255.0.0, the calculator would see its network address as 192.168 and its master of ceremonies address as 10.55. As you can see, the subnet mask can make the demand same address appear as though it ’ s on a unlike network. If you ’ re ever dealing with network communication issues, the IP address and subnet mask are among the fi rst things to check. To communicate using IPv4, each computer is required to have an IP address and right subnet mask. A third component, called a default gateway, identifies the IP address of the device that will allow the host to connect outside of the local net. This is typically your router, and it ’ mho required if you want to communicate with computers outside of your local network. An example shape is shown in Figure 7.5. degree fahrenheit I g uranium gas constant east 7. 5 gateway

Manual TCP/IP shape with an IP savoir-faire, subnet masquerade, and default

IPv4 Address Classes The designers of TCP/IP designated classes of networks based on the fi rst three bits of the IP address. As you will see, classes differ in how many networks of each course can exist and

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the act of alone hosts that each net can accommodate. here are some characteristics of the three classes of addresses that you will commonly distribute with : class A Class A networks are defined as those with the first morsel set as 0 ( decimal values from 0 to 127 ) and are designed for very bombastic networks. The default option network part for class A network is the first 8 bits, leaving 24 bits for host identification. Because the network assign is only 8 bits long ( and 0 and 127 are reserved ), there are lone 126 Class A net addresses available. The remaining 24 bits of the address allow each class A network to hold equally many as 16,777,214 hosts. Examples of Class A networks include the networks for telecommunications giants Level 3 Communications and AT & T and organizations such as General Electric, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Apple, Xerox, Ford, and the United States Department of Defense. All potential course A networks are in consumption ; no more are available. The count of networks available is determined by the rule 2 n, where newton represents the number of bits being used. In the class A exercise, 7 bits are available by default ( because the first one is constantly set as 0 by design ), so there are 27 networks available, which is 128. however, the network addresses of 0 and 127 are besides reserved, so it ’ south actually 126. The numeral of hosts available is determined by the convention 2 normality – 2, because a host address of all 0s or all 1s is not allowed. Remember, all 0s means “ this network ” and all 1s are broadcast addresses. so, in a nonpayment classify A net, there can be 224 – 2 hosts, or 16,777,214.

Class B Class B networks always have the fi rst two bits set at 10 ( decimal values from 128 to 191 ) and are designed for medium-sized networks. The default option network parcel for classify B networks is the fi rst 16 bits, leaving 16 bits for host identification. This allows for 16,384 ( 214 ) networks, each with a many as 65,534 ( 216 – 2 ) hosts attached. Examples of Class B networks include the networks of Microsoft, ExxonMobil, and Purdue University. class B networks are by and large regarded as unavailable, but address-conservation techniques have made some of these addresses available from time to time over the years. Class C Class C networks have the fi rst three bits set at 110 ( decimal values from 192 to 223 ) and are designed for smaller networks. The default option network part for Class C networks is the first 24 bits, leaving 8 bits for host identification. This allows for 2,097,152 ( 221 ) networks, but each network can have a maximal of lone 254 ( 28 – 2 ) hosts. Most companies have Class C network addresses. A few class C networks are inactive available. The address assignment examples in this chapter refer to addresses that are used on the Internet. For model, Apple has the network cover of 17.0.0.0. No one else on the Internet can use addresses in that network ’ second range. But if you are using IP addresses on an internal network that never connects to the Internet, you are free to use whatever addresses you would like.

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Table 7.2 shows the IPv4 classes, their ranges, and their nonpayment subnet masks. TA b liter e 7. 2

IPv4 savoir-faire classes

Class

First Octet

Default Subnet Mask

Comments

A

1–127

255.0.0.0

For very large networks ; 127 reserved for the loopback address

B

128–191

255.255.0.0

For medium-sized networks

C

192–223

255.255.255.0

For smaller networks with fewer hosts

D

224–239

N/A

Reserved for multicasts ( sending messages to multiple systems )

E

240–255

N/A

Reserved for testing

The network addresses 0 and 127 are reserved and not available for use. specifically, the address 127.0.0.1, called the loopback address, is used for troubleshooting net adapters. We ’ ll talk more about this in chapter 14, “ Hardware and Network Troubleshooting. ”

The IP address can be written in shorthand to show how many bits are being used for the network assign of the address. For model, you might see something like 10.0.0.0/8. The /8 on the end indicates that the fi rst 8 bits are the net share of the address, and the early 24 are the horde dowry. Another exemplar is 192.168.1.0/24, which is a class C net with a default subnet disguise.

