This article is about the greek island. For early uses, see Euboea ( disambiguation ) “ Negropont ” redirects hera. For the city, see Chalcis. For early uses, see Negroponte ( disambiguation ) Euboea (, yoo-BEE-ə ) or Evia (, EH-vee-ə ; greek : Εύβοια Evia ; Ancient Greek : Εὔβοια Euboia ) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. It is separated from Boeotia in mainland Greece by the constrict Euripus Strait ( alone 40 m ( 130 foot ) at its narrowest point ). [ 1 ] In general sketch it is a long and narrow island ; it is about 180 km ( 110 nautical mile ) long, and varies in width from 50 km ( 31 myocardial infarction ) to 6 km ( 3.7 michigan ). Its geographic predilection is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the eminent islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos.
Reading: Euboea – Wikipedia
It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which besides includes Skyros and a small area of the greek mainland .
identify [edit ]
Like most of the Greek islands, Euboea was known by other names in antiquity, such as Macris ( Μάκρις ) and Doliche ( Δολίχη ) from its elongate shape, or Ellopia, Aonia and Abantis from the tribes inhabiting it. Its ancient and current name, Εὔβοια, derives from the words εὖ “ good ”, and βοῦς “ ox ”, meaning “ ( the land of ) the well ( -fed ) cattle ”. In the Middle Ages, the island was frequently referred to by Byzantine authors by the name of its das kapital, Chalcis ( Χαλκίς ) or Euripos ( Εὔριπος, ) the list of the pass that separates the island from the greek mainland. Although the ancient appoint Euboea remained in function by classicizing authors until the sixteenth century. The phrase στὸν Εὔριπον ‘to Evripos ‘, rebracketed as στὸ Νεὔριπον ‘to Nevripos ‘, became Negroponte ( “ Black Bridge ” ) in italian by family etymology, the ponte ‘bridge ‘ being interpreted as the bridge of Chalcis. This name was most relevant when the island was under venetian rule. [ 4 ] That name entered common use in the West in the thirteenth hundred, [ 5 ] with other variants being Egripons, Negripo, and Negropont. [ 4 ] Under Ottoman rule, the island and its capital were known as Eğriboz or Ağriboz, again after the Euripos strait .
geography [edit ]
topography of Euboea and parts of the greek mainland . landscape near Eretria Euboea was believed to have originally formed part of the mainland, and to have been separated from it by an earthquake. This is fairly probable, because it lies in the neighborhood of a fault line, and both Thucydides and Strabo write that the northern separate of the island had been shaken at unlike periods. In the vicinity of Chalcis, both to the union and the confederacy, the bays are thus confined as to make plausible the report of Agamemnon ‘s flit having been detained there by adverse winds. At Chalcis itself, where the strait is narrow-minded at only 40 m, it is called the Euripus Strait. The extraordinary changes of tide that take stead in this passage have been a subject of bill since classical times, and it was therefore feared by sailors that the principal occupation of traffic from the north of the Aegean to Athens used to bypass Chalcis and the Euboic Sea. At one moment the stream runs like a river in one steering, and soon afterwards with equal speed in the other. A bridge was beginning constructed here in the twenty-first year of the Peloponnesian War ( 410 BC ). Geography and nature divide the island itself into three distinct parts : the fat and forested north ( which suffered major price in the August 2021 forest fires ) ; the forested cragged centre, with agriculture limited to the coastal valley ; and the bare south. [ 5 ] The main mountains include Dirfi ( 1,743 thousand ( 5,719 foot ) ), Pyxaria ( 1,341 thousand ( 4,400 foot ) ) in the northeast and Ochi ( 1,394 megabyte ( 4,573 foot ) ). The neighbor gulf are the Pagasetic Gulf in the north, Malian Gulf, North Euboean Gulf in the west, the Euboic Sea and the Petalion Gulf. At the 2001 census the island had a population of 198,130 and a total land sphere of 3,684 km2 ( 1,422 sq myocardial infarction ) .