Classless Inter-Domain Routing The default subnet masks for each class of address are by no means the only subnet masks that can be used. In fact, if they were, it would badly limit the number of potential TCP/ IP networks available. To resolve this and provide extra address tractability, there is classless inter-domain rout ( CIDR ). This is just a fancy of means of saying, “ You don ’ t have to use the default subnet masks. ” From a hardheaded point of view, CIDR minimizes the concept of IP cover classes and chiefly focuses on the number of bits that are used as share of the network address. Taking a look at the defaults can help illustrate how CIDR works. If you have a classify A default mask of 255.0.0.0, that is 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 in binary star. A class B default masquerade of 255.255.0.0 is 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 in binary star. There ’ south no predominate that says you have to use an integral eight of bits to represent the network

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dowry of the address. The entirely rule is that you have to add 1s in a subnet mask from left to right. What if you wanted to have a mask of 255.240.0.0 ( 11111111.11110000.0000000 0.00000000 ) ; can you do that ? The answer is yes, and that is basically what CIDR does. Table 7.3 shows you every available subnet mask and its equivalent slash notation. Ta b-complex vitamin liter einsteinium 7. 3 CIDR values Subnet Mask

Notation

255.0.0.0

/8

255.128.0.0

/9

255.192.0.0

/10

255.224.0.0

/11

255.240.0.0

/12

255.248.0.0

/13

255.252.0.0

/14

255.254.0.0

/15

255.255.0.0

/16

255.255.128.0

/17

255.255.192.0

/18

255.255.224.0

/19

255.255.240.0

/20

255.255.248.0

/21

255.255.252.0

/22

255.255.254.0

/23

255.255.255.0

/24

255.255.255.128

/25

255.255.255.192

/26

Understanding TCP/IP

Subnet Mask

Notation

255.255.255.224

/27

255.255.255.240

/28

255.255.255.248

/29

255.255.255.252

/30

383

Earlier, we said that CIDR minimizes the impact of classes, but there are calm some restrictions. The /8 through /15 notations can be used only with Class A network addresses ; /16 through /23 can be used with Class A and B network addresses ; /24 through /30 can be used with Class A, B, and C network addresses. You can ’ triiodothyronine habit anything more than /30, because you constantly need at least 2 bits for hosts. now that you know that you can do it, the wonder is, why would you do it ? The answer is that it provides you with the flexibility to configure your network. here ’ s an example. Say that your default network address is 10.0.0.0/8. That means that you have 24 bits left for hosts on that one network, so you can have just over 16.7 million hosts. How naturalistic is it that one party will have that many hosts ? It ’ s not realistic at all, and that doesn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate even bring up the issue that the network infrastructure wouldn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate be able to handle physically having that many hosts on one network. however, let ’ s say that you work for a bombastic pot with about 15 divisions and some of them have up to 3,000 hosts. That ’ second plausible. What you can do is to set up your network thus that each division has its own smaller part of the network ( a subnet ) big adequate for its needs. To hold 3,000 hosts and have a bite of board for expansion, you need 12 bits ( 212 – 2 = 4,094 ), meaning that you have 20 bits left over for the network address. frankincense, your new shape could be 10.0.0.0/20.

DHCP and DNS Two critical TCP/IP services you need to be mindful of are Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ( DHCP ) and Domain Name System ( DNS ). Both are services that need to be installed on a server, and both provide key functionality to network clients. A DHCP waiter is configured to provide IP configuration information to clients mechanically ( dynamically ), in what is called a lease. It ’ mho called that because the information is not permanently granted to the node calculator, and the customer must sporadically request a renewed lease or a fresh rent. The be configuration information is typically provided in a rent : ■■

IP address

■■

Subnet mask

■■

Default gateway ( the “ door ” to the away world )

■■

DNS server address

DHCP servers can provide a batch more than the items on this tilt, but these are the most common. When a DHCP-configured client boots up, it sends out a broadcast on the