history [edit ]
antiquity [edit ]
Exhibits in the archaeological museum of Chalcis. The history of the island of Euboea is largely that of its two principal cities, Chalcis and Eretria, both mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships. Both cities were settled by ionian Greeks from Attica, and would finally settle numerous colonies in Magna Graecia and Sicily, such as Cumae and Rhegium, and on the slide of Macedonia. This opened fresh trade routes to the Greeks, and extended the reach of western Civilization. [ 6 ] The commercial influence of these city-states is apparent in the fact that the Euboic scale of weights and measures was used among the Ionic cities by and large, and in Athens until the end of the seventh century BC, during the time of Solon. The classicist Barry B. Powell has proposed that Euboea may have been where the Greek alphabet was first employed, c. 775–750 BC, and that Homer may have spent part of his life on the island. [ 7 ]
Silver tetrobol from Euboia, Histaia. Wreathed head of the Nymph Histiaia correct ; [ ΙΣΤΙ ] – ΑΕΙΩΝ, Nymph Histiaia seated right on stern of galley, ornamented with fender, holding naval standard ; AP monogram and labrys in exergue ; BMC 61 ; BCD 391 Chalcis and Eretria were rival cities, and appear to have been equally mighty for a while. One of the earliest major military conflicts in greek history took place between them, known as the Lelantine War, in which many other greek city-states besides took part. [ 8 ] In 490 BC, Eretria was absolutely ruined by the iranian armies. Eretria, Athens, and other ionian Greek states had previously burned the Persian city of Sardis and participated in the ionian rotation. After Eretria was destroyed, its inhabitants were transported as captives to Persia. [ clarification needed ] Though it was restored nearby its original site after the Battle of Marathon, the city never regained its early eminence. Following the ill-famed battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium, iranian forces captured and sacked Athens, [ 10 ] and besides took Euboea, Boeotia, and Attica, [ 11 ] allowing them to overrun about all of Greece. Both cities gradually lost charm to Athens, which saw Euboea as a strategic district. Euboea was an important beginning of ingrain and cattle, and controlling the island mean Athens could prevent invasion and better protect its trade routes from plagiarism. Athens invaded Chalcis in 506 BC and settled 4,000 Attic Greeks on their lands. After this conflict, the solid of the island was gradually reduced to an athenian addiction. [ 12 ] Another struggle between Euboea and Athens broke out in 446. Led by Pericles, the Athenians subdued the disgust, and captured Histiaea in the north of the island for their own village. By 410 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, the island succeeded in regaining its independence. Euboea participated in Greek affairs until it fell under the control of Philip II of Macedon after the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. It was incorporated into the Roman Republic in the second hundred BC. Aristotle died on the island in 322 BC soon after fleeing Athens for his mother ‘s family estate in Chalcis. From the early on hellenic menstruation to well into the Roman Imperial period, the island was organized into the Euboean League .
Middle Ages [edit ]
Negroponte and the other Greek and Latin states of southerly Greece, c. 1210 . medieval church of Agia Paraskevi, Chalcis Unlike a lot of Byzantine Greece, Euboea was spared the bulk of the savage raids during belated ancientness and the early chivalric period, due to its relatively disjunct placement. The Vandals raided its shores in 466 and in 475, but the island seems to have been left alone by the Avars and Slavs, and it was not until a fail Arab attack on Chalcis in the 870s that the island again came under terror. [ 5 ] As a consequence, the island preserved a relative prosperity throughout the early medieval period, as attested by finds of mosaics, churches and sculpt throughout the seventh century, “ even from distant areas of the island ”. In the sixth century, the Synecdemus listed four cities on the island, Aidipsos, Chalcis, Porthmos ( mod Aliveri ) and Karystos, and a act of other sites are known as bishoprics in the subsequent centuries ( Oreoi and Avlon ), although their urban character is ill-defined. [ 5 ] In the eighth century, Euboea formed a clear-cut fiscal zone ( dioikesis ), and then formed separate of the composition of Hellas. [ 5 ]
In 1157 all the coastal towns of Euboea were destroyed by a sicilian coerce, [ 13 ] while Chalcis was burned down by the Venetians in 1171. [ 5 ] Euboea came into bulge following the Fourth Crusade. In the division of the Byzantine Empire by the crusaders after 1204, the island was occupied by a total of Lombard families, who divided it into three baronies, the Triarchy of Negroponte ; each barony was split in 1216, giving six sestiere. The island ‘s rulers came early on under the influence of the Venetian Republic, which secured control of the island ‘s department of commerce in the War of the Euboeote Succession ( 1256–1258 ) and gradually expanded its control, until they acquired wide sovereignty by 1390. On 12 July 1470, during the Ottoman–Venetian War of 1463–1479 and after a drawn-out and bloody siege, the well-fortified city of Negroponte ( Chalcis ) was wrested from Venice by Mehmed II and the hale island fell into the hands of the Ottoman Empire. The Doge Francesco Morosini besieged the city in 1688, but was forced to withdraw after three months. Although the name Negroponte remained current in european languages until the nineteenth century, the Turks themselves called the city and the island Eğriboz or Ağriboz after the Euripos Strait. Under Ottoman principle, Ağriboz was the seat of a sanjak that besides encompassed much of Continental Greece. At the decision of the Greek War of Independence in 1830, the island returned to Greece and constituted a part of the newly established independent greek kingdom .
modern period [edit ]
The Chalcis ‘ Bridge connecting the island with the mainland of Greece In the village of Antia on Euboea island, in 1982 the entire population knew the local whistled lyric called sfyria, [ 14 ] but only a few whistlers remain nowadays. [ 15 ] Beginning in late 1943, 1,000 greek Jews were smuggled from Thessaloniki and Athens via the island by the greek Resistance and British MI11 to Çesme in neutral Turkey, thereby escaping the Holocaust in Greece. [ 16 ] Euboea is linked to the mainland by two bridges, one that runs through Chalcis and is besides accessible from Thebes, and another which bypasses Chalcis and is accessed from Athens. All of Euboea ‘s advanced bridges are suspended. In the 1980s, the Dystos lake was filled with grass which was set on displace by farmers to make more farmland. This act caused ravaging of much of the plants and the environment in that area. [ citation needed ] A function of the lake late regenerated. besides the municipalities of Anthidona and Avlida in the mid to late twentieth century, which once were part of Boeotia, reverted to Chalcis. [ citation needed ] Since then, the postal codes corresponded with the rest of Euboea, including Skyros. A week long major forest fire in 2021 destroyed over 50,000 hectares of forest and agrarian land in the north of the island, one of the largest forest fires in modern greek history .
mythology [edit ]
The promontory of Canaeum, which lies opposite the Malian Gulf, together with the neighbouring coast of Trachis, was the view of the events connected with the death of Heracles, as described by Sophocles in the Trachiniae. Based on the records of the second century AD geographer Pausanias, it is suspected that the Titan god Crius is an autochthonal deity. [ 17 ]
Demographics [edit ]
The population of the island according to the census of 2001 was 198,130, making it the second base most populous island of Greece. As a unharmed the Euboeans share a cultural identity like to that of the people in the remainder of Central Greece and they speak a southerly variety of Greek. In the southerly separate of the island there are Arvanite communities, with the area confederacy of Aliveri being the northernmost limit of their presence in Euboea. Sarakatsani and Vlachs could be found chiefly in the mountainous areas in central and northern Euboea respectively, but nowadays they have abandoned the mobile way of life and live permanently in the towns and villages across the island .
Economics [edit ]
The mining areas include magnesite in Mantoudi and Limni, lignite in Aliveri and iron and nickel from Dirfys. Marble is mined 3 km ( 2 mi ) north of Eretria which include Marmor Chalcidicum and asbestos in the northeastern share of Carystus in the Okhi batch. The trees include chestnuts .
enchant [edit ]
local administration [edit ]
The island belongs to Euboea Prefecture which besides includes two municipalities on the mainland, Anthidona and Avlida, a well as the island municipality of Skyros. At the 2001 census the prefecture had a population of 215,136 inhabitants, whereas the island itself had a population of 198,130. The prefecture ‘s bring area is 4,167.449 km2 ( 65 sq nautical mile ), whereas the entire land area of the municipalities actually on the island is 3,684.848 km2 ( 264 sq myocardial infarction ), which includes that of numerous modest offshore islets ( Petalioi ) near Euboea ‘s southeast tip .