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network ( called a DHCP DISCOVER ) requesting a DHCP server. The DHCP waiter initially responds to the request and then fulfi lls the request by returning shape information to the client. The alternate to DHCP, of course, is for an administrator to enter the IP configuration information manually for each server ( like we did in Figure 7.5 ). This is called static IP address, and it is administratively intensive as compared to DHCP ’ s active address. Some hosts on the network want to have static IP addresses, such as routers, servers, printers, and possibly some specific workstations. Computers need to entree these devices systematically, and the best way to do that is to ensure that they ’ re where they are expected to be ( from an address point of view ). If you use electrostatic IP address, be certain to exclude the electrostatic addresses from the range of addresses that the DHCP server can provide. Or, on the server, you can specify that certain hosts will always receive the lapp IP address, which is called a DHCP reservation. A reservation works by configuring the DHCP waiter to always assign the like address to a particular MAC address. From the DHCP customer english, the march is the same as all early clients that obtain an address automatically, except that it will always receive the same address. To use DHCP, all you need to do from the node side is configure it to obtain IP addressing information mechanically, like what was shown in Figure 7.3. It ’ south normally a bare as clicking a radio button. No extra shape is required, because the node broadcasts request messages searching for the DHCP server.

DNS has one routine on the network : to resolve hostnames to IP addresses. This sounds simpleton enough, but it has profound implications. Think about using the Internet. You open your browser, and in the address bar, you type the name of your favored web site, something like www.google.com, and weight-lift Enter. The fi rst question your calculator asks is, “ Who is that ? ” Your machine requires an IP address to connect to the web site. The DNS server provides the answer, “ That is 64.233.177.106. ” now that your calculator knows the address of the web site you want, it ’ s able to traverse the Internet to fi nd it. Each DNS server has a database where it stores hostname-to-IP-address pairs. If the DNS server does not know the address of the host you are seeking, it has the ability to query early DNS servers to help answer the request.

Think about the implications of that for good a infinitesimal. We all credibly use Google several times a day, but in all honesty how many of us know its IP address ? It ’ south surely not something we are likely to have memorized. much less, how could you possibly memorize

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the IP addresses of all the websites that you regularly visit ? Because of DNS, it ’ mho easy to find resources. Whether you want to find Coca-Cola, Toyota, Amazon, or thousands of other companies, it ’ second normally reasonably easy to figure out how. type in the name with a .com on the end of it, and you ’ re normally right. The merely reason this is successful is because DNS is there to perform resolution of that appoint to the represent IP address. DNS works the like means on an intranet ( a local network not attached to the Internet ) as it does on the Internet. The lone difference is that rather of helping you find www.google .com, it may help you find Jenny ’ s print waiter or Joe ’ south file server. From a client-side perspective, all you need to do is configure the host with the address of a legitimate DNS waiter and you should be good to go.

Public five. Private IP Addresses All the addresses that are used on the Internet are called public addresses. They must be purchased, and lone one calculator can use any given public address at one clock time. The problem that presented itself was that the universe was soon to run knocked out of public IP addresses while the consumption of TCP/IP was growing. additionally, the social organization of IP addressing made it impossible to “ make ” or add any new addresses to the system. To address this, a solution was devised to allow for the use of TCP/IP without requiring the assignment of a public address. The solution was to use secret addresses. private addresses are not routable on the Internet. They were intended for function on secret networks only. That private addresses weren ’ triiodothyronine intended for use on the Internet freed us from the prerequisite that all addresses be globally unique. This basically created an space number of IP addresses that companies could use within their own network walls. While this solution helped alleviate the problem of running out of addresses, it created a new one. The private addresses that all of these computers have aren ’ thymine globally singular, but they need to be in holy order to entree the Internet. A overhaul called Network Address Translation ( NAT ) was created to solve this problem. NAT runs on your router and handles the transformation of individual, nonroutable IP addresses into public IP addresses. There are three ranges reserved for private, nonroutable IP addresses, as shown in mesa 7.4. tantalum b-complex vitamin fifty einsteinium 7. 4 individual IP address ranges Class

IP Address Range

Default Subnet Mask

Number of Hosts

A

10.0.0.0–10.255.255.255

255.0.0.0

16.7 million

B

172.16.0.0–172.31.255.255

255.240.0.0

1 million

C

192.168.0.0–192.168.255.255

255.255.0.0

65,536

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Private IP Addresses and subnet masks When you look at the default subnet masks for the private IP address ranges, you might think, “ Wait a moment. Those masks aren ’ t the same as the default option subnet masks for the address classify, ” and you are right. To understand how TCP/IP addresses exercise, it ’ s frequently helpful to start with the concept of address classes, because it helps you break the information into chunks, making it easier to understand. In the real populace, though, most network administrators don ’ metric ton think in terms of classes, and routers surely don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate operate based on classes. communication and routing on a net all happens in binary. Experienced network admins will think in terms like, “ I am dealing with a 10.0.0.0/16 network. ” They know the address and the length of the subnet mask. Earlier in this chapter, you learned about the concept of CIDR, which basically ignores the artificial boundaries of address classes. It uses a concept called variable length subnet disguise ( VLSM ), which might sound complicate, but it fair means that the length of the subnet mask determines the structure of the network. ( And by structure, we mean the network addresses and the count of networks and hosts that you can have on a net. ) How does this relate back to private IP address ranges ? You ’ ll notice that the Class A address scope is 10.0.0.0/8, which has a “ nonpayment ” masquerade for a class A address. 172.16.0.0/12 is an address in the class B range, but it does not use the “ default ” /16 mask. If it did use a /16 mask, then the administrator would have only the remaining 16 bits to use for extra subnets and hosts. As it is, the administrator has 20 bits to play with, which provides much greater flexibility in designing the net. The like concept applies to 192.168.0.0/16. The administrator has 16 absolve bits to create subnets and host ranges, whereas the “ default ” /24 mask would leave entirely 8 bits and not a lot of flexibility. There are three things that you should take away from this sidebar : ■

Know the subnet masks in table 7.4 and understand that they are different from the nonpayment masks for that class of address.

Know that you are not limited to using the default masks or class rules.

It ’ s all about the binary.

The A+ examination may test you on the basics of IP addressing and subnetting, which we have covered in this book. If you pursue more advanced certifications, such as the CompTIA Network+ or the Cisco series of certifications, you will be expected to know IP addressing and subnetting in depth. If you are interest in learning more ( after you pass the A+ examination, of course ), check out CompTIA Network+ Study Guide, by Todd Lammle ( Sybex, 2018 ).

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These individual addresses can not be used on the Internet and can not be routed outwardly. The fact that they are not routable on the Internet is actually an advantage because a network administrator can use them basically to hide an entire network from the Internet. This is how it works : The network administrator sets up a NAT-enabled router, which functions as the default gateway to the Internet. The external interface of the router has a public IP address assigned to it that has been provided by the ISP, such as 155.120.100.1. The internal interface of the router will have an administrator-assigned secret IP address within one of these ranges, such as 192.168.1.1. All computers on the inner net will then besides need to be on the 192.168.1.0 network. To the outside world, any request coming from the internal network will appear to come from 155.120.100.1. The NAT router translates all incoming packets and sends them to the allow customer. This character of frame-up is very park today. By definition, NAT is actually a one-to-one private-to-public IP address translation protocol. There is a type of NAT called NAT Overload, besides known as Port Address Translation ( PAT ), which allows for many secret IP addresses to use one populace IP address on the Internet.

You may look at your own calculator, which has an address in a private range, and curiosity, “ If it ’ s not routable on the Internet, then how am I on the Internet ? ” Remember, the NAT router technically makes the Internet request on your computer ’ randomness behalf, and the NAT router is using a populace IP address. Don ’ t make the error of thinking that your internal network can ’ t be hacked if it is using individual addresses through NAT. It can. Hackers merely have to use more tools and try a little hard to uncover your inner structure. even if you ’ re using NAT, you still need protective features such as firewalls and anti-malware software.

Automatic Private IP Addressing Automatic Private IP Addressing ( APIPA ) is a TCP/IP standard used to mechanically configure IP-based hosts that are ineffective to reach a DHCP server. APIPA addresses are in the 169.254.0.0–169.254.255.255 rate, with a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0. If you see a calculator that has an IP address beginning with 169.254, you know that it has configured itself. typically, the only time that you will see this is when a calculator is supposed to receive configuration information from a DHCP server but for some rationality that server is unavailable. even while configured with this address, the customer will continue to broadcast for a DHCP waiter so that it can be given a real cover once the server becomes available. APIPA is besides sometimes known as zero configuration network or address autoconfiguration. Both of these terms are marketing efforts, created to remove the

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perceived difficulty of configuring a TCP/IP network. While TCP/IP has by and large been considered difficult to configure ( compared to other protocols ), APIPA can make it so that a TCP/IP network can run with no configuration at all ! For exemplar, say that you are setting up a humble local area net that has no necessitate to communicate with any networks outside of itself. To accomplish this, you can use APIPA to your advantage. Set the node computers to receive DHCP addresses automatically, but don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate set up a DHCP server. The clients will configure themselves and be able to communicate with each other using TCP/IP. The merely downside is that this will create a fiddling more broadcast dealings on your network. This solution is only truly effective for a nonrouted network of fewer than 100 computers. Considering that most networks nowadays need Internet access, it ’ s unlikely that you ’ ll ladder across a net shape like this.

Help ! I Can ’ thyroxine Get to the internet ! This is something that you will probably hear a bunch : A exploiter on your network calls and complains that they can ’ t get their electronic mail or get to the Internet. Everything was all right yesterday, but since this morning they have had no connectivity. Of course, they haven ’ t done anything to or changed their computer at all ! No one else on the network appears to be affected. If the computer is otherwise running normally, the first pace should always be to run an ipconfig command to look at the IP address configured on the system. More often than not, the exploiter will report back that their IP address is “ 169 scatter 254 dot something scatter something. ” The last two somethings don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate actually matter—it ’ s the foremost two numbers that should have your attention. APIPA. Knowing that the calculator is a DHCP client, you know that it ’ s not connecting to the DHCP server for some rationality. After getting to the workstation, check the easy material first. Are the cables plugged in ( if it ’ mho wired ) ? Are there lights on the NIC ? even if they appear to be plugged in, unplug and reconnect them. If that doesn ’ thymine exploit, try a different cable. Those simple steps will solve the huge majority of these types of problems. If not, then it ’ sulfur on to more advance trouble-shoot steps ! ( More TCP/IP trouble-shoot is covered in chapter 14. )

IPv6 The present personification of TCP/IP that is used on the Internet was in the first place developed in 1973. Considering how fast technology evolves, it ’ mho pretty amazing to think that the protocol silent enjoys huge popularity over 40 years later. This version is known as IPv4.

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There are a few problems with IPv4, though. One is that we ’ ra quickly running out of available network addresses, and the other is that TCP/IP can be reasonably crafty to configure. If you ’ ve deal with configuring custom-made subnet masks, you may nod your pass at the configuration depart, but you might be wondering how we can run out of addresses. After all, IPv4 has 32 bits of addressing distance, which allows for about 4.3 billion addresses ! With the direction it ’ s structured, only about 250 million of those addresses are actually functional, and all of those are pretty a lot speak for. A raw version of TCP/IP has been developed, called IPv6. alternatively of a 32-bit address, it provides for 128-bit addresses. That provides for 3.4 × 1038 addresses, which theoretically should be more than enough that they will never run out globally. ( celebrated last words, right ? ) IPv6 besides has many standard features that are optional ( but useful ) in IPv4. While the addresses may be more difficult to remember, the automatic configuration and enhanced flexibility make the new interpretation glitter compared to the old one. Best of all, it ’ second backward compatible with and can run on the computer at the lapp time as IPv4, so networks can migrate to IPv6 without a complete restructure.

Understanding IPv6 Addressing Understanding the IPv6 addressing dodge is probably the most challenge part of the protocol enhancement. The first thing you ’ ll poster is that, of path, the address space is longer. The second is that IPv6 uses hexadecimal notation rather of the familiar scatter decimal of IPv4. Its 128-bit address structure looks something like what is shown in Figure 7.6. Fi gravitational constant uranium r vitamin e 7. 6 IPv6 address 2001:0db8:3c4d:0012:0000:0000:1234:56ab Global prefix

Subnet

Interface ID

The new address is composed of eight 16-bit fields, each represented by four hexadecimal digits and separated by colons. The letters in an IPv6 address are not case sensitive. IPv6 uses three types of addresses : unicast, anycast, and multicast. A unicast address identifies a single node on the network. An anycast address refers to one that has been assigned to multiple nodes. A packet addressed to an anycast address will be delivered to the closest node. Sometimes you will hear this referred to as one-to-nearest address. ultimately, a multicast address is one used by multiple hosts, and is used to communicate to groups of computers. IPv6 does not employ air addresses. Multicasts handle that functionality. Each net interface can be assigned one or more addresses. just by looking at unicast and anycast addresses, it ’ s impossible to tell the difference between them. Their structure is the like ; it ’ s their functionality that ’ second different. The first

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four fields, or 64 bits, refer to the net and subnetwork. The last four fields are the interface ID, which is analogous to the master of ceremonies helping of the IPv4 cover. typically, the fi rst 56 bits within the address are the route ( or global ) prefi adam, and the future 8 bits refer to the subnet ID. It ’ second besides possible to have shorter routing prefi xes though, such as 48 bits, meaning that the subnet ID will be longer. The Interface ID fortune of the address can be created in one of four ways. It can be created mechanically using the interface ’ s MAC address, procured from a DHCPv6